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Professor John Satterly 
Department of Physics 
University of Toronto 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



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DEVONIAN YEAR BOOK 
1913 



3 

THE 



Devonian Year Book 



FOR THE YEAR 



191 3 J 7/5 



(FOURTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION), 



R. PEARSE CHOPE, B.A. 



Breathes there the man, with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said, 

* This is my own, my native land ! ' ' 



PUBLISHED BY 

XonDon: THE LONDON DEVONIAN ASSOCIATION 

(JOHN W. SHAWYER, Hon. Sec.) 
St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO. LTD. 

Bristol: JOHN WRIGHT & SONS LTD., STONE BRIDGE 

(/or the West of England and South Wales). 



6'i's. 

I1U.I5 



JOHN WRIGHT AND SONS LIMITED 
PRtNTERS, BRISTOL. 



JAN 29 1964 J 

£{*$ITY OF T 0«<^X 

£78737 



Contents. 



The London Devonian Association — Officers and Com- 
mittees - - - - - - -7 

The Year's Work - - - - - 9 

The Annual Dinner - - - - - -13 

Armada Day - - - - - - 24 

Drake's Treasure — Colonel E. T. Clifford - - - 31 

A Devonian " Common of Saints " — Viscount St. Cyres - 51 

" Fair Devon "—Rev. H. S.-J. E. Wrenford - - 63 

Miss M. P. Willcocks as a Novelist — H. Tapley-Soper - 64 

The Civil War in the West— R. Pearse Chope - - 73 

" A Devon Wife "—Arthur L. Salmon - - - 80 

John Gay and the " Beggar's Opera " — W. H. K. Wright 81 

Thomas Newcomen — Rhys Jenkins - - - 94 

Some Recent Devonian Literature - 105 

The Devonshire Association — Maxwell Adams - - 107 

Affiliated and other Devonian Societies - - - 111 

Learned and Scientific Societies in Devonshire - - 126 

Libraries in Devonshire - - - - - 128 

Rules of the London Devonian Association - - 130 

List of Fixtures for 1913 - - - - - 133 

" Drake's Drum " — Henry Newbolt - 135 

List of Members and Associates - - - - 136 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



The London Devonian Association. 
Officers and Committee. 

1912-13. 

President : 

The Right Hon. the Earl of HALSBURY, P.C. 
Past- Presidents : 

The Right Hon. Earl FORTESCUE, K.C.B., A.D.C., Lord-Lieutenant 

of Devon. 
The Right Hon. Lord NORTHCOTE, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., C.B. 
Vice-Presidents : 

The Right Hon. the Viscount ST. CYRES. 

The Right Hon. Lord CLIFFORD OF CHUDLEIGH. 

The Right Hon. Lord SEATON. 

The Right Hon. GEORGE LAMBERT, M.P. (Spreyton). 

Sir H. Y.-B. LOPES, Bart. (Roborough). 

Sir WILFRID PEEK, Bart. (Rousdon), High Sheriff of Devon. 

Sir GEORGE W. KEKEWICH, K.C.B., D.C.L. {Peamore). 

Sir W. H. WHITE. K.C.B. (Devonport). 

Sir ROPER LETHBRIDGE, K.C.I.E., M.A., D.L., J. P. (Exbourne). 

Lt.-Col. Sir FREDK. UPCOTT, K.C.V.O., C.S.I. {Cullompton) . 

Sir EDWIN A. CORNWALL, M.P. (Lapford). 

Sir JOHN W. SPEAR, M.P. (Tavistock). 

Sir HARRY J. VEITCH (Exeter). 

Captain ROBERT F. SCOTT, C.V.O., R.N. (Plymouth). 

Colonel E. T. CLIFFORD, V.D. (Exeter). 

T. DYKE ACLAND, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.P. (Columb-John). 

Rev. W. P. BESLEY, M.A. (Barnstaple), Minor Canon of St. Paul's 

J. B. BURLACE, Esq. (Brixham). 

JOHN COLES, Esq., J. P. (Tiverton). 

W. H. CUMMINGS, Esq., Mus.D. Dub., F.S.A. (Sidbury). 

H. E. DUKE, Esq., K.C., M.P. (Plymouth), Recorder of Devonport. 

A. E. DUNN, Esq. (Exeter). 

H. T. EASTON, Esq. (Exeter). 

JOHN GALSWORTHY, Esq. (Manaton). 

Rev. H. R. GAMBLE, M.A. (Barnstaple), Hon. Chaplain to the King. 

ALLEN GILL, Esq., F.R.A.M. (Devonport). 

J. H. M. KIRKWOOD, Esq., M.P. (Yeo Vale, Bideford). 

JOHN LANE, Esq. (West Putford). 

R. J. PARR, Esq. (Torquay). 

EDEN PHILLPOTTS, Esq. (Exeter). 

P. E. PILDITCH, Esq., L.C.C. (Kingsbridge). 

J. C. PILLMAN, Esq., J.P. (Plymouth). 

Alderman C. PINKHAM, J.P., C.C. (Plympton). 

G. H. RADFORD, Esq., M.P. (Plymouth). 

SIDNEY SIMMONS, Esq., J.P. (Okehampton). 

MICHAEL B. SNELL, Esq., J.P. (Barnstaple). 

HENRY TOZER, Esq. (Exeter). 

HENRY VIVIAN, Esq. (Cornwood). 

Rev. A. J. WALDRON (Plymouth). 

H. MICHELL WHITLEY, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. (Plymouth). 

Rev. H. S. WOOLLCOMBE, M.A. (Northlew). 

TOHN WREFORD. Esq., M.B. (Exeter). 

W. H. K. WRIGHT, Esq., F.L.A. (Plymouth). 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



Chairman of the Association : 

Colonel E. T. CLIFFORD {Exeter), 
6, Cranley Gardens, South-Kensington, S.W. 

Committee : 

Chairman. 

Alderman C. Pinkham, J. P., C.C. (Plympton), 

Linden Lodge, Winchester Avenue, Brondesbury, N.W. 

Deputy Chairman. 

R. Pearse Chope, B.A. (Hartland). 

Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, W.C. 

J. B. Burlace (Brixham), 38, Corfton Road, Ealing, W. 
N. Cole (Salcombe), 46, Melgund Road, Highbury, N. 
W. Crosbie Coles (Bide ford), 78, Park Lane, Croydon. 
G. W. Davey (Sampford Spiney), 16, John Street, Bedford Row, W.C. 
H. Gillham (Burlescombe) , 222, Central Market, E.C. 
H. H. M. Hancock (Barumites in London), 56, Devereux Road, Wands- 
worth Common, S.W. 
F. W. Hesse (Tivertonians) , 5, Moorgate Street, E.C. 
W. Inman (Stoke Gabriel), Sherbourne, Longley Road, Tooting, S.W. 
W. J. McCormack (Plymouth), Dunkeld, Slough, Bucks. 
F. A. Perry (Tiverton), 4, Kirchen Road, West Ealing. 
C. R. S. Philp (Plymouth) , Livesey Library, Old Kent Road, S.E. 
H. D. Powe (Plymouth), 13, Ellerby Road, Fulham Palace Road, S.W. 
John Ryall (Exeter Club), 38, Hanover Street, Peckham, S.E. 
W. H. Smart (Plymouth), St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 
J. Summers (Old Ottregians), 44, Grove Hill Road, Peckham, S.E. 

Hon. Auditors. 
J. Arnold Hill, C.A. (Holcombe Rogus), 19a, Coleman Street, E.C. 
H. D. Vellacott, C.A. (Tawstock), 141, Fenchurch Street, E.C. 

Hon. Treasurer. 
H. Brinsmead Squire (Torrington), London County & Westminster Bank, 
Ltd., 90, Wood Street, E.C. 

Hon. Secretary. 
John W. Shawyer (West Buckland School O.B.A.), 5, Hemington Avenue, 
Friern Barnet, N. 

Benevolent Fund Sub-committee : 

J. B. Burlace, N. Cole, G. W. Davey, A. H. Holmes, W. H. Smart. 

Entertainment Sub-committee : 

N. Cole (Chairman), H. Gillham, H. H. M. Hancock, F. W. Hesse, 
W. Inman, John Ryall, W. H. Smart (Hon. Secretary). 

Finance Sub-committee : 

J. B. Burlace, G. W. Davey, W. Inman, W. J. McCormack, W. H. Smart. 

Year Book Sub-committee : 

J. B. Burlace, W. Crosbie Coles, F. A. Perry, W. H. Smart. 

Note.- — The Chairman of the Association, the Chairman of Committee, 
the Deputy Chairman, the Hon. Treasurer, and the Hon. Secretary are 
ex-officio members of all Sub-committees. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



The Year's Work. 

Progress of no mean order has been made during the past year, 
progress which we may rightly claim to be Of an Imperial nature. 
Inspired by the lead given by Colonel Clifford, and ably assisted 
by the Executive Council called into being last year for the 
purpose, the Association has been brought into contact with 
numerous Devonian Associations throughout the world, no less 
than forty being in correspondence with it, and the dream of 
Federation bids fair to become un fait accompli. This is a proud 
record for Devon, a high tribute to the love and affection for the 
homeland engendered in her sons, which no other County in 
England can equal. Truly has this been expressed by Lord 
Coleridge : " This delightful bond of union with the old home is 
a sort of thread of gold which runs through one's life, however 
far we travel." From Hong-Kong to Vancouver, from Sydney 
to Ottawa comes the same inspiring story, the same longing 
desire to be in closer contact with Devonians at home. News 
of the doings of our sister societies and of the influence they 
exert in their respective localities constantly reaches us, and we 
record with pleasure and satisfaction the great welcome given to 
the Duke of Connaught by the Devonian Society of Victoria, 
British Columbia, on the occasion of his recent visit to Western 
Canada. 

On another page will be found an account of the celebration 
of Armada Day at Earl's Court Exhibition under the auspices 
of the Association, assisted by the other Devonian Societies in 
London. At our solicitation their Majesties the King and Queen, 
with the Princess Mary, graced the Exhibition with their presence 
on that day, and the Rt. Hon. Winston Churchill addressed the 
great gathering of Devonians from the deck of the Revenge — a 
replica of Drake's own famous ship. 

The idea of a memorial in London to Sir Francis Drake, which 
originated in the fertile imagination of Colonel Clifford, bids fair 
to be realized in a far shorter time than even that enthusiast 
could have dreamed. Propounded in an article in our last issue, 
it was enthusiastically endorsed at the succeeding annual dinner. 
The co-operation of the Navy League and of the West Indian 
Club has been secured, and a small but influential and re- 
presentative organizing Committee has already been formed, 
constituted as follows : The London Devonian Association — 
Colonel Clifford and Mr. John W. Shawyer ; The Navy League — 
Mr. Robert Yerburgh, M.P., and Mr. P. J. Hannon ; The West 



io The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Indian Club— Mr. Hamar Greenwood, M.P., and Mr. W. A. M. 
Goode ; The London Budget (to which our best thanks are due 
for its activity in directing public attention to the scheme) — Mr. 
J. Y. McPeake. Colonel Clifford has been elected Chairman, 
and Mr. P. J. Hannon Hon. Secretary. 

The Committee has undertaken to form a National Committee 
to promote the movement, a considerable sum of money has 
already been promised, and there is no reasonable doubt that in 
a very short time Drake will have in London a memorial worthy 
of the man who did so much to found our Empire. The co-opera- 
tion of the Devonian Societies and of Devonians throughout the 
world in assisting the achievement of this end will be cordially 
welcomed and, no doubt, enthusiastically given. 

The establishment of a Benevolent Fund was unanimously 
decided upon at a Conference held at St. Bride Institute under 
the chairmanship of Alderman Pinkham, at which several of the 
local Devonian societies in London were represented. Although 
much time and thought have since been given to it by the Execu- 
tive Council, no definite decision as to the form it should take 
has yet been made. It has been suggested that an orphanage 
in Devonshire should be founded, and perhaps this would be 
ideal if the necessary financial assistance is forthcoming. Such 
a conception is ambitious, but so were the ideas of Federation of 
Devonian Societies throughout the world, and the national 
memorial in London to Drake. 

News of Captain Scott's Antarctic Expedition is awaited with 
interest. Although the supreme honour of being the first man 
to reach the South Pole appears to have been denied him, 
Devonians will rest confident that he will render a good account 
of himself, and that the world of science will be the richer for 
his arduous travels and investigations. The Association still 
holds a small balance in hand for the Fund which was raised to 
assist in relieving his anxiety for the families whom he and his 
gallant comrades left at home. 

The Association is richer by the addition of the following 
gentlemen as Vice-Presidents : The Viscount St. Cyres, President 
of the Devonshire Association ; Sir Roper Lethbridge, K.C.I.E., 
a distinguished Anglo-Indian and author ; Sir Harry J. Veitch, 
the well-known authority on horticulture ; Mr. John Galsworthy, 
author of " Devon to me ! " ; Mr. H. Michell Whitley, past Hon. 
Secretary of the Royal Institution of Cornwall and of the Sussex 
Archaeological Society ; and Mr. W. H. K. Wright, Public 
Librarian of Plymouth. 

We record with pleasure that the Right Hon. George Lambert, 
M.P., Civil Lord of the Admiralty, received the honour of becom- 



The Devonian Year Book, 19 13 11 

ing a member of H.M. Privy Council, and that Sir Wilfrid Peek, 
Bart., has been appointed High Sheriff of Devon. The present- 
ation portrait of Mr. John Coles by Sir Hubert von Herkomer 
was hung at the Royal Academy, and was generally regarded as 
one of the successes of the year. To Blundell's School, Tiverton, 
has recently been added the Coles Physical Laboratory, to 
which Mr. Coles was a generous contributor. 

One of our members, Mr. J. H. Taylor, a native of Northam, 
won the Golf Championship of Germany at Baden-Baden last 
August, after a tie with the Open Champion, Edward Ray. 
Taylor, who won the British Championship in 1894, 1895, 1900, 
and 1909, has made a noteworthy return to form, and on playing 
off the tie over nine holes gave a wonderful exhibition, winning 
with the remarkable score of 28, Ray taking 34. 

The Association is greatly indebted to Sir Francis Carruthers 
Gould, Chairman of the Committee of " Devonians in London," 
for an excellent lecture on " The Fox in Art and Literature." 
The part played by Brer Fox in story and fable was told in the 
lecturer's own inimitable style, and was well illustrated by 
lantern slides taken from old manuscripts, miserere stalls, and 
other carvings, and drawings bearing the well-known initials 
" F. C. G." Mr. R. Pearse Chope, B.A., also gave an interesting 
lecture, illustrated by numerous slides from contemporary 
sources, on " The Civil War in the West," an abstract of which 
appears elsewhere. Three whist drives and a children's Christmas 
party were also given, in addition to the Annual Dinner presided 
over by the Earl of Halsbury, of which a full account follows. 
The children's Christmas party was an experiment fully justified 
by its success, and the thanks of the Association are due to the 
following ladies who so enthusiastically and ably assisted the 
Committee in the arrangements : Mrs. Andrews, Miss Church- 
ward, Miss Doris Churchward, Mrs. N. Cole, Mrs. Hancock, 
Mrs. Hesse, Mrs. and Miss Inman, Mrs. Philp, Mrs. Powe, Mrs. 
Smart, Mrs. Vivian, and Miss Doris Vivian. 

There is no change in the London affiliated societies, with the 
regrettable exception that the London Devonian Rugby Football 
Club has become defunct. The Devon County School Old Boys 
will in future be known as the West Buckland Old Boys, the 
school having felt reluctantly compelled to change its name. 
Cherished by Devonians as the first result of the movement in 
the late fifties, inaugurated by Hugh, the second Earl Fortescue, 
K.G., Lord-Lieutenant of Devon, and the Rev. Prebendary 
Brereton of West Buckland, to provide the middle classes with 
public-school education at moderate cost, the school has adopted 
this course in common with all others of its class to avoid con- 



12 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

fusion with the more recently established secondary schools now 
known as County schools. 

Two of the Provincial Devonian Societies — those of Swansea 
and Portsmouth — have become formally affiliated to our Associa- 
tion, and other Provincial Societies, besides several of the 
Foreign Societies, have expressed their intention of following 
this example. The affiliated Societies have the privilege of 
inserting in the Year Book an account of their doings during 
the year, and it is hoped that next year this feature will be more 
fully developed. 

Messrs. A. T. Bowden and G. S. Bidgood ceased to be members 
of the Committee, the latter on account of considerations of 
health, and Messrs. G. W. Davey and W. J. McCormack were 
elected in their places. 

The high standard reached by the Year Book needs no com- 
ment, but the expense of its issue makes sad inroads into the 
limited funds of the Association. To discontinue the publication 
would be a serious blow to the good work which is being achieved, 
and it therefore behoves all good Devonians who peruse our 
records to see to it that not only they themselves but all their 
friends from the old county join the Association, either as mem- 
bers or associates, and provide by their subscriptions or donations 
the necessary resources for the continuance of the work. 

J. w. s. 



England's Drake. 



One of the gods of battle, England's Drake, 
A soul that summoned Caesar from his grave, 
And swept with Alexander o'er the deep. 

" Not unto us," 
Cried Drake, " not unto us — but unto Him 
Who made the sea, belongs our England now ! 
Pray God that heart and mind and soul we prove 
Worthy among the nations of this hour 
And this great victory, whose ocean fame 
Shall wash the world with thunder till that day 
When there is no more sea, and the strong cliffs 
Pass like a smoke, and the last peal of it 
Sounds thro' the trumpet." 

Alfred Noyes. 

[From " Collected Poems " — Blackwood. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 13 

The Annual Dinner. 

World-wide Scheme of Federation of Devonian Societies. 



London has many West-country gatherings each year, but 
none of them have rivalled in interest or in brilliance the 
annual dinner of the London Devonian Association, which was 
held at the Holborn Restaurant, on Saturday, March 2nd. 
The President, the Right Honourable the Earl of Halsbury, P.C., 
surrounded by a company of distinguished guests, made an ideal 
chairman, and the seating capacity of the Venetian Hall was 
taxed to its utmost capacity. His lordship was accompanied 
by the Countess of Halsbury, and was supported at the principal 
table by the Earl of Portsmouth, Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, 
Sir Wilfrid Peek, Bart., and the Hon. Lady Peek, Miss Gwendoline 
Peek, Sir William H. White, K.C.B., Sir Edwin A. Cornwall, 
M.P., Colonel C. R. Burn, M.P., Colonel E. T. Clifford, V.D. 
(Chairman of the Association), and Mrs. Clifford, Miss Clifford, 
Mr. A. Shirley Benn, M.P., Mr. George H. Radford, M.P., and 
Mrs. Radford, Mr. M. B. Snell, J.P., and Alderman and Mrs. 
Pinkham. The following were present as representatives of the 
affiliated London Societies : Mr. H. H. M. Hancock (Barumites 
in London), Mr. John Lovell (Ottregians), Mr. H. D. Powe (Exeter 
Club), Mr. F. Snell (Tivertonians), Mr. A. L. Tooze (London 
Devonian Rugby Football Club), and Mr. J. S. Underhill (Old 
Exonians) . There were also present Mr. and Mrs. Beach, Mr. and 
Mrs. W. F. Beste, Mr. G. S. Bidgood, Mr. R. Bidgood, Mr. 
Reginald Blunt, Mr. A. T. Bowden, Mr. G. Bridgeman, Mr. and 
Mrs. C. H. Brodie, Mr. J. B. Burlace, Mr. and Mrs. Cann, Mr. T. 
W. Champion, Mr. W. Champion, Miss F. Chapman, Mrs. A. 
Chettleburgh, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Miss Churchward, Mr. E, R. 
Cole, Mr. N. Cole, Mr. and Mrs. A. Collins, Misses E. and F. 
Columbine, Mr. A. E. G. Copp, Mr. Cox, Mr. R. H. Coysh, Mr. 
and Mrs. Cummings, Mr. G. W. Davey, Mr. J. Dawe, Mr. A. L. G. 
Distin, Mr. J. A. Dixon, Mrs. Dunn, Mr. W. Dyer, Mr. H. T. 
Easton, Mr. and Mrs. G. Edwards, Miss E. Baden Elmes, Mr. E. 
Fraser, Mr. G. Faulkner, Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Glanville, Mr. and 
Mrs. W. H. Goodman, Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Grylls, Mrs. Hancock, 
Miss Harding, Miss B. A. Harris, Mrs. Hesse, Mr. G. H. Heywood, 



14 The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 

Mr. F. Hockaday, Mr. A. H. Holmes, Rev. and Mrs. J. L. E. 
Hooppell, Miss L. Hutchings, Mr. Huxtable, Mr. Norman Ingall, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. Inman, Mr. W. H. Jarvis, Mr. and Mrs. F. C. 
Jeffery, Mr. and Mrs. E. S. Jones, Mr. P. Keating, Mr. and Mrs. 
J. W. Larkworthy, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Lascelles, Miss Lascelles, 
Mr. and Mrs. R. L. Lawrence, Mr. Cecil Lethbridge, Mr. J. 
Lone, Mrs. Loud, Mr. and Mrs. H. F. W. Loud, Mr. W. J. 
McCormack, Mr. J. W. Mahon, Mr. and Mrs. Miller, Mr. and Mrs. 
Milton, Mr. and Mrs. Stafford Morgan, Mr. W. D. Owen, Mr. W. 
Parker, Mr. H. Parkyn, Mr. W. Parnell, Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Parr, 
Miss E. Paterson, Mrs. Pawley, Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Perry, Mr. and 
Mrs. C. R. S. Philp, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Pike, Mr. and Mrs. F. J. 
Pinn, Mr. W. V. M. Popham, Mr. and Mrs. C. J. Price, Miss Price, 
Mr. G. W. Powe, Mrs. H. D. Powe, Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Preston, 
Mr. Jas. Pullman, Mr. H. Rawle, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Roberts, 
Mr. J. Ryall, Miss K. Sexton, Mr. J. W. Shawyer, Mr. W. H. 
Smart, Miss E. L. Smith, Dr. Tennyson Smith, Mr. F. C. 
Southwood, Misses M. and D. Southwood, Lieut. -Col. E. R. 
Speirs, Mr. H. B. Squire, Mr. Stimpson, Mr. and Mrs. Stovell, 
Mr. J. H. Taylor, Mr. R. Thorn, Miss Thorn, Mr. W. H. Tickell, 
Miss Tonkin, Mr. J. W. Train, Mr. H. G. Treasure, Mr. and 
Mrs. Turner, Mr. and Mrs. F. J. Turner, Mrs. Underhill, Mr. 
F. H. Vibert, Mr. and Mrs. F. Walker, Mr. F. Walker, Mr. J. 
R. Western, Mr. H. Michell Whitley, Mr. A. F. Wilson, Mr. 
Woodley, Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Wreford, Mr. F. G. Wright, and 
many others. 

The Hon. Secretary, Mr. J. W. Shawyer, read letters of apology 
for non-attendance from Earl Fortescue, Lord Seaton, Sir 
George W. Kekewich, K.C.B., Sir J. W. Spear, M.P., Mr. G. 
Lambert, M.P., Mr. W. Astor, M.P., Col. J. T. Woolrych 
Perowne, Mr. John Lane, and other gentlemen, and mentioned 
that greetings had been received from the Devonian Associations 
at Portsmouth and Swansea. (Applause.) 

The Chairman read the following communication from the 
members of the Cornish Association, who were also holding their 
annual dinner at the Holborn Restaurant : — 

" The Cornish Association, dining in the King's Hall, sends 
hearty greetings to the Devon Association, and hopes they 
are having a good time." 

Lord Halsbury added that he proposed to return the following 
answer : — 

" The Devon Association cordially responds to the kindly 
courtesy of the Cornish Association, and with hearty 
thanks wishes that they may have a good time also." 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 15 

The Beauties of the County. 

After the usual loyal toasts had been duly honoured, Lord 
Halsbury rose to propose the toast of " Devon, our County," 
and was received with loud cheers. Excusing the brevity 
of his speech on the ground that he would have soirething 
to say later on about the "Worthies of Devon," his lordship 
remarked that the county itself presented a very wide and varied 
field for admiration. Among its beauties must first be recognized 
— and he was sure this would be done by universal acclamation 
— Devon women. (Laughter and applause.) He would have 
a great deal to say if he were to go through a list of all the 
beauties of their beloved county, but in such a company it was 
quite unnecessary. He was confident that there was nobody 
present who would not drink the toast with approbation and 
enthusiasm. 



Fond Recollections. 

Mr. George H. Radford, M.P., in responding, said it was 
extremely difficult to follow the excellent example of brevity 
and moderation set by the chairman. Devon was their county, 
and with the exception of a few favoured guests they were all 
Devon born and bred, both men and women. They looked 
backwards to their days in the county of their home, and remem- 
bered with affection those parts of it which had for many genera- 
tions been the homes of their fathers and their forefathers. 
The fact that they had Lord Halsbury in the chair that evening 
was a proof that their county was still going strong. (Applause.) 
Although his lordship had reached the zenith of his career, 
having gained great honour and reputation, and was surrounded 
by crowds of friends, they were grateful to find that he had not 
forgotten his old county, but came among them with every 
appearance of perennial youth. (Hear, hear.) So long as Devon 
continued to produce such men as Lord Halsbury, so long 
would it remain the envy of all the other counties of England 
as the mother-land of those men who made themselves famous 
in the world. But it was not only in intellect that Devon took 
the lead. (Laughter.) The younger and more athletic members 
of the company were proud to think that Devon had that week 
won the Rugby championship in football, having beaten her 
formidable rival, Northumberland, in the final round. (Applause.) 
Devon men were not only among the greatest, but also among 
the gentlest, men in the world. (Hear, hear.) Their voices 
and their manners proclaimed it. But when there was a tough 



16 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

job to be done, they were always ready to do it. He did not 
wish to be sentimental, but on such an occasion he could hardly 
help it. They naturally looked back to the county they loved, 
and thought of some sweet spot in it — on the coast, in the town, 
in the lovely pasture land, or on the wide sweep of the moor — 
that called up fond recollections ; and, although they were 
living in exile in this modern Babylon, they were all united by 
common admiration and affection for Devon. (Applause.) 

Devon Patriots. 

Sir William H. White, K.C.B., in proposing the toast of " The 
Defenders of the Empire," said that nowadays they thought 
imperially. There seemed to be an idea in some quarters that 
" thinking imperially " was a modern development, but those 
who came from Devon knew better, for Devon men had thought 
imperially long ago, and, if they had not done so, there would 
have been no Empire. They were not men given to much talk ; 
they were men of action, and men of thought, who pondered 
deeply on the principles of defence. It was Raleigh who said, 
" Whosoever commands the sea, commands the trade of the 
world, and whosoever commands the trade of the world, commands 
the riches of the world, and so the world itself." (Hear, hear.) 
That was the doctrine of sea power packed in a few words, 
which in modern days had been preached to them in many 
volumes. The British Empire was created by sea power, and 
it must be maintained by sea power. The British navy must 
be supreme at sea, for, as was well said a few days ago by the 
First Lord of the Admiralty, " to us supremacy at sea is existence, 
but to any other Power it is simply expansion." (Hear, hear.) 
The seas but joined the nations they divided. Freedom at sea 
we must have, or the nation would perish, but our making this 
demand did not prevent equal freedom for all the citizens of 
the world. The navy must always come first, but the army was 
equally important and must never be allowed to become unequal 
to its duties. Behind them both there was that important 
factor, the organization of victory which they were perhaps apt 
to forget, but without preparations and plans of campaign 
there could not be victory. Those who were planning the victory 
in offices at home might be quite as much heroes as those who 
risked their lives in the actual fighting. When he thought of 
the Armada, he liked to consider it not merely from the point 
of view of what that great fight was in the Channel after the 
fighting actually began. They must go farther back than that 
to get the whole picture, and think of old John Hawkins, that 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 17 

worthy of Plymouth, who had prepared the navy before the fight 
took place. (Hear, hear.) If the navy had not been ready, 
there would have been no victory. They no longer thought of 
these islands as providing for the defence of the whole Empire, 
for they had sister nations growing up all over the world, who 
were as keenly interested in the defence of our Empire as our- 
selves. Throughout the length and breadth of Canada there 
was ample proof of that, and though Canada might seem for 
the moment to be behind other dominions in its contribution 
to imperial defence, he did not believe that that was really so. 
(Hear, hear.) 

Tribute to the Devon Regiment. 

Colonel C. R. Burn, M.P., in reply, said that Sir William White 
was quite right in maintaining that our first line of defence 
must always be the navy. So long as the navy was kept at the 
proper strength there would be little to fear, and they all wel- 
comed the declaration of the First Lord of the Admiralty, that 
he intended to keep it up to the standard. (Hear, hear.) Devon 
had certainly many reasons to be proud of the navy. (Applause.) 
He would not refer to the heroes of the past who came from 
Devon and did such excellent service for their country. To-day 
they secured for the navy a large proportion of recruits from the 
south coast ports. It was not by the navy alone, however, 
that our shores could be defended. There must be an army as 
well. We had an army which, although small, was nevertheless, 
man for man, equal and more than equal to that of any nation 
in the world. (Hear, hear.) He firmly believed that the spirit 
of our army was just the same to-day as it was in past generations. 
In these days, when various influences were at work — especially 
Socialistic — when there were people who were trying to undermine 
the army and get at the men themselves, they must all be agreed 
that they were living in sad times. Let those people work as 
they liked, he firmly and honestly believed that as long as the 
army existed our soldiers would be loyal to their King and 
country. (Loud applause.) Than " Glorious Devon " there 
was no county in Great Britain that had more reason to be 
proud of its county regiment. (Hear, hear.) All who had 
studied the history of the South African war knew what the 
men of Devon did there, and they all knew full well that the 
name of the Devon Regiment was written on the scroll of fame 
in letters that would not be effaced as long as the world existed. 
(Applause.) The county of Devon had indeed reason to be 
proud of her men. There were some who thought that, for the 

2 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



good of the nation, there should be more men trained to the use 
of arms, and that a larger proportion of the citizens of the nation 
should take their part in the defence of their country when the 
time came ; and he maintained that our own people might well 
emulate the example of our dominions beyond the sea, who were 
anxious to assist in the defence of the motherland. (Hear, 
hear.) 



A Haloed Hierarchy. 

Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, in giving the toast of " The London 
Devonian Association," said they had a beautiful county of 
which they were justly proud. Strangers came into it and 
admired its beauty, and praised it, and sometimes paid it the 
compliment of coming again. They who lived in it loved it, 
admired it, revelled in its beauties, and occasionally, perhaps, 
thanked Heaven they were Devonians. They were, however, 
always a wandering people, and the farther away they got from 
their county, the more they appreciated its charms, and the more 
they chanted its praises. The last time he addressed the London 
Devonian Association was when they were bidding Godspeed 
to a hardy Devonian bound for the Antarctic. Probably no one 
that night was thinking more fondly of the home county than the 
man who was now tracking his way across the snowy wastes to 
the South Pole. Wherever Devonians went, they gathered 
themselves together, and renrnded themselves of the charms 
of the county in which they had lived, and which they loved so 
well. There were Devonian Associations in all parts of the 
world, and not the least of them was the Devonian Association 
of the Metropolis of the Empire. (Applause.) They had raised 
admiration of their county to a species of religion centred round 
a sort of haloed hierarchy, in which were enthroned all the great 
names of the past they loved to recall, and the great names of 
the present, like that of Lord Halsbury. This was the way to 
patriotism, which rallied them to rise to something above the 
mere selfishness of their own individual life, something which 
made their lives better and more useful, and gave them the 
satisfaction of having lived for something more than for them- 
selves alone. (Applause.) 

Federation of Devonian Associations. 

Colonel E. T. Clifford, V.D., Chairman of the Association, who 
was received with cheers, said that he felt particularly gratified 
that Lord Clifford had proposed this toast, because he knew no 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 19 

Devonian who took a keener and more personal interest in pro- 
moting Devonian ideals. (Hear, hear.) He was glad to be able 
to state that the Association -was progressing satisfactorily, much 
of its success being due to the Chairman (Mr. Pinkham) and his 
Committee, the Deputy Chairman (Mr. Pearse Chope), the Enter- 
tainment Secretary (Mr. Smart), and last but not least, the 
energetic Honorary Secretary (Mr. Shawyer). Mr. Chope was 
responsible for the editing and production of that most successful 
book, the Devonian Year Book — a book which he hoped would be 
regarded by all as a visible symbol of the unity of Devonians all 
over the world. (Hear, hear.) He would not deal in detail with 
the year's work, as that had been set forth fully in the Year Book, 
but he would like to say that, in his opinion, the Committee 
had amply fulfilled their promise to the members ; and he 
personally expressed his regret, which he felt sure was universally 
shared, at the lamented loss which the Association experienced last 
year in the death of the president, Lord Northcote, who was not 
merely a pillar of strength to the Association and to Devonshire 
generally, but who was indeed a pillar of strength to the Empire. 
(Hear, hear.) 

On the occasion of the dinner given to Captain Scott on 
the eve of his departure for the South Pole, Colonel Clifford 
said he had the honour of proposing the health of the 
Chairman, Earl Fortescue, and he then suggested that the 
Association should undertake some scheme of federation of all 
Devonian Societies. His proposal was supported by the noble 
Chairman, and by all who were present ; and in the course of 
his travels abroad last year, it was most sympathetically received 
by the many Devonians he met during his tour. Whatever he 
felt then, he was now convinced that an opportunity should be 
given to Devonians and men of Devonian descent in all parts of 
the world for retaining, in some tangible form, their touch with 
the motherland of which they are all so justly proud, and he 
was happy to say that it was decided at the last annual meeting 
to extend the " objects " of the Association in order to carry 
out this scheme of federation. (Hear, hear.) There were 
hundreds of thousands of Devonians throughout Canada, 
Australia, New Zealand, India, Africa, and the United States, 
all recognizing the call of the homeland, and there was nothing 
more striking than the loving interest which our cousins in the 
United States took in tracing their connection with their 
Devonian ancestors. One found there still the retention of 
the clan feeling, and it was that feeling that had materialized 
in the formation of kindred societies, and had travelled across 
the Atlantic and manifested itself here in England by the support 



20 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

of memorials in the motherland. Of course they all recognized 
that this call of the homeland was a sentiment, but it was a 
patriotic sentiment, and patriotism surely was a virtue founded 
on affection. Patriotism might not get down to the hidden 
fires of human realities, but its potentialities were great and 
it influenced men for good. (Hear, hear.) Without sentiment 
and ideals life would not be worth living ; and this sentiment — 
this call of the homeland — was the music of humanity crying out 
that " Devon men should link their hands across the seas, 
across the lands." (Cheers.) 

He did not suggest that they should forget to be practical. 
Devonians were ever regarded as a practical race, and that 
probably accounted for their success in life ; but there was no 
earthly reason why they should in all things sink to the dead 
level of dry utilitarianism. Let patriotism flourish, and to that 
object let them stimulate and conserve it in every possible way, 
for by so doing they would be fulfilling their trust ; for Devonians, 
who were so proud of their county and her worthies, had come 
into a great heritage, and they would not be discharging their 
duty to their county if they did not carry out those ideals set 
up by her worthies. He seriously submitted that if every county 
and shire in the Kingdom followed the example he was asking 
them to set, they would, one and all, be forging the strongest 
link in the chain that would bind together and affect the destiny 
of the English-speaking race. (Hear, hear.) 

He had already set forth at the conclusion of the article he 
was permitted to contribute to the Devonian Year Book, the 
objects he proposed that this Association should aim at, namely : — 

1. A Central Federation of Devonian Associations. 

2. An Anniversary — Armada Day (say July 31st) — on which 
all Devonian Associations might meet, and be invited to send 
messages or wreaths in honour of Drake and other heroes of 
that day. 

3. The Devonian Year Book, in which every Devonian Associ- 
ation should have a record of its Officers and Meetings. 

4. A song — " Drake's Drum " (in the Year Book) — to be sung 
on Armada Day celebrations. 

5. The erection of a public Memorial Statue to Drake in the 
heart of the Empire for which he strove, and not in vain. 

His proposal for federation, having those objects in view, had 
been warmly commented on by those Devonians he met while 
abroad, and by others abroad with whom he had been in com- 
munication. If he were asked why he submitted Drake as their 
hero, and Armada Day as their festival, his answer was : — 

1. That Drake was a hero. 



The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 21 

2. That he was a Devon man born and bred. 

3. That on Armada Day — at the most critical moment of 
English history — Drake saved this country, almost in spite of 
itself, and laid the foundations of this great Empire. (Applause.) 

Colonel Clifford said he preached an evangel — goodwill to all 
Devonians, whether they were residents, exiles, or of Devonian 
descent. He hoped each person present would constitute himself 
or herself an evangelist for the cause, and lay sympathy and help 
on the altar of patriotism. (Hear, hear.) He appealed to them 
to support this movement, not only because of the trust they had 
inherited — not only for the glory of Devon — but to give the 
brethren overseas that touch with the homeland which they 
were enjoying and celebrating there that night. Devonia's sons 
called upon them; let them remember Kipling's " Song of the 
Sons" in "The Seven Seas" : — 

" Those that have stayed at thy knees, Mother, go call them in — 
We that were bred overseas wait and would speak with our kin. 
Gifts have we only to-day — Love without promise or fee — 

Hear, for thy children speak, from the uttermost parts of the sea ! " 

Shall they speak in vain ? (" No, no," and great applause.) 

To the Immortal Memory of Drake. 

The most impressive moment in an evening of many memories 
came when Lord Halsbury, rising amid an impressive hush, 
asked the company to drink in silence to the immortal memory 
of Drake and the other heroes who defeated the Spanish Armada 
and laid the foundations of the British Empire. Lord Halsbury 
said that he did not know that in the history of the world, 
although there were so many battles and incidents around which 
was clustered great national fame, there was anything like that 
which was done by Drake and his associates. They had lately 
had an example of what could be done by national sympathy, 
for, when some time ago the British Empire was believed to be 
in danger, from East and from West, from North and from 
South there came glad offers of assistance from those who 
claimed to be her sons. But he would like the imagination of 
the company around him to go back to the time when Drake 
intervened for the salvation of the British Empire. The Spanish, 
who had the best and most powerful soldiers in the world, were 
engaged in a religious and political outrage which was intended 
to make England part of the Spanish kingdom. That was known. 
Nevertheless, with small means and the ammunition of their 
own stout hearts, English statesmen refused to submit. It 



22 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

was in this situation that Drake stood forward for the salvation 
of their Empire. Let it not be forgotten that he had the bold 
determination to put aside those who had been set over him, 
and who had proved unworthy of their trust. With distrust 
from his Sovereign at home and an incompetent and not too 
brave superior, every obstacle was placed in Drake's way ; 
but from April, when he began, until September, when his 
conquest was completed, he was continually on the watch, and 
despite distrust and danger he did that which saved his country. 
He and the other heroes had gone to their reward, but they could 
remember what they had done for them, and what it was they 
were commemorating that night — the honour of the English 
nation and the glory of those who saved it from defeat. 

The whole company then rose and drank the toast in silence. 

Tribute to Lord Halsbury. 

The Earl of Portsmouth proposed the toast of " The Chair- 
man." It was strength of purpose and force of character, he 
remarked, that in Elizabethan days founded our great Empire ; 
and it was these characteristics that would keep us the great 
nation and empire that we were to-day. He would ask them 
to drink Lord Halsbury's health, not only because he was a 
learned lawyer and a great judge, who came of very old and very 
distinguished Devonian stock, but also because he represented 
that type of character which all Englishmen admired. (Hear, 
hear). He was a man who, holding steadfast to his deep con- 
victions, had never become one of those marionettes that were 
swayed by every gust of political expediency, and was not 
afraid to give expression to the faith that was in him. (Applause.) 

The cheers that followed the drinking of the toast were loud 
and prolonged. In all his long career, Lord Halsbury can seldom 
have had a more enthusiastic ovation. In reply, his lordship 
succinctly expressed the delight he felt at spending an evening 
in the company of Devonian men and women, and the hope that 
he would be able to renew the pleasure on some future occasion. 
His lordship added, in conclusion, that the scheme of world- 
wide Federation outlined by Colonel Clifford had his warmest 
sympathy for its success. 

The final toast was that of " The Visitors," which was proposed 
by Alderman C. Pinkham, Chairman of Committee of the Associ- 
ation, and responded to by Mr. J. S. Underhill, who some years 
ago was one of Exeter's finest exponents of Rugby football. 






The Devonian Year Book, 1913 23 

In conclusion, the Hon. Secretary called attention to two 
worthy Devonian objects, for which subscriptions were invited, 
namely, the Endowment Fund of the Royal Albert Memorial 
University College at Exeter, and a Memorial at Dartmouth to 
Thomas Newcomen, the inventor of the steam engine. 

The artistic menu card was specially designed and presented 
to the guests by Mr. F. C. Southwood. It bore on the front a 
hand-coloured portrait of Drake drinking success to the English 
fleet, and inside representations of the famous game of bowls 
on Plymouth Hoe, and the Armada fight. 

A delightful programme of Devonian song and story was 
contributed by popular West-country artistes. Among the 
musical items, Mr. Norman Ingall's songs of " Drake's Drum " 
and" Devon to me!" were immensely appreciated; and, as 
usual, Mr. Charles Wreford's dialect recitations — " George " 
(Ganthony) and "Our Electric Light Scheme" (Jan Stewer) 
— caused much amusement. The other vocalists were Miss 
Ethel Baden Elmes, Miss Lilah Estelle, Mr. John Dixon, and 
Mr. Edgar Barnes, while Mr. Cyril Weller was the accompanist. 



A Song of Devon. 

Whene'er the voice of England has echoed to the wind, 
The dauntless sons of Devon have never lagged behind. 

They never lost their courage, they never lost their love : 
Behind their faith in Devon lay faith in God above. 

For life they lusted keenly, these playmates of the sea ; 
They never ceased to labour for England and for thee, 

Till worlds of new-born knowledge poured forth their wealth 

untold, 
For English hands to gather in western lands of gold. 

Arthur L. Salmon. 



24 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



Armada Day. 



The King and Queen at Earl's Court. A Devon Reunion. 

The firstfruits of the dual idea of federating into one great society 
the hundreds of associations of Devonians throughout the world, 
and of establishing a periodical reunion in the heart of the 
Empire, were forthcoming at a notable gathering in London on 
Saturday, July 20th, 1912, when hundreds of Devon folk from 
various parts of the kingdom held high festival on the anniversary 
of the coming of the Spanish Armada, and in honour of the 
memory of Sir Francis Drake. 

To Colonel Clifford, the chairman of the London Devonian 
Association, came the conception of thus fostering the spirit 
of local patriotism, which is the fountain of a wider sense 
of Imperial responsibility and privilege, and, although on this 
occasion the gathering was composed only of Devonians residing 
in the old country, it is probable that in future years representa- 
tives of the men of Devon from across the seas will attend the 
annual meeting of the Federation. 

A finer occasion for the festival could not have been adopted 
than that of Armada Day, for it is universally acknowledged 
that the defeat of the Spanish Armada was the greatest, the 
most glorious, event in the history of England, being the culmin- 
ating point, the climax, of the Protestant Reformation ; and a 
worthier hero for this festival could not have been selected for 
remembrance than he whose dauntless courage commenced the 
work of the destruction of the Spanish fleet — a work which was 
finished by a heavier artillery than was carried by the gallant 
little ships which sailed from Plymouth Sound. Then, too, a 
more eminently suitable setting for the functions of the day 
could not have been devised than that provided at Earl's Court, 
where "Shakespeare's England" was so delightfully reproduced, 
and where the Revenge rode at anchor in the great lake trans- 
formed into the verisimilitude of the Plymouth harbour of the 
sixteenth century, whence went so many of the sea dogs of good 
Queen Bess on the jolly quest of singeing the Spaniard's beard 
whenever the opportunity occurred. 

The King and Queen. 

The festival was specially honoured by the patronage of their 
Majesties, who, accompanied by Princess Mary, paid a visit to 
the Exhibition in the morning. After they had inspected the 
Tudor buildings in and around the ducal hall, they proceeded to 



V/ 




DRAKE'S SHIP— "THE REVENGE 

By permission of The Graphic. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 25 

the Revenge, and were received by Captain Gooringe, who imper- 
sonated Sir Francis Drake. They then descended into the 
captain's cabin, which has a very low roof, and Mrs. Cornwallis- 
West jestingly remarked that she could understand why they 
drank the King's health sitting in the navy, for if they stood 
upright they would hurt themselves. This greatly amused the 
King. His Majesty was shown Armada relics, including cannon 
balls from Tobermory, and he was also particularly interested in 
the accuracy of the costumes of the crew. Mrs. Cornwallis-West 
proved a very instructive companion, but the King was quite 
aware when she reminded him that in the Elizabethan period no 
two sailors were ever dressed alike, and there was no uniform 
amongst them. His Majesty expressed the opinion that the 
representation of the ship was perfect, except for the absence of 
foot ropes. Her Majesty remarked that the cobble-stones on 
the Quay were terribly realistic. 

Welcome to Devonshire Visitors. 

At half-past two the men and women of Devon were welcomed 
in the great Empress Hall by Colonel Clifford, the Mayor of 
Plymouth (Alderman Henry Hurrell), and members of the London 
Devonian Association. During the reception, Glover's Military 
Band rendered a capital programme of Devonshire music, this 
being followed by a picturesque representation of the famous 
game of bowls which was in progress when the Armada was 
sighted. Then came the thrilling " call to arms," and, appro- 
priately enough, a move was then made to Plymouth Harbour, 
where, from the deck of the Revenge, an address was delivered 
by Mr. Winston Churchill, the First Lord of the Admiralty. 
Among the assembly were members of the London Devonian 
Association, the Three Towns Association, the Exeter Club, the 
Barumites in London, the Ottregians, the Tivertonians, and 
representatives of the Devonian organizations in Southend, 
Southampton, Swansea, Newport, Portsmouth, etc. 

The company included Sir George Kekewich, Mr. A. Shirley 
Benn, M.P., Mr. G. H. Radford, M.P., the Rev. A. J. Waldron, 
Fleet-Surgeon A. Corrie, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, B.A., Mr. and 
Mrs. C. Pinkham, Mr. G. W. Davey, Mr. Jones, and Mr. R. M. 
Rowe (Chairman and Clerk of Ilfracombe Urban District Council), 
Mr. E. J. Sloley (Barnstaple), Mr. and Mrs. Hesse, Mr. and Mrs. 
Bolt, Mr. J. Ryall, Mr. J. W. Shawyer (hon. secretary, London 
Devonian Association) and Mrs. Shawyer, Mr. F. J. S. Thomson, 
Mr. and Mrs. C. R. Philp, Mr. and Mrs. W. J. N. Webber, Mr. 
W. J. McCormack, Mr. F. A. Perry, Mr. and Mrs. W. Inman, 



26 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Summers, Mr. H. E. Howell, Mr. and Mrs. 
T. R. Potbury, Mr. W. V. M. Popham (hon. secretary, West 
Buckland Old Boys), Mr. and Mrs. Crosbie Coles, Mr. and 
Mrs. C. Johnson, Captain Knox, Messrs. J. C. Kerswell, S. T. 
Drew, and S. Daniel (president, hon. secretary, and chairman of 
Swansea Devonian Society), G. W. Cocks (president of the 
Exeter Club), A. Frampton, G. Beer (Barnstaple), Broomfield, 
Monkhouse, and T. Rice (president, vice-president, and secretary 
of the Southampton Devonians), W. T. Darke, F. T. Fisher, and 
the Rev. H. Serjeant (Southend), Mr. W. H. Smart (hon. secre- 
tary of the London Devonian Entertainment Committee), and 
many others. 

The Game of Bowls. 

The pageant began with the arrival of a number of young men 
attired as Elizabethan prentices, who "took charge " of the 
arena, amusing the visitors by their horseplay. Following them 
came a party of scarlet-clad halberdiers, who, after a well- 
simulated tussle, succeeded in clearing the bowling green for the 
use of a party of gallants, who appeared in the scene clad in 
Elizabethan attire, a prominent figure being Captain Gooringe 
in the guise of Drake. The game of bowls had not long been in 
progress when, to the flout ish of trumpets, a horseman dashed 
across the arena with a despatch. The ensuing scene was well 
acted. The game of bowls was stopped, and players and on- 
lookers maintained breathless silence whilst Drake read the 
message, the purport of which he explained to the crowd being 
that the Spanish Armada had been sighted. Acting according 
to the book, the players showed a disposition to disperse to their 
various ships, but the game was resumed on " Drake's confident 
assertion that there was plenty of time to finish the game and 
then beat the Spaniards." Then there was a rousing " call to 
arms," and a procession, headed by a bugle band, a company of 
pikemen, with the visitors bringing up the rear, was formed to 
carry out the next item of the programme. 

On Board the " Revenge." 

On entering the gates of Plymouth harbour, the Devonians 
were delighted with the picturesque scenic representation of the 
Sound, with Drake's famous ship, the Revenge, moored alongside 
the cobble-paved quay. At the gangway tickets were scanned 
by steel-clad warriors, who sternly refused admission to all who 
were not fortunate enough to possess blue tickets. Captain 
Gooringe, attired to represent Sir Francis Drake, stood at the 
gangway to receive the First Lord of the Admiralty. With him 



The Devonian Year Book, 19 13 27 

were Colonel E. T. Clifford, and the Mayor of Plymouth, the 
latter adding to the picturesqueness of the scene with his chain 
and robe of office. A guard of honour was formed by the boys 
of the Sea Scout branch. Mr. and Mrs. Winston Churchill and 
Mrs. Cornwallis-West came on board at 3.30 p.m. 

Mr. Churchill's Devonshire Blood. 

Colonel Clifford, cordially received, read a telegram wishing 
success to the celebration of Armada Day from 20,000 Protestant 
children at the Alexandra Palace assembly. Proceeding, the 
Colonel remarked that he did not think that any introduction of 
the First Lord of the Admiralty was necessary on that occasion. 
He had ventured, during a recent conversation with Mr. Churchill, 
to tell him what were the objects of the London Devonian 
Association, whose members believed that in carrying out their 
great scheme of federation of Devonians all over the world they 
were pursuing a great work, and they firmly believed that if 
every county in England adopted a similar scheme they would 
be assisting in forging one of the strongest links in that 
great chain which bound together the English-speaking race. 
(Applause.) Mr. Churchill, he remarked, sprang from a good old 
Devonian family. (Applause.) The first record of his family, 
so far as he was aware, was that there -was a Churchill born and 
bred at Rockbeare, near Exeter, some five or six hundred years 
ago. The great Duke of Marlborough was born in Devon, and 
it was interesting to recall that the Duke inherited from his 
mother, through a collateral descent, the same blood which flowed 
through the veins of Sir Francis Drake. (Cheers.) It was, then, 
particularly appropiiate that they should have Mr. Churchill, 
who was at the same time First Lord of the Admiralty, with them 
on that occasion to sympathize with them in their festival, and 
to tender with them homage to the memory of their great hero, 
Sir Francis Drake — homage rendered on Drake's own ship, built 
to his own order, the Dreadnought of the past. (Cheers.) As 
Devonians they believed that Drake saved England at probably 
the most critical time in her history, and saved England in spite 
of herself. (A Voice : "So will Churchill ! " — cheers). 

The Lesson Taught by Drake. 

" People talk," continued Colonel Clifford, " of the spacious 
days of Queen Elizabeth, but these are more spacious than Queen 
Bess or Drake ever dreamt of, and we have now a much greater 
responsibility. It is for us, not only Devonians, but one and all, 
to recognize the great liberties we have inherited, to be true to 



28 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

them for ourselves, our forefathers, our country, our Empire, 
and the world at large. (Cheers.) Men who thought, and 
formed their opinions upon facts, and not upon prejudices, 
personalities, or predilections, believed that the great lesson 
taught by Drake, for which Drake fought, lived, and died, would 
be safeguarded by the present First Lord of the Admiralty." 
(Cheers.) 

The First Lord's Speech. 

Mr. Winston Churchill, who was greeted with great enthusiasm, 
said : "I am very glad indeed to come here this afternoon and 
offer a hearty welcome to the many hundreds of Devonians who 
have chosen this very appropriate setting for one of their reunions. 
I agree entirely with what has just been said of the great value 
and importance of people who come from the same county or 
from the same parts of the United Kingdom keeping in touch 
with their neighbours and friends and others of their race and 
stock, wherever they may be situated throughout the British 
Empire. All these ties, which are developed individually by 
individual parts of the United Kingdom, may be made to conduce 
to that larger unity of the British Empire which is developing 
and strengthening as the years pass by — (cheers). Secondly, I 
am glad to come and welcome those who come from a county so 
important to the modern British Navy. (Cheers.) The fact 
that there is a great naval base at Devonport, where so many of 
our most powerful ships are constructed, and which plays a 
vital part in our naval organization, is in itself a reason why I 
should come here and join in your celebration this afternoon. 
Quite apart from the importance of Plymouth at the present 
time, there are the immortal memories of the great days gone by, 
which will ever associate the county of Devon with the greatest 
traditions of the British Fleet. (Great applause.) In this 
beautiful and remarkable model, you are able to see before 
your eyes one of the most historic vessels on which the glories of 
the British Navy depended. It is probable that between the 
Revenge and the Victory herself no vessel of similar historic signi- 
ficance ever took part in the struggles of our country, and I think 
it is not in the least surprising that you who come from that great 
naval seaport, and from the county of Devon, feel the keenest 
sentimental interest in seeing revived the lovely and accurate 
image of a vessel which in former times was of such significance 
and importance. I am very glad, indeed, to have been privileged 
to have been among you this afternoon, and I trust that you will 
have a pleasant afternoon, and take away with you an even added 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 29 

interest in all that conduces to maintain the pride of Devonshire 
and the strength and traditions of the British Fleet." (Loud 
cheers.) 

Drake and the Empire. 

The Mayor of Plymouth (Alderman H. Hurrell) remarked that 
when the invitation was sent to him to join their celebrations, he 
felt he could not resist the desire to come and take part in them. 
He was always pleased to meet Devonians in any part of the 
world, "and," said his Worship, "wherever you go, you can 
generally find 'em." He recognized that he was an unworthy 
successor to one whom they were honouring that day, for he was 
in the office which Sir Francis Drake occupied 330 years ago. 
They knew that he did a great deal for the Empire, and in some 
sense he was one of those who helped to lay its foundations, being 
one of those who helped to lay the foundations of their British 
Navy. They were glad to see Mr. Churchill with them, and to 
know that he would keep up their reputation at sea as well as it 
was done in the days of old. They were not in these days 
content with such modest ships as the Revenge, although in the 
old days she was no doubt a very formidable vessel. They had 
now to go to greater things and have those super-Dreadnoughts 
which were intended not for defiance but for defence. (Cheers.) 
His Worship concluded : " May our Navy never have occasion 
to use the terrible weapons it possesses for offence, but only to 
keep our shores intact and to uphold the credit and the dignity 
of our British Empire." (Cheers.) 

Recollection of a Glorious Past. 
Mr. G. H. Radford, M.P., proposing a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Winston Churchill, said they regarded it, as Devon men who had 
found half their glory on the seas, very encouraging and gratify- 
ing that they should have the presence of the First Lord of the 
Admiralty. That little ship was something like 500 tons — and 
there were not many ships of greater size at the date when 
Drake sailed out of Plymouth — but a fortnight ago he stood with 
Mr. Churchill on the deck of the Thunderer, at Spithead, a vessel 
that was built at the Thames Ironworks, and was perhaps the 
last word on the subject of naval construction. From this ship 
to that carried us over more than three centuries of naval history. 
That reminded him that he had read in an Elizabethan transla- 
tion of an ancient author that " there is no such incentive to 
present virtue and valour as the recollection of a glorious past." 
That recollection belonged to them, the men of Devon, and the 
men of Devon were not yet dead. If it became necessary here- 
after for them to do their duty, either on sea or on land, or, even, 



30 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

as the modern manner was, in the air, be believed Devon men 
would ever give a good account of themselves. (Cheers.) 

Living in Dangerous Times. 

Mr. A. Shirley Benn, M.P., seconded, as one of the members of 
Parliament for Plymouth, the vote of thanks. They knew, 
regardless of all party politics, that they now had, as First Lord 
of the Admiralty, an Englishman who had courage and who had 
ability, and who would, they all believed, see that England was 
still provided with a fleet that would be able to uphold the 
glories of the past. They were living in dangerous times. They 
needed ships and they needed men, and there was no place in 
England that could provide better men and better sailors than 
the old county of Devon. (Cheers.) 

Rev. A. J. Waldron, supporting, said that they had been 
honoured by the presence of the King and Queen, who had espe- 
cially visited the exhibition that day because it was the Devonian 
Armada Day. (Cheers.) 

The Sea Scouts. 

Later in the afternoon there was a parade of Sea Scouts on 
the Revenge. The Scouts were inspected by Admiral Lord 
Charles Beresford, who, in an address to the lads, said that in 
remembering the names of the great officers at the Armada they 
should not forget the men behind the guns. That model of the 
Revenge brought back to people memories of one of the most 
brilliant and heroic actions ever fought. There had never been 
anything better in the whole of the history of the British Navy 
than the fight of the Revenge under Sir Richard Grenville. He 
appealed to the lads to emulate the spirit shown by their fore- 
fathers, and said that chief amongst the characteristics to be 
observed were pluck, foresight, discipline, loyalty, and good 
comradeship. 

Major Baden-Powell and Mr. Worthington Powell, brothers of 
General Baden-Powell, proposed and seconded a vote of thanks 
to Lord Charles Beresford, who, in responding, said the Scout 
movement was undoubtedly one of the finest movements of the 
present day. He pointed out how the Sea Scouts could become 
useful helps in the defence of the country by learning pilotage, 
sounding, the handling of small boats, splicing ropes, and other 
seamen's duties. 

The great success of the meeting was largely due to the efforts 
of the organizing Committee, and especially to Colonel Clifford, 
and Messrs. W. J. McCormack, J. W. Shawyer, and W. H. 
Smart. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 31 



Drake's Treasure. 

By COLONEL E. T. CLIFFORD, V.D. 

Chairman of the London Devonian Association. 

(A Paper read before the Devonshire Association at Exeter. 
July 24th, 1912.) 

[In submitting this Paper. I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness to 
Mr. Michell Whitley. The whole of the details given in the Appendix B. 
in addition to other matter, were, with much time and labour, extracted 
by him personally from documents in the Public Record Office.] 

Among the glorious roll of heroic names which is the proud 
boast of our county, that of Francis Drake stands pre-eminent. 

Drake's greatness lay in his character and his conduct, and 
may be viewed in his influence even more than his great achieve- 
ments. Treasure he sought, and with a success unparalleled 
in one of his station ; but it is his purity and patriotism which 
constitute the first claim to our loving admiration. 

If he had ever given himself time to think upon the oppor- 
tunities of self-aggrandizement he had enjoyed, he might, like 
Lord Clive in India, have felt " astonished at his own moderation." 
In an age when princes and prelates vied with one another in 
amassing treasure, whether wrung from the poor or wrested 
from the rich, he stands alone, so far as I know, in resisting 
temptations to self-seeking. There is a fashion, which I would 
deprecate, of reading the principles and ideals of modern time 
into the old days, of condemning men like Bacon or Wolsey for 
meanness or ostentation. But this is as nothing to the error of 
failing to recognize pre-eminent virtues, such as Drake showed 
throughout his life, and not least in his indifference to lucre, 
except as a means to a public end. 

In olden days great prelates alone received steady incomes in 
money ; even in the sixteenth century they rivalled and often 
surpassed the lay nobles in luxury, display, and self-indulgence. 

The objections which they raised against Lutheran doctrines 
was feeble if compared with the hatred they felt for those who 
challenged their vested interests — the privilege of wringing 
pence from the poor, lands from lay nobles, and profits from 
the exploitation of the New World. Some few there were, no 
doubt, who kept the spread of the gospel in view, but the vast 
majority, including the Holy See itself, were ever ready, to 
quote well-known words, " to join in the plunder and pity the 
man." The temporal power had grown at the expense of the 
spiritual, like a lobster with one claw huge and the other puny, 
a mere arrested development. 



32 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

To enter into so wide a subject as the finance of the sixteenth 
century would lead one too far afield ; but I cannot help con- 
trasting Drake's attitude with that of all his compeers and most 
of his successors. When he might have realized the ambitious 
dreams of Sir Henry Morgan a hundred years later, and have 
utilized his abilities to found and rule a buccaneering settlement 
in the Spanish Main, he devoted his supreme energy to the 
aggrandizement of his Queen and her growing Empire. By the 
time when he reached his thirty-fifth year, the Spaniards esti- 
mated their pecuniary losses through him at a million and a 
half sterling, besides many hundreds of thousands in ships and 
general cargoes. From such profits he was contented with a 
trifling percentage granted to him by a grateful sovereign. 

But not even the Spaniards could maintain the charges of 
cruelty which at first they levelled against him ; as Mr. Julian 
Corbett well puts it, " his very hate was heroic ; for a church, 
or a woman, or an unarmed man he had a noble forbearance 
that puts the brightest chivalry of his time to the blush, and it 
was the grateful eulogies of his prisoners of war that crowned 
his reputation." 

How within the next few years he won his way to respect and 
influence at home, becoming a trusted counsellor at Court and a 
public benefactor and potentate in Devon ; how the navy — 
of old a mere auxiliary to the army — grew under the fostering 
care of Devonians to become our " first line " for defence as 
well as attack, I need not here recount. Suffice it to say that 
a new era of English renown was opened, and the doom of a 
Spanish world-empire was decreed. 

And what was the clue to this enormous change ? What 
was the secret of the new policy ? The answer lies in one word, 
" patriotism " ; and the chief exponent of the new force was 
Francis Drake. 

Useful as were the ingots of silver, the golden bullion, and the 
priceless jewels to fill a depleted exchequer, to build and equip 
fleets, and to pay in cash for good service rendered, they were 
but a paltry contribution in comparison with the spirit of 
patriotism which was evoked by the self-sacrificing devotion of 
Drake and his compeers. Nothing I have ever read has struck 
me more than Drake's sermon preached off Magellan Straits to 
a crew of malcontents led by some who should have known 
better : — 

" I must have the gentleman to haul and draw with the 
mariner and the mariner with the gentleman." 

By sheer moral ascendency he won his way. It was not till 
he had beaten down those who disputed his authority, that he 
reminded them that he held his Queen's commission. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 33 

" Drake's Treasure," then, was not gold, but character, which 
enabled him to turn to account every force, and utilize every 
fibre in those who came within the sphere of his influence, and 
this treasure he bequeathed to this nation, with whom it remains, 
a priceless and incorruptible heritage. 

Now let me turn for a moment to Drake's material treasure, 
and the circumstances under which he secured it : and here it is 
not out of place to point out that of this material treasure only 
a vestige can with certainty be traced. 

Born in Devon, and of good Devon stock, about 1540-45, in 
the later years of the reign of Henry VIII, Drake's boyhood 
was passed amongst men whose one besetting dread was the 
might of Philip II, the fear lest England should sink into a 
mere appanage of the Spanish empire, and her people should 
first be humbled and then exploited in the interests of cruel 
bigots. But, as in the past, the Spanish peoples had been 
welded into a coherent nation by their hatred for the Turk and 
the Moor, so the English, under the guidance of men like our 
hero, were to beat down the overweening pride and power of 
the Iberian colossus, and defy the traditions of the " Holy 
Empire " itself. 

In these stirring times England was awakening to a sense of 
her might and piety ; pride and patriotism alike appealed, and 
not in vain, to the rising generation, who watched in dire ex- 
asperation the brutal inhumanity under which their co-religionists 
in the Netherlands were groaning, and even had to suffer awhile 
the stoppage of their trade and the seizure of their ships by 
order of a foreign monarch. It was in the west, and above all 
in Devon, far away from the narrow seas dominated by the 
stranger, that love of freedom and of adventure called English- 
men to a struggle which ended in establishing their claim to be 
a nation of the first rank. And of this high spirit no finer 
example can be found than Francis Drake, who threw himself 
heart and soul into the great movement, uniting brilliant genius 
and undaunted courage with a stern puritanism, which made 
him strive to uproot the idolatry which pervaded the greater 
part of the Christian world. He was, no doubt, a treasure- 
hunter, but his whole career was a protest against sordid love of 
pelf, against pedantic hypocrisy in high places, and ignoble 
self-seeking everywhere. Amongst his earliest experiences was 
the rescue of a remnant of a Plymouth crew from Spanish 
dungeons ; but it was not till the year 1567 that he actually bore 
arms against Spain under his kinsman, John Hawkins, whose 
expedition, however, was unsuccessful, and whose squadron was 
shattered at San Juan de Luz. His resentment was heightened by 

3 



34 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

a narrow escape from the Spanish Main in the following year, 
where he nearly fell a victim to a stratagem which he regarded 
as treacherous. Returning, however, a little later to the scenes 
of his discomfiture, he spied out in the enemy's defences certain 
weak places, and gained information which he put to good use 
thereafter. A glimpse of the Pacific Ocean fired his imagination, 
and in 1577 he set sail once more from Plymouth, with a tiny 
squadron of three ships and a pinnace and a store-ship, repre- 
senting in all 275 tons, mounting 56 guns, and carrying crews of 
about 160 men, gentlemen and sailors. Making his way, by 
the Cape de Verde Isles and the Argentine, to the shores of 
Patagonia, despite the loss of all (through misfortune, not war) 
save his own ship, the Golden Hind, 100 tons, 18 guns, and a 
crew of 75, he passed the Straits of Magellan. After sailing up 
the western coasts of South America, he returned home 
across the Pacific Ocean, the South Seas, and the Atlantic. 
He had been away from home three years, during which 
period he had sailed round the world, the first Englishman 
to do so. 

Not till Charles I was seated on the throne of a united Great 
Britain was any precise statement of Drake's hard-won treasure 
given to the world. Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth, had not 
deemed it expedient to make a boast of her subject's successes. 
But if treasure to the value of 760,000 pesos (or dollars) was 
taken on that occasion, we may conclude that no single ex- 
pedition had been more repaying since Alexander the Great 
rifled the royal vaults of the Persian emperor. 

In vain did the haughty Spaniard humble himself to seek 
damages from England ; in vain did peninsular devotees implore 
Heaven to chastise the man whom they fondly dubbed the 
" enemy of God." The spell was broken ; " the spirits they 
called from the vasty deep " came not. Impunity bore its 
fruits ; in 1585 Drake sailed out to the West Indies and brought 
back — along with a sample of the strange herb tobacco — a 
trifling sum of £60,000, approximately equal in our currency 
to, say, £750,000. In the spring of 1587, on the eve of the 
mighty conflict, Drake was commissioned to forestall the con- 
junction of the various fleets of Spain ; and if his advice had 
been followed, doubtless he would have " stopped Philip for 
ever," instead of merely " singeing the beard " of that monarch. 
His wish was to take out a strong force and prevent the Armada 
from leaving Spanish waters. But his counsels were overridden, 
and he had perforce to content himself with striking a blow at 
the East Indian trade of Spain, and capturing that great Portu- 
guese carrack, the San Felip, with treasure on board valued 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 35 

(at present prices) at more than a million sterling, out of which 
only £17,000 went to Sir Francis as his share. 

From our present point of view the Armada itself calls for 
nothing beyond mention. Though it was followed by the 
capture of numerous privateers, no trace is found of any impor- 
tant treasures therefrom, and the natural depression which 
succeeded to the wild elation of the recent period may help to 
account for the sad fact that after giving the best years of his 
life to crippling Spain, in point of ships, men, and money, his 
later years were passed in disappointment and increasing gloom. 

Finally, in 1595 Drake and Hawkins, as joint-commanders, 
with Lieut. -Gen. Sir Nicholas Clifford as military commander, 
sailed for the West Indies. Hawkins died on 12 November, 
Clifford was killed in action a few days after, and on 28 January, 
1596, died Drake, of whom Fuller wrote : " This our captain 
was a religious man towards God and His houses, generally 
sparing churches where he came ; chaste in his life, just in his 
dealings, true to his word, and merciful to those who were 
under him, hating nothing so much as idleness." 

England had called for an open fight with Spain, and a stern, 
if less direct, struggle with Rome ; both summonses were 
answered by Drake, whose ambition was that England could 
and should be the dominant sea power, and whose noble prayer, 
uttered in the spring of 1588, may fitly be repeated here : — 

" That the Lord of all strength will put into Her Majesty and 
her people courage and boldness ; not to fear any 
invasion of her own country, but to seek God's enemies 
and Her Majesty's where they may be found." 

I have finished my story. I have endeavoured, in the briefest 
manner, to give an outline of Drake's life and character and 
work. What material treasure he won is hardly worth con- 
sidering, but the moral treasure he gave to posterity is a glorious 
legacy that in my opinion has been unequalled by any other 
Devonian, whether he be a soldier, sailor, statesman, poet, or 
painter. 

Devonians are the inheritors and trustees of that great man's 
precepts and example. We Devonians in London have with 
pride recognized our responsibility, and adopted him as our 
county's hero. To his immortal memory we foregather annually 
on Armada Day, and we invite Devonians all over the world, 
whether by birth, or descent, or residents, or exiles, to join our 
celebrations in recognition of our admiration and obligations. 
We trust that London, the heart of that empire for which he 
strove, and not in vain, may one day wake up to a sense of its 



36 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

responsibilities, and place on record his due by erecting there a 
statue worthy of the name and fame of the man who saved 
England, almost in spite of herself, and laid the foundations of 
this great Empire. 

APPENDIX A. 
Drake's Journeyings. 

In 1567 Drake joined his kinsman, John Hawkins, in an 
expedition against Spain, where he commanded the Judith, 
of 50 tons burden, but at San Juan de Luz the squadron was 
destroyed, with the exception of Hawkins' ship and his own. 

In 1570-71 he made two voyages to the West Indies, to 
obtain information as to the Spanish possessions there. 

In 1572 he made another voyage to the Spanish Main. Here 
he captured Nombre de Dios, burnt Porto Bello, sacked Vera 
Cruz, burnt several ships, and returned to Plymouth in August, 
1573. The treasure he brought back with him amounted to a 
very considerable sum, and his share made him a comparatively 
wealthy man. During this voyage he marched across the 
Isthmus of Panama, and resolved to sail an English ship in the 
Pacific Ocean. 

On 12 December, 1577, Drake sailed from Plymouth Sound. 
The squadron consisted of the Pelican, his own ship of 100 
tons and 18 guns, equal in size to an ordinary schooner ; the 
Elizabeth, 80 tons and 16 guns ; a bark, the Marigold, of 30 
tons and 16 guns ; the Swan, a store-ship, 50 tons and 5 small 
guns, and the Benedict, a pinnace of 15 tons and 1 gun. The 
crews numbered about 150. 

The fleet sailed to the Cape de Verde Islands, then across the 
Atlantic to the River Plate. At Port St. Julian, on the coast 
of Patagonia, the Swan and the Benedict, being unseaworthy, 
were broken up, and only three ships passed through the Straits 
of Magellan. Immediately afterwards a violent storm arose, 
during which the Marigold went down with all hands, and 
Wynter, in the Elizabeth, lost the Admiral and returned home. 
So with only one ship the undaunted Drake held on to Valparaiso. 
Here they found a large galleon, called the Great Captain of the 
South, which they captured, finding on board fine gold to the 
value of about £80,000 of our money, and a great cross of gold 
set with emeralds, on which was nailed a God of the same metal. 

Tarapaca was next visited, the port to which silver was 
brought down from the mountains to be shipped to Panama, 
and Drake secured a large quantity and shipped it. Another 
ship was captured north of Lima, near Cape San Francisco, with 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 37 

15,000 pesos* in pure wedges of gold, and a great gold crucifix 
set with emeralds as large as pigeons' eggs. Off Quito they 
overtook and captured the richest vessel in the South Sea, the 
Neustra Senora de la Concepcion, nicknamed the Cacafuego, or 
" Spitfire," richly laden with treasure. 

After the capture of the Cacafuego she was taken out to sea, 
and the treasure removed and stored on board Drake's ship. 

The exact amount has never been accurately ascertained. 
The narrative of the voyage published in 1628 says it consisted 
of thirteen chests of pieces of eight, eighty pounds of gold, and 
twenty-six pounds of silver, besides jewels and plate. 

The registered treasure alone was valued at 360,000, and the 
unregistered at 400,000 pesos ; the Golden Hind, to which name 
Drake had altered the Pelican, was practically ballasted with 
silver. 

The empty Cacafuego was allowed to sail away. Off the 
coast of Mexico, Drake met and captured another ship with a 
cargo of silks and porcelain from China, and took away the 
most valuable portions of the freight, including a golden crucifix 
set in goodly emeralds. From a ship from Manilla he took much 
merchandise and treasure, including a " falcon of gold with 
great emeralds in breast thereof," and from the Gualoleo a 
bushelful of silver reales and a gold chain and jewels. 

Having refitted in the bay of Canoa, he set off on his home- 
ward voyage across the Pacific and around the Cape of Good 
Hope, and arrived home in Plymouth Sound in September, 
1580, arriving at Deptford shortly after, where he was visited 
and knighted by the Queen. 

The story is taken up by documents in the Public Record 
Office, given in Appendix B. 

The Queen was delighted at his success, but the Spanish 
ambassador complained that he had information from his King 
that Drake had spoiled his subjects, that the spoil was of great 
importance, a great quantity of bullion and pearls taken in 
Mar del Sur belonging partly to the King and partly to his 
subjects, also that in fight Drake had cut off the hands of His 
Majesty's subjects, and he therefore demanded justice. f 

In reply to the demand of the ambassador, the Council ordered 
Edmund Tremayne, Clerk of the Privy Council, who was then 
living at Collacombe in Lamerton, to register the treasure, J 
but the Queen wrote him a private letter, which was to be kept 



* A peso was equal to about 6s. 
t State Papers, Foreign, 29 October, 1586. J Appendix B, No 3. 



38 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

most secret,* that Drake was to have access to it before this 
was done, and was also to be allowed to take £10,000 for him- 
self, which he did, and in addition removed some of the most 
precious items of gold and jewels for the Queen and others. 
The remainder was brought to London and lodged in the Tower, f 
The officers and crew of the Golden Hind unanimously swore 
that the accusations of the Spanish ambassador were false. \ 

In 1585 Drake again sailed to the West Indies, attacked and 
did great damage to the Spanish Settlements and shipping, and 
brought back treasure valued at £60,000, and tobacco. 

In 1587, when war between England and Spain was imminent, 
Drake was commissioned to forestall Philip and strike the first 
blow for the Queen ; his commission was to prevent the joining 
of the King of Spain's fleets out of their several ports, to cut off 
their provisions, to follow and worry them in case of an attack 
on England, to damage their trade, and to attack their ships in 
their own havens. 

On 1st April, 1587, he sailed from Plymouth, attacked the 
Spanish fleet in the harbour of Cadiz, sank and burnt thirty- 
three of them, several of them large, and captured four laden 
with provisions, carrying out his advice to " stop him (Philip) 
now, and stop him for ever," and there is little doubt that had 
his advice been taken to send a strong fleet to the coast of Spain 
in the spring of 1588, the Armada would never have sailed. 

After " singeing the King of Spain's beard " at home, he set 
sail for the Azores, to endeavour to intercept a rich carrack 
homeward bound from the East Indies, which had been winter- 
ing at Mozambique, called the San Felip, a source of special 
anxiety to the King of Spain. 

On 8th June, sixteen days out from St. Vincent, St. Michael's 
hove in sight. Here the San Felip was found and captured, 
" the King of Spain's own East India man, the greatest ship of 
all Portugal, richly laden," which he brought into Plymouth 
Sound on 25th June, 1587, and anchored her off Saltash in the 
Hamoaze, with a splendid booty and a reputation unsurpassed 
in Europe. In all these wars there was no campaign to match 
that of 1587. 

The San Felip was valued at : — § 

General Cargo .... £108,049 13 11 
Treasure and Jewels . . . 3,900 

Ship and Ordnance . . . 2,000 



£113,949 13 11 
representing over a million in present money. 

* Appendix B, No. 2. f Appendix B, No. 4. J Appendix B, No. 3. 
§ Appendix B, Nos. 5 and 6. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



39 



APPENDIX B. 
Extracts from Records in the Public Record Office. 

No. 1. 

Bernardino de Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, writes the 
King of Spain on 16th October, 1580, that — 

After Drake had landed the money he had stolen, he saw the 
Queen, and the Council ordered the money to be registered and 
handed over to the Queen's possession in the Tower ; but 
Leicester, Hatton, and Walsingham, being the principal owners 
in the venture, refused to sign the order, saying they would 
speak to the Queen first ; after they had done so she ordered 
the suspension of the letter, and that the rumour should be 
spread that Drake had not brought much money home {S.P., 
Spanish, Elizabeth, 1580, No. 44). 



No. 2. 

The Queen to Edmund Tremayne. 




Trustie and well beloved we greet you well, whereas by letters 
lately written unto you by oure commandment from secretarye 
Walsyngham you were wylled in owre name to give your 
assistance unto our well beloved subject Francys Drake, for 
the save bestowing of certayn bullyne lately by him brought 
into this oure realme, which our pleasure is shall nowe be sent 
up as you shall further understand by the seyd Drake, wherein 
you are to assist him according to suche dyrectyon as you shall 
receive from oure pr'y cowncell : These are therefore to let you 



40 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

understande yt we are pleased for certayn good reasons — that 
there shoold be lefte in the handes of the sayd Drake so muche 
of the sayd Bullyon by him brought home as may amount unto 
the somme of ten thousand powndes which we requyre you to 
see performed accordingly. And forasmoche as for sundrye 
good reasons we thinke yt verrye meet that the leving of the 
seyd somme in his handes shoold be kept most secreat to your 
selfe alone we therefor charge you that the some be used 
accordyngly whereof we need not to doubt having heretofore 
by former experience had so good proof of your service. Geven 
at owre Manner of Richemounde the 24th of Octobre in the 
22nd yeare of owre reygne (S.P.D., Elizabeth, Vol. 143, No. 30, 
24th Oct., 1580). 

No. 3. 

On 8th November, 1580, Edmund Tremayne writes to Wal- 
syngham from Colocumbe. He expresses his great satisfaction 
at having Mr. Christopher Harris associated with him in charge 
of the treasure brought home by Francis Drake. 

Harris he has long treated as a son, and Mr. Drake has also 
become of the same parentage. Has administered interro- 
gatories to the gentlemen and others of Drake's company as to 
the value of his captures reputed to the amount of one million 
and a half, the interrogatories being as follows : — 

Firstly, Whether Mr. Drake and bis company had taken from 
the King of Spain and his subjects in goulde and sylver to the 
value of one million and a half. 

Secondly, Whether they have in their voyage taken any ships 
or vessels of the said King or his subjects, and after sunk them 
with the men or marriners or not. 

Thirdly, Whether they had at any time on any ship killed 
any of the said King's subjects or had cut off their hands or 
arms or otherwise with cruelty mangled them, or any of them. 

Tremayne had also left the amount of £10,000 in Drake's 
hands selected by himself. 

Encloses. 

1. The 5th November, 1580. The register of such treasure as 
is delivered unto Chr. Harris Esq. to be safely conducted and 
delivered unto the Tower, with the number of peces in every 
pack and what they contain in weight at 5 score and 12 lbs. 
every hundred. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 41 

There were 46 packs of treasure averaging over 2 cwt. each, 
the total amount being 4 tons 15 cwt. 4 lbs. 

(Signed) 

p , c=p ^ 



Q^hirr: ha 



ctrr/s 



The answers to the interrogatories. 

Lawrence Elyot 

2. To the fyrst I saye that to the valew I cann saye nothinge, 
the thinge being unknowen unto me, only sylver and some gould 
their was taken but how moche I know not but a verie small 
some in respecte of that that is reported. 

To the second I confesse their weare shypps taken, but that 
any weare soncken with their men and mariners yt is altogether 
untrewe. 

To the thirde that to my knowledge their was no Spaniarde 
slaine by any of us, or had their armes or handes cutt off or 
otherwyse by any creweltie mangled or maimed. Only on man I 
remember was hurt in the face, Wch our Generall cawsed to be 
sent for and lodged him in his owne shipp, seet him at his owne 
table, and would not soffer him to depart before he was re- 
covered, and so sent him safe awaye. 

John Chester — 

To the fyrste, second, and third artycle do afyrme as ys above 
rehersed and wyll justyfye the same uppon my othe. 

Gregory Cary — 

To the fyrste, second, and third artycle do afyrme as above 
rehersed, and will justyfye the same uppon my othe. 



4 2 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



George Fortescu — 

To the fyrste, second, and third artycle do afyrme as above 
rehersed and will justyfye the same uppon my othe. 

And the like do all the rest afferme whose names do heare after 
folowe. 



Francis Fletcher 
Chrystopher Hals 
Thomas Hood 
Thomas Sothern 
Thomas Drake 
John Brewar 
Richard Cadwell 
Jhan Laus 
Bartel Myeus 

Gotfalck 
Grygorye Raymente Roger Player 



William Sholle 
Thomas Blacollers 
Thomas Mone 
Thomas Meckes 
Roger Kingesuod 
John Grepe 
Thomas Crane 
Willam Legee 



John Fowler 
Launsolet Garget 
Richard Writ 
Richard Clarke 
William Horsewill 
John Blacoler 
Powell Jemes 
John Kidde 



JohnMarten,Stewerd Richard Rowles 
Christefor Waspe Jeames Milles 
Simon W T oodd 
Thomas Hogges 
John Martyn 
John Watterton 



John Drake Thomas Haylston 

John Mariner Willan Smyth 

Necolas Mour Renold Danelles 

John Huse Thomas Markes 

Dennes Foster Robarte Pollimone 

(S.P.D., Elizabeth, Vol. 144, No. 17, II.) 

These names are those of the survivors of the first expedition 
which sailed round the world with Drake in the Pelican, after- 
wards named the Golden Hind. 

Amongst them Thomas Drake, the admiral's youngest brother, 
and John Drake, his page (S.P.D., Elizabeth, Vol. 144, No. 17). 

No. 4. 

The Quantity of the bullion brought into ye tower by Fr. Drake. 

Silver Bullion in Ingotes brought from Sion and laid up in a 
vaute under ye Jewell house there, weighted as followeth : — 

650 ingots weighing 22,899 lbs. 5 ozs. 

The course sylver otherwise called corrento reteined in little 
cakes and small broken pieces weighed 512 lbs. 6 ozs. 

24th Dec, 1580. Golde bullion reteined in ingottes and cakes 
remaining in four several bages conteining viz. 

lbs. ozs. 

. 26 



1. 15 parcels weighed together 

2. 10 

«3« ' 55 •>•> 3) 

4. 6 



32 
27 
14 



Hi 
11| 



Sum total of the weight of the same golde 101 lbs. 10 ozs. 



•a 



s*"«P 









ft r^ 









or- 4 




-^ UfrjLJ* t^H:if ^y^ f^&h^' £+. *;£■ ~i~,$ 
fy iff- ^ ^W fe tSft* 


















^ 



*4 -*»t~Vr^V 



5 










ROUND THE WORLD WITH DRAKE. 
THE CREW OF THE GOLDEN HIND. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



43 



Signed by- 



Richard Martyn Alderman. 



y^j gfe» 






Chris Harris. 
Endorsed in the back by Burghley. 

(S.P.D., Elizabeth, Vol. 144. No. 60.) 

No. 5. 
Extract from letter from Mendoza to the King of Spain, 
1581, Jan. 9th. 

" Drake is squandering more money than any man in England. 

He gave to the Queen the Crown which I described in a former 
letter as having been made here. She wore it on New Year's 
Day. It has in it five emeralds, three of them as long as a little 
fingure, whilst the two round ones are valued at 20,000 crowns, 
coming, as they do, from Peru. 

He has also given the Queen a diamond cross as a New Year's 
gift, as is the custom here, of the value of 5000 crowns." 

(S.P., Spanish, Elizabeth, 1581, No. 60.) 

No. 6. 
The San Felip. 

A note or inventory of a small casket with divers jewels 
viewed in the town of Saltash ; the said casket being garnished 
with gold with two keys and a small chain of gold to the same. 
The which casket and jewels Sir Francis Drake hath taken 
charge to deliver unto her majesty with his own hands. 

A Note or Inventorye of a small Caskett with divers Jewells 
viewed by us in the Towne of Saltashe the 6th of Julye, 1587, 
contayening as followeth : — 

Five fforkes of golde. 

Twelve haftes of golde for knyves to saye sixe of one sorte 
and sixe of another. 

One Chayne of golde with longe linkes and hookes. 

One chayne of golde with a tablett havinge a picture of Christe 
in gold. 

One chayne with a Tablett of crestall and a cross of golde. 

One chayne of golde of Esses with fower Diamondes and 
fower Rubves sett in a Tablett. 



44 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

One chayne of smale Beadestones of golde. 

One small chayne of golde with roughe linckes and a Tablett 
hanging unto it with the picture of Christ and our Ladye. 

Two pendens of golde for the eares. 

Three Bracelettes of golde eiche with a crosse of sondrye 
fashion. 

A girdle of Christall garnished with golde. 

A payer of Beades of Beniamyn garnished with golde. 

Three rings of golde with stones. 

One rounde hoope of golde inameled with blacke. 

One smale ring of golde with a Pear ell. 

Three heads and three rings of golde for walking staves. 

One boole of golde and five spoones of golde. 

Two pomanders, the one with a smale chayne of golde and 
garnished with golde. 

One pomander garnished with golde and a pearell hanginge 
to the same. 

One small Box with some Muske in it. 

A certayne quantitye in peces of Amber greece. 

One hundred eightye and nyne smale stones which wee esteme 
to be Garnettes. 

Thirtye Aggettes smale and greate. 

Eleaven other stones of a greene cullor with spottes of read. 

One Blood stone. 

One white clothe in the which there goeth diverse smale 
stones thought to be of smale valew. 

The said Caskett garnished with golde with two keyes and a 
smale chayne of golde to the same. The which caskett and 
Jewelles before rehearsaid Sir Fraunces Drake hath taken charge 
to deliyver unto her Majestie with his owne handes at this 
presente. 

John Gilbert. Thomas Gorges. Fred. Godolphen. 

. Edwd. Carye. John Hawkyns. Hy. Billensley. 

(S.P.D., Elizabeth, Vol. 202, No. 53, 11th July, 1587.) 

No. 7. 

An estimate of all the merchandise discharged out of the 
Carricke Called Ye St. Phillip in the Ryver of Saltashe. 

Imprimis. 6573 peces of Starcht calico cloth sounde and 
goode. 

1022 peces of Brod unstarcht calico sound and good. 
2778 peces of Callicos in papers sound and good. 
1452 peces of Callico Lawnes sound and good. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 45 

1705 peces of corse whole unstarcht calicos. 

1162 peces of corse calicos of 3 to 2 sound and good. 

7423 peces of corse calicos of 3 to 1 sound and good. 

418 peces of corse calicos towells sound and good. 

410 peces of paynted pintados sound and good. 

98 peces of calico diepers for cubbord clothes. 

18 peces of fine calicos called callikens sound and good. 

78 bundells of fine whyte China silke sound and good. 

90 peces of stitched callicos called Boultells. 

214 peces of cullerd Buckerams sound and good. 

72 peces of cullerd Sipres sound and good. 

5 Quiltes whereof 4 of callico and 1 of sarsenett. 
12 carpets of turkey and other thromba worke. 

10 striped carpettes of another sort. 

47 peces of collerd singell taffytas sound and good. 

11 peces of changable silke and cruell boratos. 
49 peces of whyte sarsenettes sound and good. 

All the foresaid priced and valued by estimation at 

15,576 10 8 
Secondly. 

40 bundells of fine whyte china Silk much taynted. 
1105 peces of starcht Callicos much spoyled. 
636 peces of starcht Callicos more spoyled with wett. 
155 peces of unstarcht Callicos spoyled with wett. 
298 peces of Callico Lawnes all spoyled with wett. 
67 peces of Callicos in papers spoyled with wett. 
44 peces of Cullerd Sipres spoyled with wett. 

6 peces of Cullerd Tynsell Taffetas wett. 

29 peces of whyte sarsenett wet and taynted. 

All the foresaid goodes of taynted ware 

amount to 887 13 4 

Thirdly. 

-420 bales of Indigo blew valued at 36 li. a bale 

amount to 15,120 

330 tonnes of Dry pepper valued at 130 li. the 

tonne 42,900 

124 tonnes of wet pepper valued at 70 li. the 

tonne 8,680 

216 Kyntalls of Symamon I say 218 valued at 

28 li. the Kintall . . " . . . 6,104 

105 Kyntalls of Cloves valued at 20 li. the 

Kyntall 2,100 



46 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

1800 pounds of Mace in 6 chestes valued at 100 li. 

the cheste 600 

2000 pounds of Beniamin valued at 28 li. the C 

amounts to 560 

1800 pounds of China in 3 pipes valued at 100 li. 

a pipe 300 

70 Kyntalls of Lacry valued at 4 li. the kyntall 280 

15 Pipes of Saltpeter valued at 30 li. the pipe 450 
12 hundreth of wax in 2 pipes valued at 20 li. 

a pipe . 40 

2 pipes of Nutmegg valued at 75 li. the pipe 150 

80 tonnes of Ibony in 3560 endes valued at 10 

li. a tonne 800 

6 Chestes of fine whyte china Silke unsene 

valued at 1,200 

(Which chests are sold to John Hills, but not 
delivered.) 

For dyvers drughes and other odd things not 

particularized, but say . . . . 100 



Some total of all the things therein . . 95,848 4 

Fourthly. 

39 J tonnes of pepper left at Saltashe at 130 li. 

ye tonne 5,135 

19 C of Symamon left also at Saltashe at 28 li. 

the C 532 

I chest of Mace Weight 3. 2. 0. valued being at 

Saltashe . . . . . . 100 

12 C of Cloves left at Saltashe valued at 20 li. 
the C 240 

II C of Indico blue left at Saltashe valued at 

30 li. theC 330 

Lastly sold at Saltashe sundry parcells of wares 

amounting to 5,864 9 11 



So the totall of the whole amounts to - . . 108,049 13 11 

Fras. Drake. Thos. Georges. Edward Carye. 

Henry Billingsley. 

{S.P.D., Elizabeth, Vol. 204, No. 9, 8th Oct., 1587.) 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 47 



Additional Note by the Editor. 

The list of names given on p. 42 probably includes all the 
survivors of the famous voyage round the world, except possibly 
a few boys and such like, for, with Drake himself, it numbers 
fifty, and we know that, when the ship was in danger of wreck 
off Celebes, the crew numbered fifty-eight in all. A list given 
by Purchas, of thirteen " men noated to have compassed the 
world with Drake," includes " George a musician," but it also 
includes three who are known to have died on the voyage, so 
that we cannot be sure that George reached England again. It 
will be noticed that the first twenty on the list signed their own 
names, showing that they were educated men ; and the first 
four, who deposed separately, were gentlemen adventurers, 
belonging to good families. 

Lawrence Elyot was apparently the eldest son of Lawrence 
Elyot of Godalming, for we find that his youngest brother, 
Edward (aged fifty-six in 1620), settled at Tavistock, possibly 
through Drake's influence. 

John Chester was the son of Sir William Chester, a former Lord 
Mayor of London, and a celebrated merchant trading with 
Russia, Africa, and the Levant. He went on Hawkins' voyage 
to the West Indies, 1564-5, and on the present voyage was 
captain of the Swan fly-boat, which was broken up in Patagonia. 

Gregory Cary is not so easy to identify, because there were 
three of that name about the same date, but it seems most likely 
that he was the son of Thomas Cary, and brother of Sir George 
Cary, of Cockington, and died in 1616. 

George Fortescue may have been the son of Richard Fortescue 
of Filleigh, who in Vivian's Visitations of Devon is described as 
" George Fortescue of Combe," and is stated to have been living 
in 1570, and to have married Joan, daughter of Raymond 
Norleigh. He was captain of the bark Bonner in Drake's 
expedition of 1585-6, and died or was killed on the voyage. 

Francis Fletcher was the chaplain, who wrote the best account 
of the voyage, with the title, " The World Encompassed." 

Christopher Hals was almost certainly a son of John Hals, Esq. , 
of Kenedon in Lamerton, near Tavistock. A " Christopher 
Hall," probably the same man, was master of the galleon Leices- 
ter, the flag-ship in Fenton's abortive voyage in 1582. 

Thomas Hood was appointed master of the Golden Hind in 
place of Thomas Cuttle. He and Thomas Blacoller went as 
pilots, " which had passed the streights and knew the harbours," 
on Fenton's voyage, and he again went as " pilot for the 
streights " in the Earl of Cumberland's expedition of 1586. He 



48 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

was one of the party that went ashore with Drake at Port St. 
Julian, when Robert Winter and Oliver the master-gunner were 
killed by the natives. 

Thomas Drake was the captain's youngest brother, and the 
only one of the family who left any descendants. He superseded 
Thomas Doughty as captain of the Portuguese prize ship captured 
off Cape Verde Islands, and was one of the above-mentioned 
landing party at Port St. Julian. He was afterwards captain 
of the Thomas in Drake's expedition of 1585-6. 

John Brewer was the trumpeter, and was also one of the land- 
ing party. He and John Thomas, captain of the Marigold, 
which went down with all hands after passing the Straits of 
Magellan, were said to be Christopher Hatton's men, and it was 
through his complaint that Doughty was brought to trial and 
judgment. He was also one of the landing party at Mocha, 
when other members of the crew were captured and killed by 
the natives. 

Jhan Laus and Bartel Myaus Gotfalck were probably Dutch- 
men, and it is not unlikely that they were the cartographers and 
artists who aroused the admiration and apprehension of Don 
Francisco de Zarate, for the Dutch were then celebrated for 
their maps and charts. There were, however, other foreigners 
on board, for we read of " great Nele, a Dane," who was a gunner, 
and " little Nele, a Fleming." In giving an account of his 
involuntary visit to Drake on the Golden Hind, Don Francisco 
wrote : "He has two draughtsmen who portray the coast in its 
own colours, a thing which troubled me much to see, because 
everything is put so naturally, that any one following will have 
no difficulty." 

Gregory Raymente was one of the landing party at Mocha ; 
he was probably the " Mr. Raymund " who went with Sir 
Richard Grenvile to Virginia in 1585. 

John Drake was the captain's page and cousin, who won the 
gold chain for first sighting the Cacafuego. Born in 1564, he 
was only sixteen years old when he came home, and in 1582 he 
went as captain of the Francis in Fenton's voyage, with his old 
shipmates Hood and Blacoller, and was captured by the natives 
near the River Plate. 

John Mariner was one of the landing party at Mocha. 

John Huse was probably the same as the " John Hewes " who 
went with Captains Amadas and Barlow to Virginia in 1585. 

Thomas Blacoller was a Plymouth men, and was boatswain or 
mate of the Golden Hind. He is sometimes called Thomas 
" Blackley " or " Blakeley," which, according to a narrative by 
John Drake, signifies " black collar." He and Hood were 



The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 49 

recommended by " Captain Francis " as pilots for Fenton's 
voyage, but he was apparently captured by the natives, like 
John Drake, although the writer says that on his arrival at 
Plymouth he " dined at M. Blaccollers, and made many saluta- 
tions with divers gentlemen." 

Thomas Mone or Moon is perhaps the most interesting member 
of the crew. As ship's carpenter on the Swan, in the expedition 
of 1572, he scuttled his ship by Drake's orders. On this expedi- 
tion he was originally captain of the pinnace Benedict, re-named 
Christopher, and he distinguished himself on several occasions by 
his boldness and readiness. He is the hero of the story of board- 
ing the Spanish ship in Valparaiso harbour, when he laid about 
him with his fists, shouting in broken Spanish, " Down, dog, 
down ! " and soon had all the astounded Spaniards clapped 
under hatches. He it was, too, who pursued a gentleman 
Spaniard at Guatulco, and " entreated " him to leave behind 
him " a chain of gold and some other jewels." He was after- 
wards captain of the Francis on Drake's expedition of 1585-6, 
and died of wounds received at Cartagena. 

John Grepe or Gripe was one of the landing party at Mocha, 
and appears in Purchas's list. 

John Marten was stated to have been " especially privey to 
this voyadge," and probably had charge of the treasure. A 
" John Martin " was captain of the Benjamin on the expedition 
of 1585-6, though this may not have been the same man. 

Of the rest little is known, but " Crane " appears also in 
Purchas's list ; Nicholas Mower, Thomas Meeke, Launce Garrat, 
and Simon Wood made depositions in the matter of Thomas 
Doughty ; and William Legge appears in the list of " partyes 
that were privey to this voyadge." This list also contains the 
name of the younger William Hawkins, son of William who was 
Mayor of Plymouth at the time of the Armada, and nephew of 
the more celebrated Sir John Hawkins ; he certainly started on 
the voyage, but as his name does not appear on the list of 
survivors, he presumably returned with Captain John Winter 
in the Elizabeth, and he went afterwards on Fenton's expedition 
as Lieutenant-General. 

It may be pointed out that Colonel Clifford's high estimate 
of Drake's character receives ample confirmation from the 
testimony of the Spaniards themselves, for we have the strongest 
evidence in his favour not only in the well-known letter of Don 
Francisco de Zarate, owner and master of one of the vessels 
captured b}^ Drake, but also in many additional letters discovered 
by Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, the distinguished archaeologist, in various 
parts of the world, and recently communicated by her to the 

4 



50 The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 

Hakluyt Society — " all breathing a high spirit of courtesy and 
recognizing the same spirit in Drake himself." Mrs. Nuttall 
also establishes the facts that Drake held the Queen's licence, 
that his voyage around the world was undertaken for a totally 
different motive from that generally assumed, that it was really 
a voyage of discovery, and may be regarded as marking the 
date of the birth of the English colonial policy. 

Other valuable evidence is provided by a letter written by 
Edmund Tremayne to Sir Francis Walsingham in connection 
with the Queen's commands to him to allow Drake to take 
£10,000 worth of bullion from the Golden Hind (See Appendix B, 
No. 2, p. 39). Tremayne writes as follows : — 

" I see nothing to charge Mr. Drake further than he is inclined 
to charge himself, and withal I must say he is inclined to advance 
the value to be delivered to her Majesty, and seeking in general 
to recompense all men that have been in the case dealers with 
him. As I dare take an oath, he will rather diminish his own 
portion than leave any of them unsatisfied. And for his mariners 
and followers I have seen here as eye-witness, and have heard 
with my ears, such certain signs of goodwill as I cannot yet see 
that any of them will leave his company. The whole course of 
his voyage hath showed him to be of great valour ; but my hap 
has been to see some particulars, and namely in this discharge of 
his company as doth assure me that he is a man of great govern- 
ment, and that by the rules of God and his book, so as proceeding 
on such foundation his doings cannot but prosper." 

R. P. C. 

Drake's Treasure. 

With the fruit of Aladdin's garden clustering thick in her hold, 
With rubies awash in her scuppers and her bilge ablaze with gold, 
A world in arms behind her to sever her heart from home, 1 
The Golden Hynde drove onward over the glittering foam. 

In the crimson dawn, 
Ringed with the lonely pomp of sea and sky, 
The naked-footed seamen bathed knee-deep 
In gold and gathered up Aladdin's fruit — ■ 
All-coloured gems — and tossed them in the sun. 
The hold like one great elfin orchard gleamed 
With dusky globes and tawny glories piled, 
Hesperian apples, heap on mellow heap, 
Rich with the hues of sunset, rich and ripe 
And ready for the enchanted cider-press ; 
An Emperor's ransom in each burning orb ; 
A kingdom's purchase in each clustered bough ; 
The freedom of all slaves in every chain. 

Alfred Noyes. 

[From "Collected Poems "—Blackwood.} 



The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 51 



A Devonian " Common of Saints." 

By the Right Hon. THE VISCOUNT ST. CYRES, M.A., J.P. 

Extracted by permission from his Presidential Address to the Devon- 
shire Association at Exeter, on July 23rd, 1912. 

In the absence of the past President of the Devonshire 
Association, Colonel Clifford, Chairman of the London 
Devonian Association, was asked to preside at the opening meet- 
ing and introduce the new President, Viscount St. Cyres. Colonel 
Clifford said he accepted with pleasure the honour, because he 
realized and desired to acknowledge that it had been done as a 
compliment to the London Devonian Association, and he regarded 
the invitation as a mark of approval by the Devonshire Associa- 
tion of their existence and objects — both their objects at home 
and their world-wide objects — which they trusted would in time 
be adopted by all English shires, and ultimately form a link in 
a chain that would sympathetically bind together the English- 
speaking race. In introducing Lord St. Cyres, which was purely 
a formal matter, for his lordship was already well known to the 
audience, he reminded them that his public school was Eton, and 
his college at Oxford was Merton, that he took a First-Class 
in Modern History, and was a Senior Student of Christ Church. 
The publications recorded against his name were " Francois de 
Fenelon " in 1901, and "Pascal" in 1909; and, as regards 
recreations, he had described himself as "an unskilled agricul- 
tural labourer." Colonel Clifford concluded by expressing his 
opinion that, in the selection of a father and a grandfather, his 
lordship was to be congratulated, for, although he (the chairman) 
had not the personal acquaintance of the present Lord Iddesleigh, 
he knew his father — Sir Stafford Northcote, the first Lord 
Iddesleigh — and he would like to say that he was one of the 
most lovable men that ever lived, that he was the soul of honour, 
and that he was a pillar of the State. 

After some preliminary remarks, Lord St. Cyres proceeded 
with his address as follows : — 

"The historian of European thought in the nineteenth century 
set himself to sing the praises of its great pioneers : he ended by 
deciding that we owe quite as much to those whose names we 
never heard of, as to those whose fame is in everyone's mouth. 
The bulk of a nation's thought, he says, is made up of hidden 
and forgotten efforts, of which only a small fraction rises to the 
surface — vague yearnings of thousands, who never succeed 
either in satisfying or expressing them — hundreds of failures 



52 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

that never get known. Yet he goes on to urge that these un- 
counted hours of seemingly fruitless labour are not really wasted, 
inasmuch as it really is, not the sacrifice (as in brute Nature) but 
the co-operation of the many that makes the few succeed — 
inasmuch as excellence is the prize of united effort, so that many 
must run in order that one may reach a higher goal. 

" Memorable in themselves, these words of Dr. Merz have a 
special value for me, because they at once suggest a text for my 
address. It is, indeed, clearly impossible to revive the memories 
of the forgotten — of the Miltons who were not necessarily 
inglorious, because they were mute — of the Hampdens, guiltless 
alike of blood and popular applause. But it seems right to mark 
this, our Jubilee year, by celebrating what the old liturgies call a 
Common of Saints — to pass in brief review those of our country- 
men who have deserved well of Devonshire in the past. And 
since time would fail me, were I to try to mention all, I propose 
to invite your attention to the careers of a selected number, 
chosen almost at random from walks of life as numerous and 
diversified as possible. I shall not deal much with the very 
greatest, for they deserve — if I may still speak in liturgical terms 
— a Proper Office of their own, and most of them have received 
appropriate commemoration from former Presidents of our 
Association. Do not, therefore, expect from me stale praises of 
the Elizabethan seamen — Drake and Raleigh, Hawkins and 
Grenville — our county's most shining heroes. Nor shall I try 
to trace how Devonians have influenced the development of 
English prose from the times of the judicious Richard Hooker of 
Exeter down to those of James Antony Froude of Dartington. 
I shall pass by the long roll of illustrious Churchmen, who have 
never been wanting to Devonshire since the day when Crediton 
gave birth to St. Boniface, Apostle of Germany, till the time 
when Frederick Temple of Culmstock saw the light. And I shall 
steer clear of the still more seductive task of showing how deeply 
Ottery St. Mary modified the whole trend of English thought, 
when she brought into the world Samuel Taylor Coleridge, a true 
master-mind of the nineteenth century. All these deserve their 
Proper Office, and from them I turn back to my Common of 
Saints. But here I am at once confronted with a difficulty. 
What are the leading characteristics of our countymen ? What 
are the leading characteristics of our county itself ? We natur- 
ally think of it as an enchanted county, flowing not only with 
milk and honey, but with cider and Devonshire cream — a happy 
land, as wrote the great Alexander Pope two hundred years ago, 
fertile in its productions, abounding in its wits, delicious in its 
ciders. Such, however, is by no means the reputation that 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 53 

Devonshire bore in days gone by. Till the time of the Tndors 
our county called up the image of vast woods and marshes, as 
yet unreclaimed from the hand of Nature. Communications 
were difficult and dangerous, for road-building was still in its 
infancy. Even under Charles II., the poet Herrick — a Cockney 
by birth, but Vicar of Dean Prior, near Ashburton, by adoption — 
said that the men of Devon were as rocky as their ways. Even 
agriculture was little developed : the great mediaeval chronicler, 
William of Malmesbury, calls what are now the rich pasture- 
lands round Exeter, squalidum et jejunum, unfertile and unkempt. 
Necessarily the amenities of civilization had little chance of 
travelling so far west, and the Devonians of the seventeenth 
century were deemed a rude and unfriendly race. Thus Lord 
Clarendon accounts for what he calls the rough and doubtful 
ways of General Monk — the leading figure of Charles II. 's 
restoration — by saying that he had had no other education than 
Dutch and Devonshire. His eminent contemporary, Anne, 
Lady Fanshawe, pronounces the Devonians a crafty and cen- 
sorious race, and Herrick is severer still. During one of the 
periodical tiffs that even now sometimes disturb the peace of 
country parishes, the reverend poet denounced his flock as — 
' A people currish, churlish as the seas, 
And rude almost as rudest savages.' 

Even in the days of George II., London wits still made game of 
our primitive and unpolished ways. • A sweet county,' snorted 
the actor-epicure John Quin, on his return from eating John 
Dories at Plymouth. ' No, sir ! There is nothing sweet in 
Devonshire, except the vinegar.' But Quin was a hypercritical 
gourmet, and long before his day the current of refinement had 
begun to penetrate the West. In 1720 Dr. Stukely wrote highly 
of the citizens of Exeter. They were industrious and courteous — 
the fair sex most truly so, as well as numerous. And about the 
time of the French Revolution the historian Polwhele pronounced 
a more considered judgment. He admitted that some of the 
out-of-the-way Dartmoor squires were much as their forefathers 
had been in the time of Queen Elizabeth. They were hospitable, 
but not polite — tenacious of real or imaginary rights — intem- 
perate in the pursuits of the field, and disposed to tyrannize 
over the caitiffs who killed game. But he goes on to urge that 
these backwoods barons by no means represented the general 
level of the county. Nowhere else were so many polished 
gentlemen as in Devon, though he adds that they were dis- 
tinguished by three peculiarities : They had very large fortunes ; 
they took small trouble to make themselves popular ; and they 
gave little of their time to public business. If the first of these 



54 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

characteristics no longer universally applies in the days of Mr. 
Lloyd George, we may at any rate congratulate ourselves that 
neither do the other two under the Lord-Lieutenancy of Lord 
Fortescue. 

" Nor need we distress ourselves too much if our forefathers 
seemed a little rough and boorish. Their isolation from the 
main currents of English life, and especially their perpetual 
struggle to subdue Nature — whether by reclaiming marshes and 
forests, or by gaining a scanty living on the high seas — may not 
have bred good manners, but they certainly nursed qualities 
more heroic. The independence of mind, the dauntless trust in 
their own strong right arm, the determination to succeed against 
all odds that made the great Elizabethan seamen, will all be 
found in lesser measure scattered abroad among all Devonians 
of the past, whatever their class and whatever their calling. 
They are as marked in the most peaceful as in the combatant 
walks of life. Who is more self-reliant, more determined to 
succeed than a successful lawyer ? And Devonshire has always 
been famous for the number of her legal sons. ' This county,' 
says the illustrious author of the • Worthies of England,' ' seems 
innated with a genius to study law, none in England (Norfolk 
only excepted) affording so many legal men. Cornwall indeed 
hath a famine, but Devonshire makes a feast of such who, by the 
practice of the law, have raised great estates.' It may interest 
you if I run shortly over some of the more famous names that 
provide our county with her banquet. Until the Reformation 
the first service daily performed in Exeter Cathedral was a Mass 
for the repose of the soul of Henry de Bracton, a native of the 
Barnstaple district, and an eminent judge under King Henry III. 
But he was still more eminent as a legal writer. His treatise De 
Legibus et Consuetudinibus Anglice is generally reckoned as the 
first attempt to treat the whole extent of English law in a manner 
both systematic and practical. Nearly two hundred years later 
the village of Westcote, also near Barnstaple, gave birth to 
another famous legal writer. This was Sir Thomas Littleton, a 
judge under Edward IV., and author of a famous treatise on 
Tenures. Edited by the famous Chief Justice Coke, it became — 
under the common designation of Coke on Littleton — the 
standard treatise on the subject until quite modern times. And 
Littleton proved himself a worthy successor of Bracton. Legal 
historians declare that probably no law-book ever contained so 
much of the substance with so little of the show of learning, or so 
happily avoided pedantic formalism without forfeiting precision 
of statement. While Littleton was thus bringing light into the 
thorny mazes of mediaeval land law, a contemporary Devonian 






The Devonian Year Book, 1913 55 

lawyer was expounding questions still weightier and more 
attractive. This was Sir John Fortescue of Nethercombe, Lord 
Chief Justice of England under Henry VI., and one of the wisest 
counsellors of that unhappy sovereign. His treatise on the 
Governance of England is the first attempt to do what Walter 
Bagehot and James Lowell have in modern times completely 
accomplished — namely, to distil the spirit of the English Consti- 
tution into clear and simple language intelligible to everyone. 
And it may be added that he, though an ardent supporter of the 
Lancastrian cause during the Wars of the Roses, was probably 
the only actor in the struggle who really understood what either 
side was fighting for. 

" Bracton, Littleton, and Fortescue all belonged to the North 
of Devon : our next generation of legal worthies all hail from 
the neighbourhood of Tavistock. Elizabethan lawyers long 
remembered Mr. Justice Glanville, who lives in history by his 
memorable death-bed declaration that he had set himself all his 
judicial life to so administer justice as conscious that he would 
himself come to judgment, and all his judgments be judged over 
again. His son, also an eminent judge, was still more dis- 
tinguished as a politician — he was one of the principal moderating 
influences during the Civil War. In this he was ably seconded 
by a more striking figure, also a native of Tavistock. This was 
Serjeant John Maynard, famous alike as one of the most learned 
of English lawyers, and one of the longest lived. He started 
presiding in the Court of Chancery at the age of eighty-six, a 
record that puts both Lord Eldon and Lord Halsbury to shame. 
No wonder that, When the brutal Judge Jeffreys told him that 
his memory was failing, he answered that that was certainly 
true, but that he had forgotten more law than his Lordship ever 
knew. Equally well known is his famous answer to William III., 
who congratulated him on his great age. He replied by thanking 
his Highness for coming over, as he was afraid he was going to 
outlive the law itself. But perhaps his most remarkable exploit 
was his last will and testament. The last few months of his life 
he spent in deliberately drafting a will that would force his 
executors to raise a number of moot points of law which had 
troubled him in his lifetime. Such entire devotion to the law 
met its due reward. At his funeral the preacher described the 
progress of the deceased Serjeant's soul toward the realms of 
bliss— how he was subpoenaed to the Great Assize by a writ of 
habeas corpus ad judicandum cum causa — how he found his 
Judge his advocate — nonsuited the Devil — obtained a liberate 
from all his infirmities, and put on for ever the long robe of glory. 

'"Among the hearers of this sermon was a young law-student 



56 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

from Exeter, Peter King, son of a grocer in the High Street by 
his marriage with a sister of the philosopher John Locke. King 
was destined to rise even higher in his profession than Maynard. 
Aided by his uncle, Locke, who had considerable influence with 
the WHig aristocracy, he went to the Bar, rose to be Attorney- 
General, in which capacity he led for the Crown in the famous 
prosecution of Dr. Sacheverell, was made Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas, and finally reached the Woolsack in the last 
years of George I. Writing of his elevation, Lord Harvey, no 
very lenient critic, says that he was perhaps the only instance 
that can be given of a man raised from the most mean and 
obscure condition to the highest dignity in the State without the 
malice of one enemy ever pretending to insinuate that the 
partiality of his friends, in any one step of his rise, had pushed 
him beyond his merit. He was made Chancellor as much by the 
voice of the public as by the hand of power. Nor were King's 
energies bounded merely by the four walls of his Court-house. 
A nephew of John Locke could hardly fail to be interested in 
theological speculation, and King, in his younger day, had been 
a friend of the celebrated deist, Matthew Tindal, also a Devon- 
shire man, and son of a vicar of Bere Alston. King's theology 
shows much the same characteristics as his law. Rejecting the 
extravagances of Tindal as completely as the rival extravagances 
of his old enemy, Dr. Sacheverell, he ranks as one of the soundest 
and the most enlightened of the older school of liberal theologians 
in this country ; and his little History of the Primitive Church, 
the work of his old age, was in common circulation until quite 
modern times. Indeed, it is perhaps as a founder of the Broad 
Church party that he chiefly merits remembrance : he was too 
modest and conscientious to be a great Lord Chancellor. ' He 
had such a diffidence of himself,' says Lord Harvey, ' that he 
did not dare to do right, for fear of doing wrong. Decrees were 
always extorted from him ; and, had he been let alone, he would 
never have given any suitor his due, for fear of giving him what 
was not so.' 

" If Lord King was slow and full of self-distrust, another dis- 
tinguished son of Exeter presently came forward to keep the 
judicial balance even, and decide the weightiest causes without 
one ounce of hesitation as to his own capacity to try them. This 
was Sir Vicary Gibbs, also the son of an Exeter tradesman, who 
flourished during the days of the French Revolution and Napo- 
leon. I fear that he did not leave behind him a reputation for 
personal attractiveness. His appearance was anything but 
prepossessing. He was scarcely more than a dwarf in stature ; 
a contemporary describes his frame as meagre and attenuated, 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 57 



and says that he looked plain in his wig, and ugly out of it. He 
was embittered by having had to win his way forwards by dint 
of a hard struggle with fortune. During his early days at the 
Bar he only left his chambers once a day, and that was to eat 
minced veal, which he found at once the cheapest and most 
digestible of foods. Becoming Attorney-General a few years 
after the head of a King of France had fallen on the scaffold, he 
was the official spokesman of a Government pledged to root out 
French ideas as it would have rooted out the plague. Let a 
man publicly express the mildest criticism of the Cabinet, and 
the odds were that Sir Vicary would at once indict him for 
sedition. Naturally the chief victims of his vigilance were the 
writers for the Press. In those days fifty-two newspapers were 
published in London, and at one moment Gibbs had twenty-six 
of them under prosecution at one and the same time. All were 
placed on the horns of a dilemma. If they apologized, the 
Attorney-General said that he would not allow a newspaper to 
squirt venom at the Ministry, and then nauseate it with unctuous 
flattery. If the editor stuck by his guns and refused to apologize, 
Gibbs called down all the artillery of the law on so hardened an 
offender. There was great relief in Fleet Street when he event- 
ually left the Attorney-Generalship for the Bench. But Fleet 
Street has not spared his memory, and he figures in the most 
lurid trappings in the memoirs of the time. ' Society,' says one 
observer, ' did not hold a more disagreeable man. Sneer and 
ill-nature appeared to have taken settled possession of his 
countenance, and he exercised both with untiring perseverance. 
His laugh was a hysteric affection unmasked by cheerfulness or 
good-humour. No joke, or other sally of wit, was ever known to 
escape him ; and to anything bordering on pleasantry he was 
not only an utter stranger, but his countenance prohibited 
every attempt at it by others.' After so terrific a portrait it 
seems almost ludicrous to add that even Sir Vicary had his good 
points. He was an excellent lawyer — he was (strangely enough) 
remarkably merciful to prisoners in days when mercy seldom 
had her home in our criminal courts. And, mindful of his own 
early struggles, he was a very good friend to many young bar- 
risters whose brains were fuller than their purses. One of these 
proteges well deserves our notice. Like King and Gibbs himself, 
Robert Gifford was the son of an Exeter tradesman, who rose 
with astonishing rapidity frcm St. John's Hospital School to the 
Mastership of the Rolls and a peerage, and had Deen designated 
by the great Lord Eldon as his successor in the Chancellorship, 
when the sudden epidemic of cholera claimed him as its victim, 
and he died prematurely at the age of forty-seven. 



58 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

"If forty-seven years were enough to bring Gifford from a trades- 
man's back-parlour to the shadow of the Woolsack, a slightly 
longer spell of life enabled another young Devonian to grave a 
more enduring monument on the history of English law. This 
was Francis Buller, a younger son of the then Squire of Downes, 
near Crediton. Buller's career shows a precocity almost worthy 
of the Elizabethan age. At seventeen he married the daughter 
and heiress of Sir John Yarde of Churston, and thus became the 
founder of the family that now reigns at Lupton. At thirty- two 
he was raised to the Bench, thus becoming by far the youngest 
judge of modern times. This rapid promotion he owed to the 
favour of Lord Chief Justice Mansfield, greatest of English 
lawyers, and he narrowly escaped becoming the Lord Chief 
Justice's successor. Indeed, this prize would certainly have 
fallen to his grasp had not William Pitt thought him too much 
of a Whig partisan. ' The thing stands this way,' said the 
Prime Minister. ' It must be either Buller or Kenyon. Kenyon 

drinks, and Buller's corrupt. Not but that there isn't a d d 

lot of corruption about Kenyon's drunkenness, and of drunken- 
ness about Buller's corruption.' But in those days drunkenness 
was a venial fault in a judge — and, indeed, in a Prime Minister. 
Was it not said that the country paid a million for every bottle 
of port drunk by Mr. Pitt himself ? So the Chief Justiceship 
went to Kenyon, and Buller was consoled with a peerage and 
with a posthumous reputation second only to Mansfield's own. 
The excellence of his law it is scarcely possible to overstate : his 
doubts, as an eminent critic said, were worth more than anyone 
else's certainties. Now and then, perhaps, he suffered a little 
from the passion of legal injustice — from the temptation to let 
some quibbling technicality upset the fair and reasonable settle- 
ment of a case ; and one of his most famous dicta I tremble even 
to repeat in the era of Miss Pankhurst. It was to the effect that 
a husband had a perfect right to beat his wife, so long as he used 
for the purpose a stick no thicker than his thumb. Not that 
this sufficiently barbarous aphorism in any way reflects his 
general character. Unlike Sir Vicary Gibbs, he Was genial and 
courteous in society, though his conversation may have seemed 
to frivolous minds a little severe ; for he said that he had early 
entered into a recognizance with himself never to think or talk of 
anything but law. And when preachers discoursed to him of 
immortality and the glories of a future life, he answered that 
this life here below was good enough for him. What could any- 
one want better than to sit in court all day, trying cases with a 
jury, and play whist all night ? 

" With Francis Buller I may conclude this survey of Devonshire 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 59 

legal worthies. Not that I have by any means exhausted the 
list. I have said no word about the great eighteenth century 
advocate, John Dunning of Ashburton, whom an ungainly person, 
a husky voice, and a strong West-country accent did not prevent 
from being the foremost man of the Bar during the earlier years 
of George III. And I have similarly passed over an equally 
famous lawyer of later date, Sir William Follett of Topsham, 
who was said to be able to invest an Inland Revenue case with 
all the tragic interest of King Lear or Hamlet. Nor do I propose 
to trespass into modern times, though I cannot help mentioning 
the fact that Ottery St. Mary is unique among the towns of 
England. The birthplace of the Coleridges alone can show a 
succession of three generations — father, son and grandson — on 
the Bench of the High Court. To the Coleridges also we in- 
directly owe another eminent legal worthy. It was due to his 
brother-in-law, Sir John Coleridge, that Mr. Justice Patteson 
settled at Feniton Court, near Honiton, and thus enables us to 
claim for Devon one of the noblest of her children, his son, John 
Coleridge Patteson, the martyred Bishop of Melanesia. And I 
think that, so long as a Halsbury continues to represent us in 
the House of Lords, a Coleridge in the Court of King's Bench, 
and an Eve in the Court of Chancery, we may very well feel that 
old Fuller's declaration is still as true as ever, and that our 
country is still innated with a singular genius to study law. 

"There is, however, one objection to a state of things otherwise 
so eminently desirable. Any publisher will tell us that the 
biographies of eminent lawyers never sell, because they are all 
exactly alike. To correct in some degree this impression of 
sameness, I propose to carry your attention abruptly to an 
eminent Devonian, whose fame and achievements are unique. 
Everyone knows that Caliph Omar burnt down the Alexandrian 
library ; everyone knows that Mr. Andrew Carnegie is nowadays 
making tardy reparation for the Caliph's sacrilege ; and every- 
one has heard of the Bodleian Library at Oxford. But very 
few of those who visit Duke Humphrey's Gallery know that it 
owes its existence to Sir Thomas Bodley, an Exeter man. Born 
just before the close of the reign of Henry VIII. , he was forced 
by the ardent Protestantism of his parents to fly to the Continent 
during the reign of Queen Mary, and began his education abroad . 
Under Queen Elizabeth he returned, entered Oxford, and became 
a Fellow of Merton. But his ambitions were too wide to be 
bounded by the four walls of a college. He was interested in 
modern, as well as ancient literature, and he had aspirations 
towards entering public life. Marriage with a lady of fortune 
opened him the doors of Queen Elizabeth's Court ; he was sent 



6o The Devonian Year Book, 19 13 



abroad on various embassies, and finally became English minister 
in Holland during the latter years of the great struggle between 
the Dutch and Spain. Hard in itself, this position was rendered 
all the more thorny by the continual bickerings between Burleigh 
and Lord Essex, and Bodley ended by throwing it up in disgust 
and retiring into private life. ' I concluded at the last,' he 
says, ' to set up my staff at the library door in Oxon, being 
thoroughly persuaded that in my solitude and surcease from 
Commonwealth affairs, I could not busy myself to better purpose 
than by reducing that place, which then in every part lay ruined 
and waste, to the use of students.' Nowadays it seems strange 
that the library of one of the foremost universities in the world 
could even for one moment be allowed to lie ruined and waste — 
but so it was at Oxford in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The 
large store of books given to the University by Humphrey, Duke 
of Gloucester, had been scattered to the winds by the Puritan 
Commissioners sent down by Edward VI.— under the impression 
that most of the books were Popish missals, or at any rate very 
bad reading for sound Protestants. So Bodley set himself to 
remedy this shocking state of affairs. He contributed vast 
stores of folios himself, for which he ransacked the whole book- 
market of Europe ; indefatigably he begged, borrowed, stole 
from his friends — many of whom responded nobly by giving him 
books that belonged to someone else. The Dean of Exeter alone 
presented him with more than eighty most valuable manuscripts, 
pilfered from the Cathedral library. But there is an old Roman 
proverb that money does not smell — so long as the coin is there, 
it does not matter where it comes from — and perhaps the same 
is true of books. When we consider the incalculable service 
that Bodley's foundation has rendered to sound learning all over 
the world, we need not blame the Dean too much for making free 
with what was not his to give. 

" I have mentioned Mr. Andrew Carnegie as Bodley's only 
possible rival in the realm of libraries ; let me now draw your 
attention for a moment to an eminent Devonian, who never 
indeed became a multi-millionaire, though he brought to the 
invention and manufacture of marketable articles a zeal and 
insight equal to Mr. Carnegie's own. This was William Cook- 
worthy, of Kingsbridge, founder of the English method of making 
porcelain. He was born of Quaker parentage the year after the 
Battle of Blenheim. Some years after, his father, a druggist of 
substance, lost his all in the famous South Sea Bubble specula- 
tion, and promptly died, leaving a widow with a large family. 
Mrs. Cookworthy did her best to support herself by dressmaking ; 
but so poor was she that she had much ado to raise a daily pound 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 61 

of pork, to divide among several growing sons. And when she 
succeeded in apprenticing William to a London druggist, the lad 
was obliged to make the whole journey from Kingsbridge to 
London on foot. In due course he worked through his articles, 
returned to Kingsbridge, and eventually became a manufacturing 
chemist on a large scale at Plymouth. But his energies were by 
no means limited to compounding medicines. An omnivorous 
reader, he was interested in nearly every branch of science ; and 
when he grew wealthy in later life, he became the natural enter- 
tainer of all the eminent scientific men whom business or pleasure 
brought to Plymouth. 

" He had been greatly fascinated by the letters of Pere d'Entre- 
colles, a French Jesuit missionary in China, which contained a 
graphic account of the Chinese method of making porcelain 
from a special kind of clay called kaolin, mixed with a special 
kind of stone called petuntse. To discover some analogue to 
kaolin and petuntse in England became the dream of Cook- 
worthy's life. His search was made easier by the fact that his 
business as a wholesale chemist obliged him to travel much 
through the West of England, and he was an intimate friend of 
the then superintendent of mines in the Duchy of Cornwall. The 
Duchy presently came to his assistance. Near St. Austell he 
discovered a substance known as growan stone, and found that 
this, when mixed with ordinary china clay, and heated in a 
crucible, produced what he himself described as a beautiful, 
white, diaphanous substance — or, in other words, true porcelain. 
At last the missing petuntse was found, and the Chinese secret 
was a secret no longer. The works which Cookworthy hastened 
to set up at Plymouth began to turn out a porcelain as pure as 
ever came from Canton or Pekin." 

After giving a detailed account of John Gay and Bampfylde 
Moore-Carew, the address concluded as follows : — 

" I may now well bring my list of Devonshire worthies to an end. 
I well realize how captious and unintelligent it will seem to 
many. Over some of the greatest sons of Devon I have passed 
in absolute silence, and I fear that my neglect may seem not 
only a flouting of the great names themselves, but also an act of 
disrespect to the regions that gave them birth. What will the 
Axminster district have to say to me, when it finds that I have 
coolly ignored the greatest of all Devonians ? Not by one 
syllable have I recalled to you that in June, 1650, there was born, 
at Ashe, in the parish of Musbury, to Sir Winston Churchill — 
itself a significant name — a son John, who lived to be Duke of 
Marlborough, and win the Battle of Blenheim. Torrington may 
also complain that I have passed over another famous 



62 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

captain, George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, who restored Charles 
II. to the throne of his ancestors. And perhaps Crediton will 
have against me a more poignant grievance still. I have in- 
voked the name of Buller, only to talk about a musty eighteenth 
century judge, and neglect another bearer of that name much 
nearer and dearer to our hearts. Then again, Tiverton may 
fairly complain that I have passed over Peter Blundell, a citizen 
of whom any town might be proud, and Richard Cosway, first 
of English miniature painters. And I admit that Cosway' s 
name did for a moment tempt me, and that I thought at first of 
giving you some details of his interesting and little-known career. 
But here a difficulty at once confronted me. Great as Cosway 
was, Devonshire can show greater painters than he. Why dwell 
on Cosway, when Joshua Reynolds hailed from Plympton Earle, 
and Turner from Barnstaple ? And how make much of either 
of these without breaking my rule that this is the place to 
celebrate the Common, not the Proper of Devonshire saints? 
This it is that has made me deliberately discursive. I have 
chosen first the men of law, because of them all districts of our 
county have a goodly share. I have gone on to single out some 
half-dozen figures, chosen deliberately because their names were 
known to everyone, but the detail of their exploits known to 
few. And it seemed to me appropriate to this our gathering to 
call back for a moment some of these shadowy figures from the 
past to form a not unimpressive background to our labours in 
the present. And perhaps, just because none of them reach the 
front rank, they may also serve to point a moral not always 
sufficiently emphasized. It is given to few, indeed, to reach the 
highest level of achievement. But our county's heart is large 
enough to hold in affectionate remembrance those of her sons 
who tried and failed — and those who only succeeded a small 
part of the way. Just a month ago our two ancient Universities 
were celebrating their Commemoration, and I cannot better 
conclude than by repeating to you the noble words then read in 
every college chapel. There the Preacher bids us ' praise 
famous men, and our fathers that begat us — such as did bear rule 
in their kingdoms, men renowned for their power, leaders of the 
people by their counsels, wise and eloquent in their instructions, 
such as found out musical tunes, and recited verses in writing, 
rich men furnished with ability, living peaceably in their habita- 
tions. All these were honoured in their generation, and were 
the glory of their times. There be of them that left a name be- 
hind them, that their praises might be reported. And some 
there be, which have no memorial, who are perished as though 
they had never been, and are become as though they had never 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 63 

been born. But these were merciful men, whose righteousness 
hath not been forsaken. With their seed shall continually 
remain a good inheritance, and their children are within the 
covenant. Their seed shall remain for ever, and their glory 
shall not be blotted out. Their bodies are buried in peace, but 
their name liveth for evermore.' " 



Fair Devon. 

Bedeck'd by flowery mead there lies a fragrant Fairy land, 

Where summer sun-gleams linger o'er the lea ; 
And sparkling moorland streamlets shower rainbow-tinted spray, 

And zephyrs whisper softly from the sea. 

We've come from far away to foster mem'ries of the past, 
And pledge our troth, Fair Devon, old and young ; 

Though absent oft from Homeland, our devotion true shall last, 
Our love for thee shall evermore be sung. 

Again, with one consent, thy faithful sons and daughters trill 

Our lays and lilting lyrics as of yore ; 
When pastures green are growing in the budding springtime days, 

And lovers roam the heatherland once more. 

And when to those we left afar ere long we shall return, 

Awaiting us, perchance, beyond the seas, 
We'll speed a prayer- in fervour when for thee we fondly sigh ; 

Where sweetly wafts the summer-scented breeze. 

May Heaven bless our Motherland, among the vales and tors, 
Where dwell our hearts, our dearest and our best ! 

We'll cherish thee for ever as a rare and gracious gift ; 
We're proud of thee, Fair Devon in the West ! 

Rev. H. S.-J. E. Wrenford. 

[These verses have been set to music by the author, and copies can be 
obtained from him at Clannaborough Rectory, Bow, North Devon.] 



64 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



Miss M. P. Willcocks as a Novelist. 

By H. TAPLEY-SOPER, City Librarian, Exeter. 

(1) " Widdicombe," 1905; (2) "The Wingless Victory," 1907; (3) "A 
Man of Genius," 1908 ; (4) " The Way Up," 1910 ; (5) " Wings of Desire," 
1912 ; (6) " The Wind Among the Barley," 1912 ; (7) Translations of 
Anatole France's " L'Orme du Mail " and " Le Mannequin d 'Osier," 19 10. 

Essentially of the School of West Country novelists, Miss 
Willcocks is, when compared with veterans like Baring-Gould 
and Eden Phillpotts, a new-comer, her first book having appeared 
just seven years ago. But before ** Widdicombe " there came 
more than thirty years of unconscious preparation for the work 
of creating West Country types as they seem to a woman's 
mind. For, like so many novelists, Miss Willcocks followed 
another trade before setting her hand to the pen — that of a 
teacher. And to not a few critics of her novels, the true progress 
of her talent has lain in the gradual freeing of it from the bonds 
of pedagogy, a return, in fact, to the conditions in which she 
spent her early childhood. 

Miss Willcocks was born at Cleave, near Ivybridge, of a long 
line of tenant farmers, of whom nothing is recorded to connect 
them with English history save that they possessed a spoon 
with the arms of Cranmer on it ! On the mother's side, however, 
Miss Willcocks can trace descent from the old Celtic family of 
Prideaux, which fact binds her with the county of Cornwall, in 
which she has fixed the scenes of her novels at least as often as 
in Devon. To Ivybridge, Holbeton, Ermington, and Wembury 
her forebears belonged, so that she is essentially South Devon, 
a native of the lower slopes of the great moorland. It is to the 
memories of the first eleven years of her life that her first novel, 
" Widdicombe," especially returns, for " Widdicombe " is not 
the Dartmoor town at all, but the tree-crowded village of 
Yealmpton, and the " Widey " is the Yealm. Moreover, the 
characters of the story are essentially memories of childish 
impressions, mingled, of course, with more subtle points of 
delineation gathered from knowledge gained in maturer years. 
Miss Willcocks' rustics are the real homespun folk among whom 
she lived and with whom she played till she left the country for 
Plymouth. There she was educated, first at the High School, 
and afterwards at the Girls' College in Lockyer Street. There, 
too, while acting as a private teacher, she worked at a London 
Degree course, studying at night, very much in the manner of 
an H. G. Wells' hero, at sines and co-sines, at Greek verbs and 



£Y 




MISS M. P. WILLCOCKS. 

Copyright photography by J Russell & Sons, 7 &> 8, Old Bond Street, W. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 65 

Latin syntax, taking refuge in an attic by way of escape from 
pianos and the other jarring notes of life in a busy street. The 
degree achieved, she went to Jersey as English Mistress at the 
Ladies' College, St. Heliers, and thence to St. George's Training 
College, Edinburgh, as Classical Mistress. It was in Edinburgh 
that at last the long cherished purpose of seeking self-expression 
in story-telling was carried out. The tale of it is best told in 
her own words : — 

" One winter Sunday evening in an Edinburgh lodging-house 
I lay down on the hard sofa to try and forget the dreariness and 
homesickness of that east-windy place. In the glow of the 
firelight I turned my mind to a Devonshire lane and the man and 
woman walking in it. I had always ' seen pictures,' — usually, 
it must be confessed, of myself courted by adoring lovers, but 
this time the picture had a separate existence ; the people in it 
walked and talked of themselves. Scenes followed, each splitting 
asunder as though a curtain were pulled aside to show the 
next. It was, I think, the happiest moment of my life. But 
the flatness of the hour I spent in writing down my impressions 
more than paid for any elation ; so banal, so wooden the style, 
the thoughts. Sickened, I put it aside once more — but not for 
long." 

It was in Leamington that the book was finished, however. 
At that time Miss Willcocks was second mistress at the High 
School there, spending her terms in the Midlands, and her 
holidays at Liskeard, which appears in " Widdicombe " as 
" Liskerret." On Saturdays during term time she gave lessons 
at a nunnery near Princethorpe, both to the nuns and the girl- 
pupils, whose strange farewell gift to her was a copy of Walt 
Whitman's " Leaves of Grass." Of this time, of the finishing 
of " Widdicombe " and the struggles to find a publisher, she 
writes again : — 

" The next scene is a schoolroom in a Dominican nunnery, 
with rows of black-frocked school-girls chanting the blank 
verse of ' Richard II.' A huge tom-cat, black with white 
points, sits on my desk at the teacher's estrade ; but I see neither 
cat nor pupils, only the typed sheet of the report on my first 
novel from the reading department of the Authors' Society. 
The misery of the moment, the sense of despair fighting against 
doggedness is with me yet. I could, it seems, do nothing that 
a novelist should, save catch the country atmosphere, and that 
was more Hardyesque than real. I burnt the book and began 
again, being awakened now every morning before the day's 
work in school began, by the incessant activity of the wizard 
within who shows us mental pictures. 

5 



66 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

" At last it was finished, and with three typed copies of 
' Widdicombe,' I played cards with the publishers, my morning 
nightmare being the parcel postman. The high-water mark of 
rejection was — two copies returned on one day ! Once, how- 
ever, I walked on air, because a letter of appreciation came 
from a well-known publisher, offering to produce the tale if I 
paid down £50. Fortunately, I had no £50 to spare. Still, all 
the time I believed the publishers were fools : I used to read 
the story, for my own solace, between its wanderings. It was 
the only comfort I had. Myself of to-day finds nothing but 
admiration for the plucky self of those days. 

" Then, at last, when there was hardly a grain of hope left in 
me, I tried the West Country publisher, John Lane. Had this 
attempt failed, I should have sent no more parcels, particularly 
as an agent had also failed to place the manuscript. Six weeks 
after, on a Sunday morning, the answer came, making me an 
offer. I spent the day on Weymouth cliffs staring at the track 
of the sun across the sea. Nothing since has equalled the glory 
of that light — nor ever will for me, I suppose, till, mayhap, 
Peter opens the gate of the Celestial City. Later on, I learnt 
to appreciate the fine judgment and catholic taste of the Bodley 
Head literary adviser, to whom I owed my first chance. 

" My first bundle of reviews I read on a seat beneath some 
elm trees with a disreputable tramp sitting at the other end. 
Said he on that gorgeous spring day : ' There's a sort of blight 
over everything this year/ There was over him, poor soul, for 
he had drunk, not wisely, but in a ' tied house.' What a picture 
for the moraliser was that bench — with my joy at one end, and 
at the other the ' blight ' of that sorry tramp. Yet, even then 
there was a fly in my ointment, for ' Widdicombe ' is not ex- 
ceedingly school-mannish, and all the while I felt the parents' 
eyes upon me. When passing any materfamilias of the beaked- 
nose variety, I used to scuttle like a mouse — lest she remembered 
1 Widdicombe.' The worst moment, however, was when the 
original of ' Granny Rosdew ' sent for me. We had a heart to 
heart talk, and she called me an ' impudent hussy.' But the 
twinkle in her eye consoled me, all the same. 

" Thus half-launched, I took up an old manuscript in which 
one character, the village doctor, seemed alive. Then it hap- 
pened that in a certain Cornish town there arose a dispute 
about the lead supply-pipes of the water system, which sug- 
gested curious problems, both chemical and psychological. I 
tacked the water pipes to the country doctor, and the result 
was ' The Wingless Victory,' from which many things befell. 
For the many ' originals ' of that story fell foul of me, especially 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 67 

the doctor, who considers that I got all his stories wrong and 
was, in addition, very hard on his personal appearance. 

" With the publication of ' The Wingless Victory ' I had my 
taste of the pride of life. There was, for instance, the first 
public dinner I ever attended : a guest night at the Odd Volumes 
Club, when Mr. John Lane had a more or less West Country 
table. To be present at all, I had to hurry away from my class 
with many injunctions as to their behaviour, and to travel back 
again by the night train in order to be in time for school at nine 
next morning. The country mouse found the town mice de- 
lightful that night. And how exquisitely the nightingale sang 
in a Warwickshire copse as, with aching head and tired eyes, 
I walked home next morning from the train. For the song 
somehow typified the warmth of human kindness, that strange 
fickle kindness of the great hard city. I do not think that in 
all the annals of the Bodley Head, even in its Yellow Book 
days, any of its authors can ever have been happier than I was 
that night. And once in a lifetime 'tis good to be warmed all 
through. Best of all, perhaps, ' The Wingless Victory ' had 
won me release from that backwater of life — the school-world. 

" ' The Man of Genius ' was a sacrifice to the spirit of North 
Devon. And here one may notice the extraordinary width of 
the divorce between town and country shown by the critics. 
To read their reviews of country books one would imagine that 
scarcely a single one had spent so much as a boyhood in the 
country, for they are horrified at the pleasantest outdoor insects, 
they find coarseness in the simplest processes of nature, they 
accept manifest ' fakes ' of idiom, custom, and feeling with utter 
complacency. Dartmoor, for instance, has been represented 
as inhabited mainly by savages whom no true Devonian would 
ever recognise, and Cornwall is, to credit the romancers, entirely 
the stage of primitive passions. These pictures are, of course, 
the work of ' townies ' to whom the West Countryman shuts up 
like a clam, but the reviewer is enraptured, for in the life of the 
streets he has forgotten the fields." 

It was " The Wingless Victory " that made Miss Willcocks' 
name both in England and the States. The novel has been 
compared to Ibsen's " Enemy of the People," since the story 
turns on the question of whether the man who knows the truth 
shall reveal the secret of a tainted water supply, and so ruin the 
town's reputation and his own career. It is curious to note in 
this connection that the book ran as a serial in a Norwegian 
newspaper, and was also translated into German. The scene 
is fixed at " Challacombe," which many people have identified 
with Brixham, though Miss Willcocks has herself admitted that 



68 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

the two most outstanding characters, Dr. Borlace and Joanna 
Buckingham, came from Appledore, and that the originals of 
both are still alive. Miss Willcocks has, indeed, been by the 
mouth of rumour, not only engaged but actually wedded to 
" Tony Borlace." She declares, however, that he has, so far, 
shown no more on-coming disposition than to take the chair 
at a meeting for her. Possibly the reason is that he is already 
happily married ! " The Wingless Victory " points clearly the 
line in which Miss Willcocks works most successfully — when 
she trusts to the power of wholesome living things to give her 
book its interest — the things, that is, that have not been con- 
ceived or wrought by the hands of men who live in cities. The 
scene of " The Wingless Victory " is laid in Devonshire, the 
actors are Devonshire people, and how much the book owes to 
the earth and sky it would be difficult to overstate. Again, 
one of Miss Willcocks' simplicities is — that she dares to accept 
the obvious. But then, as she tells it, it is not at all obvious 
that Dr. Borlace and his wife should each discover that the 
plan of their marriage was wrong. The drainage system at 
Challacombe, for example, enters largely into the discovery ; 
the crisis is fought over the question whether there shall be 
iron pipes or lead pipes in the town. Miss Willcocks loves the 
earth and the sea and even the drain-pipes ; masters them and 
transmutes them, and gives us the result in very full-blooded 
men and women ; the feminine virtues are chastity and clean- 
liness ; in men they are courage and honesty. The people who 
are more directly born of the earth that she loves, like Joanna, 
Captain Penrice, and Dr. Borlace, have a largeness of outline 
and simplicity of aim. Their virtues are active virtues ; they 
sin whole-heartedly, the whole nature falling when it does fall. 
Such characters she presents with a boldness and humour that 
must be called masterly. A book which deals with the dis- 
cipline of souls may so easily become hysterical ; and Miss 
Willcocks is quite capable of that intensity which isolates its 
objects from all natural surroundings ; only, while she gives the 
individual joy or agony, she never loses sight of her background. 
She has the masculine quality of seeing both the forest and the 
trees in the self-same glance. For all Dr. Borlace's pain and 
love of his wife, we know in the background of his mind he never 
forgets his drain-pipes. And that is why "The Wingless 
Victory " reads, not so much as a single story, as an epitome of 
many. 

With the publication of " The Wingless Victory " Miss Will- 
cocks " quit school-keeping " and came to live the life of a 
literary woman in the city so closely connected with the few 



The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 69 

pleasant days of George Gissing's hard life — Exeter. In " A 
Man of Genius " she turned, however, from South Devon to the 
wilder parts of the North : to Hartland, Appledore, and the 
Bideford districts. The book is dedicated to 

" John Lane, 
who first taught me to know and 
love his own wild corner of Devon." 

The " Man of Genius " is a farm lad with a taste for architec- 
ture ; the tale deals with the story of how he fought his way 
upwards to self-realization, hindered by one kind of love, helped 
by another. The wild north coast enters largely into the back- 
ground of the story which, indeed, excited some adverse com- 
ment in the Hartland district, since the opening scenes paint the 
actual facts of a wreck which took place there as a result of the 
system of employing farm hands as coast-watchers. It has been 
said of "A Man of Genius," that it is the sort of novel George 
Eliot would have written had she lived to admire " Man and 
Superman." For in it all the characters are weaving the pattern 
of their lives for reasons outside and beyond themselves. Thyrza 
Braund (one of the large tribe of Braunds of Bucks Mill) is an 
embodiment of the Life Force ; Ambrose Velly, the Man of 
Genius, is driven by the Divine Fire ; Damaris Westaway is the 
tool of an Altruism stronger than all her natural selfish instincts ; 
her father serves to show how eternal forces can break the man 
they do not inspire ; only Dr. Dayman and John Darracott 
seem to stand for themselves, and each is a man to whom personal 
happiness has ceased to be an object, and who lives to be a 
refuge to those whom life has driven into desperate straits. 
Miss Willcocks reminds us again of George Eliot in her habit of 
making the moods of nature and the aspect of inanimate things 
harmonise with the moods and adventures through which her 
characters are passing. 

With " The Way Up " Miss Willcocks entered oh a new phase, 
for that book, fixed in Exeter, is an entirely modern tale, which 
takes for its subject the problem of co-operative production. 
Michael Strode is an iron-master who unfortunately has started 
on his career with his wife's money, so that when he desires to 
hand over his works to the employes of the Foundry, he has to 
reckon with her opposition. The question of whether his wife, 
Elise, shall merge her life entirely in her husband's purposes, or 
shall seek her own, is the crux of the story, the details of which 
were studied primarily from the life of Andre Godin, the founder 
of the great co-operative iron works at Guise, although the 
actual scene is laid in an existent foundry in Exeter. It is 



70 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



curious to note how little the work of the great pioneer of co- 
operative production is known in England, since scarcely any 
reviewers recognized the origin of " Michael Strode," though by 
now " The Way Up " has reached Guise and been placed in the 
hands of the second Madame Godin, the fellow-worker with 
Andre Godin in the way up out of the tangle of competitive 
production. It is, however, neither on Michael Strode, nor his 
wife, that the attention of the reader of " The Way Up " is 
concentrated, but on that " afflicting woman," the Rabelais in 
Petticoats, Mrs. Strode, to whose make-up went, according to 
the critics, more than a touch of genius. In Louis Aviolet, Miss 
Willcocks sketched a type of character which she was to fill out 
more fully in her next book — the character of the novelist as 
typifying that artistic temperament of which we hear so much 
nowadays. 

" Wings of Desire," which followed, has a curious connection 
with Exeter. It starts with a hunt for gold dust in the region 
of Cape Horn, or rather in the Straits of Magellan. For all the 
details of this quest, Miss Willcocks used no invention whatever : 
the adventurers were actual, sent out under the command of a 
Brixham captain, and financed by modern Exeter citizens. The 
mystery of the lonely inlet, of the kerosine tin and its unknown 
contents, is left unexplained, as it still is in actuality. The 
secret still lies buried in the mind of a certain Brixham seaman, 
who is not called " Bodinar," as in the novel, but by a much 
simpler name. The whole of this treasure hunt is a record of 
actual fact. With it is incorporated a story of a modern marriage 
and its dissolution. ''Wings of Desire," written in 1911, the 
year of the Divorce Commission, puts the case of Archer Bellew, 
philanderer, and of Sara, his wife, the grave-eyed woman who 
stoops, not to conquer, but to save. Or so she thinks, for the 
curious view taken of a wife's duty in " Wings of Desire " is 
that, under certain circumstances, she must for the sake of 
righteousness free her husband by her own act. The story is, 
in fact, an indictment of the present Divorce Laws, and by it 
Miss Willcocks places herself by the side of Sir Conan Doyle in 
an appeal for reform on this question. For Miss Willcocks lives 
in her age ardently : the dominating ideas of her epoch, its 
needs and its desires, are ever present to inspire her work. In 
" Wings of Desire " the Industrial Question gives place to one 
still more burning — the Woman Question. In it a dozen lives 
are knit together in a pattern odd and queerly beautiful. A 
woman painter who has sinned out of pity ; a sensitive-souled 
wife trammelled with an invertebrate creature of a husband ; 
an old lady with a young and kind heart ; and an amorous 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 71 

sailor man owning to epicurean tastes — these are of the motley 
sustaining a drama done in moods, pensive, passionate, and 
sinister. It is a big story, big in scope and significance, and 
its range of scenery extends from the Devon seaboard to a 
region beyond the Horn. Its vital features are equally diver- 
sified. The defect of " Wings of Desire " is not, as most of the 
critics have said, that the men in it are belittled and the women 
exalted, but that, on the whole, a group of very distinguished 
women have been opposed to a set of somewhat ordinary men. 
So obvious a contrast is perhaps inartistic, but it is not neces- 
sarily unreal. For despite the birds-of-a-feather proverb, the 
distinguished man is not attracted by the distinguished woman, 
whereas remarkable women do herd together. But if women 
are exalted in " Wings of Desire," there is always Bodinar to 
put the other side succinctly, if brutally : " Do'ee know why 
two-thirds of the able seamen in the English navy be Devon 
men ? Tes the women that keep up the supply of men for 
King George's ships. They may tell up old trade about the 
call of the sea, but 'tis the call of the Devon women that they 
lads can't bear morning, noon, and night. . . . The bo'sun's 
whistle 's naught to 'em. And upon a man-of-war you be as 
free of 'em as you can be anywhere on this earth." Truly a 
forceful exposition of the monstrous regimen of women. 

" The Wind Among the Barley " shows Miss Willcocks' work 
at its best. Distinctly of the open-air school, Devon born and 
bred, and with a keen eye for individuality, she has endowed 
these little genre studies with vivid life. The sleepy atmosphere 
of South Devon is breathed in every page. Simple and telling 
as a ballad, sweet as green fields, they are masterly in touch and 
execution. The types of humanity are true ; we of the West, 
we know them, every one. Brawny Sally Hext, strong as a 
mule, frugal as only a Scotch or Devonshire hill peasant can 
be, who throws away three pounds reward and risks imprison- 
ment by aiding an escaped convict, yet cannot bring herself to 
part with her husband's second-best trousers to make the escape 
successful ; pawky Lawyer Brimacombe ; prim, sweet Miss 
Cecilia Perrett ; heavy-footed, masterful Dr. Boswarva and 
wily Naomi, his wife, managing him with feather-light touches ; 
the fisherfolk and the tillers of the soil, above all, the peasant 
women — we know them all. Daintily etched portraits every 
one — more than etchings, they have a roundness and colour 
that recall Alphonse Daudet's peasant studies in the Lettres de 
mon Moulin. " The Wind Among the Barley " touches no 
problems, being a set of village studies of the simplest kind. 
They are, as Miss Willcocks says in her preface, " Stories of the 



72 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

people of my own land, where they grow flowers for the early 
market, or go a-fishing when the mackerel play in the bay ; 
where the wind blows sometimes from the sea and sometimes 
from the moor ; where the inn signs creak in the breeze, and the 
minute drops fall from the thatch of overhanging eaves as they 
did in country villages five hundred years ago." In these 
sketches style is harmonized to " content." They are studies 
in the art of condensation, in the economy of her style, and 
the exclusiveness of her management. Their colours are the 
tones of experience. Miss Willcocks has only to see a fishing- 
fleet going out for the night, or a sailorman looking over a sea- 
wall, a solitary thorn tree in the middle of a field, an old woman 
sitting at the door of a tumble-down thatched cottage, or a 
rider turning into a courtyard of cobbles, and, granted the 
externals of Devon, she has the circumference of a tale. " The 
Wind Among the Barley " is a gallery of pictures crowded with 
homely Dutch canvases. It reminds us sometimes of Richard 
Jefferies, for Miss Willcocks knows Nature as a scientist and 
as a poet. 

Anyone who has watched a cat and kitten together must 
have been puzzled by the swift transitions of feeling to which 
the mother is liable. One moment she is devotion personified, 
the next she is all aloofness and indifference ; in a little while, 
firmly but unmethodically, she will begin to groom her off- 
spring, and then, all four paws together, she will shake, buffet, 
and bite it until it squeals aloud. Something of the same 
unaccountableness seems to be at the back of Miss Willcocks' 
novelistic temperament, and is perhaps a part of her inspiration. 
From page to page in her swiftly executed writing, we find life 
schooled, neglected, buffeted, and adored. Miss Willcocks 
welcomes everything in the spirit of adventure. She sets out 
with as doughty a heart in the quest of experience as ever did 
sailor from her own Devon of old. The breath of humanity is 
to her like the scent of the sea to the old salt. " Thank God 
for the open air, for sun and wind, and men's blustering hearti- 
ness. These things keep the world sweet." So says one of 
Miss Willcocks' characters in " Wings of Desire," and the words 
would be fitting at the forefront of her books. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 73 

The Civil War in the West. 

By R. PEARSE CHOPE, B.A. 

( Abstract of a Lecture delivered at St. Bride Institute, 
November 29th, 1911.) 

The Great Civil War is of special interest to West Country 
people, not only because some of the most important and de- 
cisive events took place in the West Country, but also because 
several of the leaders — both political and military — were West 
Country men. Indeed, the two greatest of all the political 
leaders — Sir John Eliot, who was " in his generation the first, 
the greatest champion of the doctrine that Parliament was the 
controlling power of the constitution," and his successor, John 
Pym, nicknamed " King Pym," " the greatest, as he was the 
first, of Parliamentary leaders " — were both West Country 
gentlemen. Of the military leaders we may mention Sir Ralph 
Hopton, afterwards Lord Hopton of Stratton, and Sir Bevil 
Grenvile — on the Royalist side — and Col. Robert Blake, after- 
wards more famous as Admiral, on the Parliamentarian. 

Step by step the exuberant powers which the Tudors had 
bequeathed to the Stuarts were curtailed, until at last Charles 
ruined all chances of a peaceful settlement by a series of ill- 
advised acts, culminating in the attempted arrest of five members 
of parliament in the House itself. From that time war was 
inevitable, but the immediate cause of the outbreak was the 
demand of Parliament to control the Militia. William Russell, 
Earl of Bedford, was appointed Lord Lieutenant of the County, 
and secured Exeter for the Parliamentarians (although the next 
year he went over to the King), and the Deputy-Lieutenants 
ordered the muster-masters to muster their companies " with 
such officers, drums, and colours as they had or could for the 
time get." One of these, Capt. Robert Bennett, afterwards 
Governor of Barnstaple, was directed to muster his company at 
Great Torrington. On the other side, Henry Bourchier, Earl 
of Bath, published the King's " Commission of Array," and 
attempted to put it into force at South Molton. But here he 
met with a lively reception from the inhabitants, who hastily 
armed themselves with whatever weapons they could lay hands 
on, and pelted the Earl and his company with stones out of the 
town. Two days later, four companies of foot and a troop of 
horse, raised and armed at the cost of the Corporation, garrisoned 
Barnstaple in the interest of the Parliament, probably at the 
instigation of George Peard, M.P. for that borough. 



74 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Barnstaple at this time was a town of about 4000 population, 
and was enclosed by a wall running from the Castle along the 
Quay and round by Boutport Street. The Castle was provided 
with guns, and a very strong fort, known as " The Great Fort," 
was specially made on the spot still called " Fort Hill," to 
defend the approaches from the east. The chief fortified towns 
in the south were Exeter, Plymouth, and Dartmouth. Exeter 
was then not only the chief town of the West, but also the 
largest, though its population probably did not exceed 10,000. 
It had at one time a very strong castle — Rougemont — but this 
was already in ruins, and the citizens did little beyond repairing 
the old city wall and mounting 25 pieces of cannon upon it. 
Plymouth had only a population of about 6000, but it was very 
strongly protected, for in addition to its natural defences and 
its old town wall and forts, a series of redoubts, joined by a 
rampart and trench, was constructed along the brow of the hill 
between Stonehouse and Lipson, and there were other detached 
works at various points, including the important Fort Stamford 
on the other side of Cattewater. 

The war in the West may conveniently be divided into three 
periods, viz. (1) The campaign of Sir Ralph Hopton for the 
Royalists against the Earl of Stamford for the Parliamentarians, 
(2) The campaign of Charles himself against the Earl of Essex, 
and (3) The final campaign of Sir Thomas Fairfax. The first 
is characterized by the battle of Stratton on May 16th, 1643, the 
second by the surrender at Lostwithiel on Sept. 2nd, 1644, and 
the third by the battle of Torrington on Feb. 25th, 1646. At 
the beginning of the war Devonshire was mainly on the side of 
Parliament, but Cornwall was strongly Royalist, and it is in- 
teresting to note that the earliest battles were between Devon- 
shire men and Cornish men. In the first two campaigns the 
advantage lay with the Royalists, and it was only their failure 
to obtain possession of Plymouth and Hull that saved the 
Parliamentary cause, and enabled Fairfax, after the battle of 
Naseby on June 14th, 1645, to turn the tables on his opponents 
and make a clean sweep of the West of England. 

The first campaign was opened by the Marquis of Hertford, 
who had been appointed Lieut. -General of all his Majesty's 
forces in the West, and had set out for Somerset, accompanied 
by Sir Ralph Hopton and Capt. John Digby. The Marquis, 
being beaten at Dunster Castle, escaped with his foot soldiers 
in coal vessels from Minehead to Wales, but Hopton and his 
cavalry made their way across Exmoor to Chittlehampton and 
thence into North Cornwall, where they were welcomed by 
Sir Bevil Grenvile. With his support Hopton raised a small 



The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 75 

army, and was soon master of all Cornwall. He occupied 
Launceston and Saltash, but, when he called upon his troops 
to cross the Tamar, they refused to follow him, because they 
were " sheriff's men," and were only compelled to defend their 
own county. Dismissing them with a good grace, Hopton 
soon raised a body of 1500 volunteers ready to follow him where 
he would, and in a short time he carried them into Devonshire, 
occupied Tavistock, threatened Plymouth, and actually besieged 
Exeter. Entrenchments were made on the west side of the city, 
and an artillery fire was opened upon it, but the citizens made 
a night-sally, led by the Mayor himself, upon the rear of the 
besiegers' works, and gained a complete victory. 

In the meantime the Sheriff of Devon, Sir Edmund Fortescue 
of Fallapit, was engaged in raising the posse comitatus at Mod- 
bury, but in the first week in December (1642) Col. Ruthven, 
the Parliamentary Governor of Plymouth, sallied out with 
four troops of horse and about 100 dragoons, dispersed the 
Royalist trained bands and volunteers, and captured their 
officers in Court House, an ancient mansion of the Champer- 
nownes. The officers were marched to Dartmouth, and sent 
by sea to the Parliament in London. 

During the greater part of December Hopton's forces remained 
in the neighbourhood of Exeter and Totnes, and on New Year's 
Day (1643) they made another attempt to capture the city, 
but a sally was made with 800 men by Capt. Alexander Pym, 
son of the illustrious statesman, and this resulted in another 
complete defeat of the besiegers. 

Hopton was now obliged to draw off his troops altogether, in 
consequence, says Clarendon, of his want of ammunition, but 
probably his retreat was hastened by the advance of the Earl 
of Stamford, the newly appointed Parliamentary General of the 
Western army. Hopton retreated hastily across the Tamar, and 
Stamford prepared to follow him, but not before Col. Ruthven 
had started in pursuit with forces drawn from the garrison of 
Plymouth. On Jan. 19th Hopton and Grenvile, turned at bay, 
fell upon him at Bradock Down, near Liskeard, and routed him 
utterly. The Cornish men resumed the offensive. Saltash and 
Okehampton were carried by assault. Stamford retreated as 
hastily as he had advanced, and one wing of the Cornish army 
pursued the fugitives till they were checked at Chagford by a 
troop of Barnstaple and Bideford men under Sir John Northcote, 
while the other wing gathered round Plymouth and prepared 
to lay siege to that important port. The North Devon men, 
though defeated, continued their march to Totnes, where they 
joined the Parliamentary army, which proceeded to attack the 



j6 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Royalist position at Modbury, where it gained a complete 
victory. The siege of Plymouth was then raised, and Stamford 
followed Hopton to Tavistock, where an armistice was agreed 
upon. At the expiration of this, Col. James Chudleigh, who 
had constructed Chudleigh Fort at Bideford, occupied an 
entrenched position at Okehampton with a field force of horse, 
foot, and artillery, and from this position he advanced to attack 
the Royalist forces at Launceston, but he was defeated and 
compelled to fall back. The Royalists then advanced to Sourton 
Down (April 25th), when Chudleigh, with only 108 horse in six 
divisions, making a sudden charge upon the enemy, " did rout 
their whole army," for at that moment " it grew dark, and it 
thundered and lightned in a very terrible manner, and the 
thunderclap brake just over their heads and then rain extra- 
ordinary, and there was a very great wind, and they were so 
amazed at the sudden charge that they ran amain to save their 
lives." Capt. Thomas Drake, a grand-nephew of the famous 
Sir Francis, " slew 12 or 13 with his battle-axe and sword/' 

Encouraged by Chudleigh' s success, Stamford set out from 
Exeter to join his lieutenant at Okehampton, and with him to 
carry the war into Cornwall. They established themselves in a 
very strong position at Stratton, on a hill since known as Stam- 
ford Hill. The Royalist army, though only about half the size, 
and so " destitute of all provisions that the best officers had 
but a biscuit a day," advanced to attack them on all four sides 
(May 16th, 1643). For some hours every effort was in vain, 
and then *vord was brought to the commanders that their scanty 
stock of powder was almost exhausted. A retreat would have 
been fatal, so, trusting to pike and sword alone, the Cornish 
men pressed onwards and upwards with irresistible force, and 
the victorious commanders met and embraced one another on 
the hard-won hill top. Stamford turned and fled, and Chudleigh 
was taken prisoner. Before many days were over, all Devon- 
shire, with the exception of Bideford and Barnstaple in the 
north, and of Plymouth, Dartmouth, and Exeter in the south, 
fell easily into Hopton's hands. Early in June he effected a 
junction at Chard with Hertford and Prince Maurice, and at the 
approach of their combined forces both Taunton and Bridgwater 
surrendered. At Lansdown, on July 5th, the Royalists repeated 
their success at Stratton ; a week later, on Roundway Down, 
the Parliamentary army was practically annihilated ; and on 
July 26th Bristol was assaulted and taken by Prince Rupert. 
These stubborn fights, however, robbed the victors of their 
leaders ; Hopton was wounded, Grenvile slain, and at Bristol 
fell the two heroes of the little army, Sir Nicholas Slanning and 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 77 

Sir John Trevanion, " both young, neither of them above eight 
and twenty, of entire friendship to one another, and to Sir 
Bevil Gr en vile." 

At the end of August the townsmen of Bideford and Barnstaple, 
under the command of Capt. Bennett, combined to attack 
Col. John Digby at forrington, where he had been sent to 
prevent the North Devon men from joining forces with the 
defenders of Plymouth. Being suddenly charged by a small 
party of Digby's horse, " the whole body routed themselves and 
fled." Digby immediately gained possession of the two towns, 
as well as the fort at Appledore, which commanded both rivers, 
and then proceeded to Plymouth, " to block up that place 
from making incursions into the country." 

Prince Maurice was then besieging Exeter, which capitulated 
on Sept. 4th, after a vain attempt by the Parliamentary High 
Admiral, the Earl of Warwick, to relieve it from the sea. Dart- 
mouth surrendered on Oct. 6th, and then Prince Maurice joined 
his forces with Digby's in besieging Plymouth. The Royalists 
succeeded in obtaining possession of Fort Stamford, but all 
other attacks proved fruitless, and on Christmas day the siege 
was raised. 

We now come to the campaign of 1644. The Earl of Essex, 
the commander-in-chief of the Parliamentary army, resolved 
to march to the West, first to relieve Lyme, which was besieged 
by Barnstaple men under Prince Maurice, and then to gain 
possession of Devon and Cornwall, and thus cut off one main 
source of Charles's supplies. Maurice retreated before him to 
Exeter, whither the Queen, Henrietta Maria, had fled from 
Oxford, and where she had recently given birth to her youngest 
child, the Princess Henrietta. Unable to obtain a safe conduct 
from Essex, the Queen escaped from the city to Falmouth and 
thence to France. Charles set out in pursuit of Essex, with the 
object of crushing him before help could reach him, and he 
arrived at Exeter about a fortnight after the Queen had left it. 
Essex, retiring westwards, took up his quarters at Tavistock, 
whence he sent an urgent demand to Parliament for reinforce- 
ments, and at the same time announced his decision " to march 
yet further westward into Cornwall, to clear that county and 
settle the same in peace." Charles was soon at his heels, and 
in little more than a fortnight had surrounded him at Lost- 
withiel. The Parliamentary cavalry, under Sir William Balfour, 
broke through the Royalist lines, and Essex himself escaped 
in a small vessel from Fowey to Plymouth, leaving Major-Gen. 
Skippon to make the best terms possible with the King for the 
deserted foot soldiers. His men were required not to fight 



78 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

against the King until they had reached Portsmouth, and 
Charles engaged to supply a guard to conduct them through the 
Western Counties. Instead of following up his advantage, 
Charles commenced to retreat, and, after making a futile attempt 
to capture Plymouth, left Sir Richard Grenvile, brother of Sir 
Bevil, in charge of the siege operations, and established himself 
at Chard. 

Barnstaple had revolted to the Parliament, but was now 
again captured by General Lord Goring, and Ilfracombe was 
taken by Sir Francis Dodington. The only inland town that 
refused to acknowledge defeat was Taunton, which was success- 
fully defended against three sieges by the lion-hearted Blake— 
the first siege being raised on Dec. 14th, 1644. 

In consequence of the Self-denying Ordinance, Essex was 
compelled to retire, and the Parliamentary army was in 1645 
re-organized on the famous " New Model " by the new Com- 
mander-in-chief, Sir Thomas Fairfax. He was first ordered to 
relieve Taunton, then besieged by Goring and Grenvile, with as 
many regiments as he could muster, but these orders were 
countermanded, and he had to send a mere detachment. This 
arrived just in time, for a third part of the town had perished 
in flames, and the defenders' ammunition was exhausted. Goring 
was again despatched by the King to prove his fortune in the 
West, and on May 17th he mustered 11,000 men on Sedgemoor, 
and Taunton for the third time became straitened. But in less 
than a month from this date the decisive battle of Naseby was 
fought (June 14th, 1645), and the Royalist cause was at an 
end. Fairfax had then to decide which army to proceed against 
— Charles's or Goring's. He considered Goring's to be the 
more dangerous, and therefore resolved to make the relief of 
Taunton his immediate care. On July 10th he defeated Goring 
as the battle of Langport, and practically annihilated his army. 
Goring escaped by way of Dunster Castle to Barnstaple, whither 
the young Prince of Wales had removed in consequence of the 
plague at Bristol. However, before his arrival the Prince had 
retreated to Launceston. Fairfax, after capturing Bridgwater 
and Bristol, marched by easy stages on a circuitous route through 
Wiltshire and Dorsetshire to the eastern border of Devonshire, 
reaching Axminster on Oct. 13th. A few days later he had 
followed Goring to Tiverton, where he captured the Castle 
without difficulty. After this he was j oined by his Lieut. -General, 
Oliver Cromwell, who had been detached from the main body 
to reduce Devizes and Winchester and take the strongly- 
fortified Basing House. During the rest of the year Fairfax 
cautiously established posts on the east side of Exeter, and 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 79 

sent detachments to hinder the introduction of supplies from 
the west. 

On Jan. 9th, 1646, Cromwell surprised a part of Lord 
Wentworth's brigade at Bovey Tracey by a night attack, and 
on Jan. 18th Fairfax carried Dartmouth by storm, when his 
men adopted the original plan of rushing to the assault with 
their shirt-tails hanging out, in order to be able to distinguish 
friend from foe. Soon after this Fairfax learnt that the Prince's 
army under Hopton's command was on the march for Torrington, 
in the hope of falling upon him whilst he was engaged in the 
siege of Exeter. Leaving a large part of his force under Sir 
Hardress Waller to carry on the blockade, and despatching a 
strong body of horse northwards to keep back the Royal garrison 
of Barnstaple from coming to Hopton's assistance, he advanced 
to meet the enemy. After a sharp struggle the defences erected 
at the eastern entrance to Torrington were carried (Feb. 25th, 
1646), but, in the words of Fairfax himself, it was " a hotter 
service than any storm this army hath before been upon." 
Twice repulsed by pikes and the butt ends of muskets, his 
soldiers at last drove back their opponents till " it pleased God 
to make the enemy fly from their works." Fifty barrels 
of powder, the whole of Hopton's remaining ammunition, 
which had been deposited in the church, now blew up with 
a terrific roar. After this, retreat was inevitable, and 
under cover of night the Royalists made their way across 
the Torridge. 

The victory encouraged Fairfax to make short work of the 
enemy. The Prince had retreated from Tavistock to Truro, 
whence he escaped by way of Pendennis Castle to the Scilly 
Isles. Hopton was closely followed by Fairfax to Bodmin, 
and ultimately surrendered on honourable terms, his army 
being finally disbanded on March 20th. On April 13th the 
Parliamentary forces entered Exeter, and a week later both 
Barnstaple and Dunster Castle surrendered. The little fort of 
Salcombe held out for about three weeks later, and Oxford 
surrendered in June, but Pendennis Castle was not taken until 
August. 

The Parliamentary army thus became master of the situation. 
Charles had already taken refuge with the Scots, but, on the 
failure of negotiations for the abolition of Episcopacy and the 
establishment of Presbyterianism, he was handed over to the 
Parliament and then taken prisoner by the Army. In little more 
than two years he was condemned to death and executed (Jan. 
30th, 1649), and Cromwell eventually became supreme head 
of the kingdom. The great seal of the Commonwealth shows 



80 The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 

the nation represented by the House of Commons, but above 
the Commons was the Army, and Cromwell was Lord General 
as well as Lord Protector. 

As the first rumblings of the coming war were heard at South 
Molton, so Were the last rumblings of the after-clap that occurred 
in 1655. In that year Col. John Penruddock and other gentle- 
men of Wiltshire surprised Salisbury and declared for Charles II. 
The success of the rising was never for a moment probable. 
The insurgents made off on the first appearance of the Protector's 
troopers, and were finally brought to bay at South Molton by 
Capt. Unton Crook. A dozen of the insurgents were hanged at 
Exeter, but the leaders " had so much favour showed them as 
to be beheaded." Then followed the institution of Major- 
Generals of districts, decimation of the property of the Royalists, 
and other acts of despotic power. The Restoration of the 
Monarchy, under the guidance of that most distinguished North 
Devon man, George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, was the natural 
reaction, and was hailed throughout the country with 
enthusiasm. 



A Devon Wife. 

Whativer dii 'er kep on vor ? 'Er niver be 'appy, 'er baint, 
Unless 'er can bullyrag zomebody ; an' I be zo meek as a zaint ! 
I've always a-bin a gude 'usband, a proper gude 'usband to she, 
But 'er be a rampaging, drabitted, fussocky body, 'er be. 

I can't a-zay 'er be lazy, vor that baint axackly true ; 
Yii niver did zee anybody rout about 'ouze as 'er dii ; 
But Zolomon 'as zed, an' I reckon et's true as my life — • 
Better an 'ouze unvitty than a clapper-clawing wife. 

What wi' 'er crinkum-crankums, dang my ole wig vor me, 
Ef 'er idden a wapsy wife as iver a man could zee ! 
Er 'oppeth about the 'ouze like a cat upon 'ot bricks, 
Wi' niver an end to 'er craking an' fanty-sheeny tricks. 

But yet 'er be my missis, the chillern's mawther too ; 

'Er's wan of the right zort, 'er is, at bottom, that be true ; 

An' what I 'ave zed, I'll zay et — I'll stand by what I 'ave zed — 

But ef any one else should zay et, I'll vetch'n a clout 'n tha head. 

Arthur L. Salmon. 
(From " West-County Verses." Blackwood.) 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 81 



John Gay and the " Beggar's Opera/* 

By W. H. K. WRIGHT, F.R.H.S., F.L.A., 
Borough Librarian, Plymouth, 

Who was John Gay ? When did he flourish ? For what was. 
he famous ? These are questions pertinent to the time, and ft. 
is to be doubted if a satisfactory answer could be given to either 
or all of them by one's ordinary acquaintances. 

These are, however, the questions which I propound, and 
which I purpose to answer, to the best of my ability, in the 
present paper. 

Who in these days of light opera and still lighter comedy, 
knows anything about the " Beggar's Opera," the piece which 
revolutionized English opera in the early years of the eighteenth 
century ? 

An ingenious individual not long ago gathered some statistics 
relative to literary mortality in London during the eighteenth 
century. Among other things, he says that 3000 books were 
still-born, 320 met with sudden death, and upwards of 4000 
perished by the sky-rockets, pastry-cooks, trunk-makers, and 
worms, but none died of old age. 

He states further, that of 3000 authors in London at a certain 
period, one third died of lunacy, 1200 starved, 17 were hanged, 
15 committed suicide, and mad dogs, vipers, and mortification 
took off the rest. 

This sounds rather ominous and rather improbable, since we 
are aware that a sufficient number of worthy authors remained 
to make the eighteenth century one of the most brilliant of 
literary eras. 

John Gay was one of those who survived the dire calamities 
above enumerated. 

The very name of Gay is suggestive of the merry old times in 
which he flourished. 

We no sooner mention his name than a troop of his lusty 
associates cluster about us. They clamber up on our chairs, 
peep out from behind our bookshelves, and gather around out 
hearthstone, enticing us to indulge in the most intoxicating of 
reveries. 

Our trials and tribulations are for the time being forgotten, 
and again we set to dreaming old, old dreams. We loiter down 
the noisy thoroughfares of that rollicking age — when Prior 
rhymed, and Sterne joked, and Steele jested, and Addison 

6 



82 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

moralized, and Swift satirized, and Walpole scribbled, and Pope 
lisped in numbers. Fair ladies in rich brocades, prim damsels 
in taffeta gowns, bold actresses, buxom orange girls, and mis- 
chievous servant maids in bewitching tuckers, go fluttering by, 
tempting many a dignified statesman to forget his diplomacy, 
many a savant to forget his wisdom, and many a divine his 
prayer-book. 

As the scene shifts, we are surrounded by a bevy of lusty 
rustic lasses, accompanied by their rural swains, and, as they 
trip it on the green, we hear them singing : — 

" Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, 
Old Time is still a-flying ; 
And this same flower that smiles to-day, 
To-morrow will be dying." 

These are the people whom Gay knew ; these are the people 
of whom he sang ; and these are the people with whom we love 
to mingle, when, in idle moments, we lose ourselves in the 
realms of fancy. 

John Gay was a native of Devonshire, the exact place of his 
birth being open to conjecture ; but it is known that he was 
baptized at Barnstaple, on the 16th of September, 1685, and 
therefore we may fairly assign him to that ancient and deservedly 
famous North Devon town. 

We first see him as a lad of ten seated with his schoolmates in 
one of the old pews of Barnstaple parish church. The sermon 
is long, as sermons in those days were wont to be, even more so 
than in our own days. The boys grow restless, and finally 
Master John takes out his jack knife and carves his name on the 
oaken bench, his chum does the same, adding the date 1695. 
This interesting relic of Gay's early days has recently come to 
light, and is now carefully preserved at the Barnstaple Athenaeum ; 
naturally the Barumites are proud of the association of their 
town with the poet Gay, and rightly so. 

Gay was educated by a schoolmaster named Luck, at the local 
grammar school ; but very early in life he went to London ; 
where we find him serving an apprenticeship to a mercer, a 
position highly distasteful to one with poetic proclivities. His 
health failing, owing to the confinement and long hours to 
which he was subjected, we find him recruiting himself in Devon- 
shire amongst his relations and friends. 

Later we find him serving the imperious Duchess of Monmouth, 
as secretary, and in a like capacity he travelled with the Earl of 
Clarendon. On the occasion of Gay's appointment (in 1714) as 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 83 

secretary to Lord Clarendon, he addressed the following " Epi- 
grammatical Petition " to Oxford, the Lord High Treasurer : — 

"I'm no more to converse with the swains, 

But go where fine people resort ; 
One can live without money on plains, 

But never without it at Court. 
If, when with the swains I did gambol, 

I array'd me in silver and blue ; 
When abroad, and in Courts, I did ramble, 

Pray, my Lord, how much money will do ? " 

Gay in his time played many parts, and for fourteen years he 
acted as a courtier in the drawing-rooms of the Prince and 
Princess of Wales. 

Gay's attendance at Court was actuated by constant expecta- 
tion of reward ; but, whilst hope sustained his poetic soul, it 
entirely failed to nourish his corpulent body, or enable him to 
dress " in silver loops and garments blue," in accordance with 
his own desires, and the fashion of the time. 

That he might live, therefore, he wooed the Muses, and wrote 
poems and plays which had more or less success ; more where 
his poems — the subscription for which realized him one thousand 
pounds — were concerned ; less with regard to his plays. Of the 
latter I shall have to treat more in detail later. 

When the Prince and Princess came to the throne, Gay's hopes 
revived. In order to keep his memory green in the hearts of 
royalty, he wrote a book of Fables in verse for the amusement of 
Prince William. In due time the Royal Household was settled, 
and Gay was offered the post of usher to the Princess Louisa, a 
child of ten, with the handsome emolument of two hundred 
pounds a year. This he rejected with indignation, abandoned 
St. James's, and foreswore courtly servility for ever. 

Gay was of course disappointed, but his depression did not 
last long, for it happened that about this time he had finished 
his " Beggar's Opera," which was destined to make a sensation 
throughout the kingdom. 

The idea of a Newgate Pastoral was novel in the extreme. It 
arose from a hint made by Swift through their mutual friend 
Pope, and although these writers scarcely approved of it, they 
advised the author upon it, and criticised it freely as it proceeded. 

When Gay showed it to Congreve, the latter said, " It would 
either take greatly or be damned confoundedly." 

Gay had other motives in this play than those of merely amus- 
ing theatre goers. He felt himself injured and disappointed by 
his failure to obtain courtly preferment, and he determined to 
avenge his wrongs on courtiers and ministers in general, and the 
Prime Minister in particular. 



84 The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 

Therefore, though his Opera was finished, he skilfully changed 
it so as to compare, as Swift says, " the common robbers of the 
public, and their several stratagems of betraying, undermining, 
and hanging each other, to the several arts of the politicians in 
times of corruption." 

According to a writer in the Mirror, many of the pieces in 
this play were written or altered by Pope, " whose wit ignited 
into a fiercer fire." 

The song of Peachum, the thief-taker, as written by Gay, was 
less severe, until Pope altered the last two lines : — 

" The priest calls the lawyer a cheat, 
The lawyer be-knaves the divine ; 
And the statesman, because he 's so great, 
Thinks his trade is as honest as mine." 

These stood in Gay's manuscript : — 

" And there's many arrive to be. great, 
By a trade not more honest as mine." 

Again, Pope wrote the still more audacious verses in the song of 
Macheath, after his being taken : — 

" Since laws were made for every degree, 
To curb vice in others as well as in me, 
I wonder we hadn't better company 
Upon Tyburn tree." 

We cannot now understand these allusions, time has blunted 
their political sharpness, but it seems certain that some of the 
scenes were intended to satirize the leading men of the day. 

The piece was first offered to Colley Cibber and his brother- 
managers of Drury Lane, by whom it was rejected, but imme- 
diately accepted by John Rich, and first performed at the 
Theatre Royal, in Lincoln's Inn Fields, on the 29th January, 1728. 

The success of the new piece was remarkable, and it ran for 
sixty-three consecutive nights, a rare distinction in those days. 

It was said of it by some wag of the time, that " It made Gay 
rich and Rich gay" 

Let me describe the scenes enacted in and around Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, from the newspapers of the period : — 

" On Monday," says the Daily Journal, " was represented for 
the first time at the Theatre Royal in Lincoln's Inn Fields, Mr. 
Gay's English Opera, written in a manner wholly new, and very 
entertaining, there being introduced, instead of Italian airs, 
above sixty of the most celebrated old English and Scotch tunes. 
There was present then, as well as at last night, a prodigious 
concourse of nobility and gentry, and no theatrical performance 
for these many years has met with so much applause." 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 85 

" The excitement it caused," says another writer, " through- 
out the length and breadth of London, was indeed remarkable. 
The exterior of Lincoln's Inn Fields playhouse nightly presented 
a scene of confusion. Crowds blocked the doors hours previous 
to their opening ; link boys, chairmen, and footmen wrangled to 
make place for their masters and employers ; orange-women 
cried their wares in shrill tones ; ballad-singers droned and sold 
songs of the opera ; sedans jostled each other amidst the curses 
of Hibernian carriers ; and the constant and heavy roll of 
ponderous coaches, added to the general noise and bustle. In- 
side the theatre, men of all parties and women of every condi- 
tion assembled ; ministers who were ridiculed came to protest 
their indifference to satire by laughing with the crowd ; and 
grave clergymen, doffing their bands and their gowns, sat 
disguised in the pit amongst saucy coxcombs." 

It had other effects equally remarkable. It drove the Italian 
Opera, which it burlesqued, out of the field ; its songs were sung 
in every drawing-room, and its verses printed on the fans of 
women of quality. Its fame spread from London to the pro- 
vinces, and it was seen and applauded in all the large towns of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

" We are as full of it," wrote Dean Swift from Dublin to the 
author, " as London can be ; continually acting, and houses 
crammed, and the Lord-Lieutenant several times there laughing 
his heart out. We hear a million stories about the opera ; of 
the applause of the song when two ministers were in a box 
together, and all the world staring at them." 

Undoubtedly a great portion of the success was due to the 
witty and vivacious manner in which the character of Polly 
Peachum was played by Miss Fenton. Walker, who took the 
part of Captain Macheath, was also a great success. 

As is well known, Miss Fenton gained both fame and fortune 
for her admirable acting of Polly Peachum. The part afforded 
full scope for her talents : her innate grace, her winning archness, 
and seductive ways greatly delighted the town ; and Rich, the 
manager, was so pleased that he doubled her salary. She was 
declared to be inimitable. 

" Her gray eyes sparkled with merriment, her softly rounded 
cheeks suffused with blushes, her cherry lips parted in smiles, 
her graceful form bending to a curtsey, she came forward night 
after night to receive universal applause. When enthusiasm had 
subsided, and she had spoke the first lines of her part, declaring 
a woman knew how to be mercenary, though she had never been 
in a court or at an assembly, she broke into the song : — 
' Virgins are like the fair flow'r in its lustre,' 



86 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

and by her piquancy completed the fascination her appearance 
had begun.' ' 

Her name was on all men's lips ; her pictures were engraved 
and sold in great numbers ; books of letters and verses addressed 
to her were published, and pamphlets made of her sayings and jests. 

It may be remembered that Miss Fenton eventually became 
Duchess of Bolton, one of the many romantic episodes in the 
history of the stage. 

Among other results of the publication of the " Beggar's 
Opera," there arose a hot dispute as regards its probable effect 
on public morals. Swift gave it as his conviction that Gay " by 
turn of humour entirely new, placed vices of all kinds in the 
strongest and most odious light, and thereby had done eminent 
service to both religion and morality." 

The Rev. Thomas Herring, a Court Chaplain, and afterwards 
Archbishop of Canterbury, differed from the Dean, and denounced 
the opera from the pulpit. 

The Dean retorted, and hoped that " no clergyman should be 
so weak as to imitate a Court Chaplain who preached against 
the • Beggar's Opera,' which will probably do more good than 
a thousand sermons of so stupid, so injudicious a divine." 

Other arguments followed, and eventually that worthy 
Justice, Sir John Fielding, declared " many robbers had con- 
fessed they had been seduced by the ' Beggar's Opera ' to begin 
the commission of those crimes which finally brought them to 
the gallows." 

It is interesting to note that this play retained its popularity 
well into the last century. It was, I find, performed in London, 
at the Avenue Theatre, as recently as November, 1886, when 
the late Mr. Sims Reeves took the character of Captain Macheath, 
and Mrs. Phillipine Siedle that of Polly Peachum. 

It was performed on several occasions in the old Plymouth 
Theatre, Frankfort Gate, and also at the Theatre Royal in the 
days of the late Mr. J. R. Newcombe. 

Gay was so encouraged by the success of his " Beggar's 
Opera," that he produced a second part which he called " Polly," 
but it was prohibited by the Lord Chamberlain, and consequently 
not performed. However, it was published, and realized a 
considerable sum for the author. Colman put it on the stage at 
the Haymarket Theatre in 1777, but it did not take with the 
public, and has never been revived. 

Before I pass on to his other work, I may observe that 
Gay's fame chiefly rests upon the " Beggar's Opera." It is an 
attractive theme, and affords scope for much fuller treatment 
than I am able to give it in this paper. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 87 

Gay's earliest published poem was entitled " Wine " ; this 
was produced in 1708. In 1712 he contributed a translation of 
one of Ovid's " Metamorphoses," afterwards incorporated in 
Garth's " Ovid," the noble folio published by Tonson in 1727. 

"Rural Sports: a Georgic," appeared in 1713, and was 
dedicated to Pope, and it is said this so pleased the little bard of 
Twickenham, that he resolved to be Gay's friend from that day 
forward, and kept his word. 

Pope, hearing later that Gay was writing " The Fan," a poem 
in two books, wrote the author this dainty little letter : — 

" I am very much recreated and refreshed with the news of 
the advancement of ' The Fan,' which I doubt not will delight 
the eye and sense of the fair, so long as that agreeable little 
machine shall play in the hands of posterity. I am glad your 
fan is mounted so soon, but I would have you varnish and glaze 
it at your leisure, and polish the sticks so much as you can. You 
may then cause it to be borne in the hands of both sexes, no less 
in England than in China, where it is ordinary for a mandarin 
to fan himself cool after a debate, and a statesman to hide his 
face with when he tells a great lie." 

In " Rural Sports " Gay evinced a considerable knowledge of 
country life, and gave a very accurate description of those manly 
sports and exercises then in vogue, and in which it may be 
inferred he himself was no mean, adept. 

His descriptions of country scenes are full of poetry, and 
show a thorough appreciation of the beauties of nature. 

We next find him engaged upon " The Mohocks : a Tragi- 
comical Farce," which, announced to be performed at Covent 
Garden, was never put upon the stage. 

The " Mohocks " of Gay's time were akin to the " Hooligans " 
of a recent period, but were of a different social order. They 
are described as a class of ruffian who at one time infested the 
streets of London. So called from the Indian Mohocks. One of 
their " new inventions " was to roll persons down Snow Hill in a 
tub ; another to overturn coaches on rubbish heaps ; to break 
windows ; overthrow the boxes of the night watchmen, and to 
commit many another mad prank. 

These miscreants, presuming on their wealthy connections to 
escape from the punishment they so richly deserved, used to 
maltreat every inoffensive person they met, under the idea of 
frolic. 

Gay's first attempt at dramatic writing was in " The Wife of 
Bath," first acted at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, in 1713. 
It was not a success, either then or subsequently. 

His next essay was of a different character, and was more 



88 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

successful. He had come under the notice of those two great 
patrons of letters, Oxford and Bolingbroke, and it was at the 
express desire of the latter that Gay had his Pastorals printed. 
This work was entitled " The Shepherd's Week/' and is un- 
doubtedly one of the most pleasing and poetical of all Gay's 
works. They have been regarded as fair pictures of the rural 
life of England of the period, and have been perused with delight 
by many generations of readers. 

"In 1715, a little play of Gay's, " What D'ye Call It ? " was 
acted at Drury Lane. It was an inoffensive and good-natured 
burlesque on the absurdities in some of the tragedies then in 
vogue ; particularly " Venice Preserved," the principal charac- 
ters in which are ridiculed, with much humour and some justice, 
in the parts of Filbert, Peascod, and Kitty Carroll. 

I have already said that Gay's fame rests chiefly upon the 
" Beggar's Opera," but it shares the honours in my opinion with 
" Trivia." This poem is eminently readable, and contains a 
large amount of interesting information. It gives a close and 
accurate picture of London in the early part of the eighteenth 
century ; of the street life, the street characters, of the habits of 
the people, the street cries, the popular customs, the costumes, 
and all the multitudinous characteristics which go to make up 
the life of a great city. It also enables us to compare our own 
London of the early years of the twentieth century with London 
as Gay knew it, just two hundred years ago. 

" Trivia " is, as I have said, a most informing work, and may 
be perused with advantage. A lengthy paper might be made 
upon this very attractive work, and copious extracts might be 
quoted ; but I must to other themes. 

In a little Farce, entitled " Three Hours after Marriage," 
produced at Drury Lane in 1717, Gay was associated with Pope 
and Arbuthnot ; but the piece was deservedly censured, and its 
authors gained opprobrium instead of praise. It was supposed 
to have been directed against some men of repute, and the result 
was that soon after its appearance on the stage and its simul- 
taneous appearance from Lintot's press (Gay's publisher), there 
appeared " A Complete Key to the New Farce called ' Three 
Hours after Marriage,' with an Account of the Authors." This 
was written by E. Parker. 

There is some pretty writing in an epistle which Gay wrote to 
the Earl of Burlington, describing a journey to Exeter. Many 
amusing incidents are recorded, and we are given a good picture 
of life upon the road as it was in those early days. 

This poem was published a short time ago in the English 
Illustrated Magazine, with a series of spirited illustrations by 
Hugh Thomson. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 89 

The poem is too lengthy to give in extenso, and its interesting 
features cannot be given in a brief extract ; I will content my- 
self, therefore, with giving in its stead a short poem by Gay, 
entitled : — 

A DEVONSHIRE HILL. 

" Oft shepherds enamour'd, in pastoral lays, 

Sweetly sung of the grove, grot, or fountain, 
No scene that is rural but loudly its praise 

They have echo'd from mountain to mountain. 
Some delighted have been with a meadow or vale, 

But with these my taste never could tally ; 
The meadow is pleasant, enchanting the dale, 

But a hill I prefer to a valley. 

" For prospect extended, and landscape most rare, 

With health-breathing breezes inviting, 
No daisy-pied mead with a hill can compare, 

No garden yield sweets more delighting. 
As a mole-heap 's excell'd by a mound that 's raised high, 

As a street may exceed a small alley, 
Even so to my mind, when these objects are nigh, 

Is the hill I prefer to a valley. 

But the hill of all hills, and most pleasing to me, 

Is famed Cotton, the pride of North Devon ; 
When its summit I climb, O ! I then seem to be 

Just as if I approached nearer heaven. 
When with troubles depress'd, to this hill I repair, 

My spirits then instantly rally ; 
It was near this bless'd spot I first drew vital air, 

So — a hill I prefer to a valley." 

He also wrote, after a visit to Paris, a racy piece dealing with 
what he termed, " The Fopperies of that Nation," meaning the 
French. In this short poem Gay draws a beautiful picture of 
Fenelon's " Telemachus," and concludes with a panegyric on 
England. 

Let us now take a passing glimpse of another side of Gay's 
character. He was essentially a Bohemian by disposition, 
never so happy as when rambling about from place to place. 
Swift rallies Gay on this propensity : — 

" If your ramble was on horseback, I am glad of it, upon 
account of your health ; but I know your arts of patching up a 
journey between stage coaches and friends' coaches ; for you 
are as arrant a Cockney as any hosier in Cheapside. One clean 
shirt, with two cravats, and as many handkerchiefs, make up 
your equipage ; and as for your night-gown, it is clear from 
Homer, that Agamemnon rose without one. I have often had 
it in my head to put it into yours, that you ought to have some 



go The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

great work in scheme, which may take up seven years to finish, 
besides two or three under ones ; that they may add another 
thousand pound to your stock ; and then I shall be in less pain 
about you. I know you can find dinners, but then you love 
twelve-penny coaches too well, without considering that the 
interest of a whole thousand pounds brings you but half-a-crown 
a day." 

Gay's next, and one of his chief, speculative ventures, was the 
publication of his collected poems by subscription, in two large 
volumes, quarto. This was in 1720. 

Prefixed to the work is a lengthy list of subscribers, which 
bears testimony to the popularity of the writer at the time. 

The Prince and Princess of Wales supported him ; the Duke 
of Chandos and the Earl of Burlington took fifty copies each, 
and Mr. Pulteney took twenty-five copies. By this publication 
Gay realized about one thousand pounds. 

Doubtless this is what Swift refers to in the letter already 
quoted. 

" Dione," a Pastoral Tragedy, next appeared. 

"This," says Dr. Johnson, "is a counterpart of ' Amynta ' 
and ' Pastor Fido,' and other trifles of the kind, easily imitated 
and unworthy of imitation. What the Italians call comedies, 
from a happy conclusion, Gay calls a tragedy, from a mournful 
event ; but the style of the Italians and of Gay is equally tragical. 
There is something in the poetical Arcadia so remote from 
known reality and speculative possibility, that we can never 
support its representation through a long work. A pastoral of 
a hundred lines may be endured, but who will hear of sheep and 
goats, and myrtle bowers, and purling rivulets through five 
acts ? " 

Another play, " The Captives," appeared in 1724, and was 
produced at Drury Lane. It had, however, but little merit, 
and little success ; and after its production Gay appears to have 
desisted for a time from his literary labours. 

Of his " Fables " I have already spoken in passing ; but I 
cannot pass them by with so meagre a notice, as they really 
occupy a very important place in our consideration of Gay's 
works. 

These Fables have been severely criticized, but they have 
stood the ordeal fairly well, and have given pleasure to many 
generations of readers from their first issue down to the present 
time. 

The test of their popularity may be found in the fact that at 
least one hundred and thirty-two editions of them were pub- 
lished between the years 1726 and 1882. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 91 

A few years ago I undertook to edit an edition of these Fables 
for the Chandos Classics ; and to prepare a Bibliography. I 
collected every edition of the Fables that came in my way, as 
well as many other works by Gay, until at one time I had between 
two and three hundred volumes appertaining to Gay in my 
possession. A large proportion of these went to replenish the 
stock in the British Museum, which was, up to that time, 
singularly deficient in editions of Gay's classic. 

Gay's " Fables " have been translated into several European 
languages ; and they are to be found as school books in some of 
the vernaculars of India ; several editions have also appeared in 
America. 

Some of the early editions were beautifully illustrated, parti- 
cularly what is known as Stockdale's edition, which contains 
exquisite plates by William Blake, Lovegrove, Skelton, Wilson, 
Grainger, Audinet, Cook, and Mazell. The first edition con- 
tained plates by Van der Gucht, Gravelot, Fourdrinier, and 
many others ; whilst many of the later editions have Bewick's 
graphic illustrations. 

The fable, " The Hare and Many Friends," is the most 
natural and delightful of the whole series, as well as the most 
interesting^ from the fact that Gay designed himself under the 
character of the hare, for no man was more beloved, no man 
had more friends, and yet no man ever gained less by them than 
poor John Gay. Hence Pope says of him : " Gay dies unpen- 
sioned with a hundred friends." In this Fable he ingeniously 
follows out the ramifications of human treachery, and shows 
how deceit is universally allied to cowardice, and hypocrisy 
to equivocation. 

Doubtless some amongst the readers of this sketch are familiar 
with Handel's " Acis and Galatea " ; but few will know that the 
words of that delightful work were written by Gay, and that it 
was first performed at the Haymarket Theatre in 1732. 

One of the most popular and well-known airs which occurs in 
this work is that fine bass solo " O ! Ruddier than the Cherry," 
which taxes the register of even proficient singers. 

In or about the same year (1732) Gay produced " Achilles, an 
Opera." This piece, which is in the manner of the " Beggar's 
Opera," is a ludicrous attempt to relate the discovery of Achilles 
by Ulysses. The scene is laid in the Court of Lycomedes. 
Achilles is in woman's attire throughout the play, and it con- 
cludes with his marriage to Deidamia. It gave rise to two or 
three squibs, one of which was entitled " Achilles Dissected," 
and another " Achilles in Petticoats." Needless to say the play 
was not a success. 



92 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



Two other works written by Gay, but not published until after 
his death, were: "The Distress'd Wife: a Comedy," and "The 
Rehearsal at Goatham." These pieces were not up to the 
standard of Gay's other works, and therefore call for no considera- 
tion or commendation. Besides those I have mentioned, there 
are to be found in his collected works numerous Epistles, 
Tales, Elegies, Eclogues, Songs, and Ballads. Amongst the 
last are several which rank amongst the best of English 
lyrical productions. 

In the various operas written by Gay are to be found nearly 
two hundred songs and ballads, many of which are still popular. 

Two of the best known are " All in the Downs," or, as it is 
generally called, "Black-eyed Susan," and " 'Twas when the 
Seas were Roaring." He also wrote a ballad on " Ale," in 
which he sings the praises of " Nappy Ale," a beverage well- 
known and appreciated in Devon. It is too long to quote, but 
it will be found in the collected works of John Gay, edited by 
John Underhill, 1893. Another well-known ballad was " Molly 
Mog ; or, the Fair Maid of the Inn." This was written on an 
innkeeper's daughter at Oakingham, in Berkshire. Among 
Gay's other accomplishments, it may be noted that he was 
musical, and that he sang, as well as played well on the flute. 

Some of Gay's sayings have become proverbial, as witness the 
following : — 

" Dearest friends must part." 

" While there's life there's hope." 

" Two of a trade can never agree." 

" When a lady's in the case 
You know all other things give place." 

" Those who in quarrels interpose 
Must often wipe a bloody nose." 

" How happy could I be with either 
Were t'other dear charmer away." 

Space fails me to speak of many matters of interest relating to 
Gay ; of the discovery, not many years ago, of a lot of unpub- 
lished papers in the secret drawer of an old chair which had once 
belonged to the poet, and how they were published in 1820, 
under the title, " Gay's Chair," With interesting information 
concerning the poet. Nor can I refer to the many imitators he 
had, or to the numerous eulogistic references to him by his 
intimate friends and contemporaries ; these alone would fill a 
volume. It only remains to make a few observations concerning 
his last days and death. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 93 

He had been ailing for some time, but his death was in a 
manner unexpected. He was preparing his Opera " Achilles " 
for the stage, when he caught a fever, and in three days he was 
dead. 

His death took place at the residence of the Duke of Queens- 
berry, in Burlington Gardens, Piccadilly, on the 4th December, 
1732. 

Naturally, his decease was a source of great sorrow to his 
large circle of friends, including Pope, Swift, Arbuthnot, the 
Duchess of Queensberry, and many others. 

He was buried in Westminster Abbey amid considerable 
state, and a monument was erected to his memory, the sculptor 
being the famous Mr. Rysbrack. 

Pope penned the following eulogium, which was placed upon 
the monument : — 

" Of manners gentle, of affections mild, 
In wit a man, simplicity a child ; 
With native humour, tempering virtuous rage, 
Form'd to delight at once and lash the age. 
Above temptation in a low estate, 
And uncorrupted, e'en among the great ; 
A safe companion, and an easy friend, 
Unblam'd through life, lamented in thy end. 
These are thy honours, not that here thy bust 
Is mix'd with heroes, or with kings thy dust ; 
But that the worthy and the good shall say, 
Striking their pensive bosoms — Here lies Gay ! " 

Gay had himself written the following remarkable couplet, 
which he communicated to Pope, with a request that it might be 
put upon his tombstone after his decease, a request that was 
acceded to : — 

" Life is a jest, and all things show it, 
I thought so once, but now I know it." 



94 The Devonian Year Book, 19 13 

Thomas Newcomen, 
and the Birth of the Steam Engine. 

By RHYS JENKINS, M.I.M.E. 

Examiner in the Patent Office. 

Of the various agencies which have contributed to the marvellous 
advance in the material welfare of the community during the 
last hundred years, one of the most important, if not the most 
important, has been the steam engine. We see it applied on all 
sides — for draining and hoisting in mines, for pumping in con- 
nection with public water supply, for driving mills and factories, 
in locomotives, and for propelling ships. In recent years it has 
been displaced to some extent in particular applications, by 
another form of steam motor — the steam turbine, by gas and 
petrol engines, and by the electrical transmission of power 
produced by natural means — the fall of water — at a distant 
point. These rivals, however, owe their existence to the steam 
engine itself. Without the increase in scientific knowledge, the 
advance in mechanical engineering and manufacturing art 
generally, and the improved materials of construction which 
have resulted from the extended use of the steam engine, the 
construction of these alternative sources of motive power would 
not have been possible. 

Now the ordinary steam engine of to-day — the cylinder and 
piston engine — is the direct descendant of the " atmospheric 
engine " invented, for raising water, at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, by Thomas Newcomen, of Dartmouth. 

Newcomen's invention was called an atmospheric engine 
because it relied upon the pressure of the atmosphere to perform 
the working stroke. Steam, at about the same pressure as the 
atmosphere, was admitted under a piston in a cylinder ; when 
the cylinder was fully charged and the admission valve closed, 
the steam was condensed by the injection of cold water, with the 
result that a vacuum was formed in the cylinder ; the piston 
was thereupon pressed down by the weight or pressure of the 
column of air above it, and its downward movement was arranged 
to produce an upward movement of the pump rods by means of 
a centrally pivoted lever, from the opposite ends of which the 
piston and pump rods respectively were suspended. The valves 
for controlling the supply of steam and condensing water were 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 95 

worked automatically, and the cylinder was placed directly over 
the boiler. 

The great majority of modern engines are arranged to impart 
movement to a rotating shaft ; they use steam at a pressure 
greater than that of the atmosphere, in some cases considerably 
greater, which by its own pressure effects the working stroke 
of the piston, and in many cases the vacuum to be obtained by 
condensing the steam after it has performed the working stroke 
is not utilized ; moreover, in general, the steam is admitted 
alternately to opposite ends of the cylinder, so that the move- 
ment of the piston in each direction is an effective or working 
stroke. But all these, and other, modifications have been 
arrived at by successive steps from the engine of Newcomen. 
The modern steam engine is considerably more efficient, and it 
has been adapted to a wide range of services, but the engine as 
Newcomen left it had the great merit that it could be constructed 
by the mechanics of his day, and in such a manner that it could 
perform successfully the work it was required to do. 

Devon has many sons whose names are known far and wide, 
and of whom she is justly proud ; but if we consider the welfare 
of the human race, not merely the advantage and glory of 
England, it would seem that we must accord a place in the front 
rank to the obscure inventor, Thomas Newcomen. 

It is exactly two hundred years since the first atmospheric 
pumping-engine was set to work, and a proposal is now on foot 
to erect a memorial to the inventor in his native town.* It 
seems fitting that some account of him and his engine should 
appear in The Devonian Year Book. 

Unfortunately our knowledge of the life and character of 
Thomas Newcomen is very meagre : we have the main facts as 
to his birth, marriage, and death, and very little beyond. 

He was born at Dartmouth in the year 1663, and was baptised 
in St. Saviour's Church in that town on February 28th. His 
father, Elias, was the grandson of another Elias Newcomen, 
who came into Devonshire in the year 1600. The earlier Elias 
was the younger son of Charles Newcomen, of Bourne, Lincoln- 
shire, who came of the family of Newcomen of Saltrleetby in 
that county ; he graduated B.A. at Cambridge in 1568-9, and 
afterwards set up a grammar school near London ; he married, 
in 1579, Prothesa Shobridge, of Shoreditch, and in 1600 was 
presented to the living of Stoke Fleming, Devon, where he died 
and was buried in 1614. 

* Contributions may be sent to the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. A. R. Gregory, 
Lloyd's Bank, Dartmouth, or to the Hon. Secretary, Mr. T. F. Caston, 
Northcote, South Ford Road, Dartmouth. 



g6 The Devonian Year Book, 19 13 

Some of the members of the Devonshire branch of the family 
seem to have attained to positions of importance in the county. 
In 1651 Thomas Newcomen, of Dartmouth, merchant, probably 
the uncle of the inventor, executed a deed of indemnity in the 
sum of £3000 in favour of William Lane, of Aveton Gifford, in 
the County of Devon, who had become his surety in a suit " then 
depending before the judges in the Upper Bench at Westminster." 
This would seem to be the same individual as the Thomas 
Newcomen who died in 1653, leaving two sons, Robert and 
Elias, and four daughters, and whose will mentions, among 
other items, " the house sold by my father-in-law Philpotte," 
and " Irish lands I adventured." 

Thomas Newcomen, the subject of this sketch, is stated by 
Mr. Lidstone, of Dartmouth, to have been apprenticed to an 
ironmonger at Exeter. He then set up in business in his native 
town, and married, in 1705, Hannah Waymouth, the daughter of 
a farmer at Malborough, near Kingsbridge. He had two sons, 
Thomas and Elias. Lidstone says that Thomas was a serge- 
maker in Taunton, and that Elias assisted his father in connection 
with his engine work, and he mentions a third child, Hannah, 
who married Mr. Wolcott, uncle to the celebrated " Peter Pindar." 
Lidstone adds that Newcomen's portrait was painted in oils by 
" Peter," but is thought to be lost. According to the same 
authority, Newcomen, who was a Baptist, preached occasionally 
himself and held meetings in his house, which led to his being 
prosecuted by the authorities.* 

Mr. Lidstone was a diligent student of the history of Newcomen. 
It appears that in 1851 and again in 1873, he was advocating the 
erection of a monument to the memory of the inventor. 

Before proceeding to the work of Newcomen himself, it will 
be necessary to set out in brief the position of affairs when he 
took up the problem. There was urgent need of some agency 
to replace men or horses for pumping water from mines. It 
had been proposed to produce motion in machines by the aid of 
a jet of steam acting upon a paddle-wheel. It was known to 
philosophers that the atmosphere possessed weight, and that 
when a vessel with a narrow orifice, and containing water, had 
been placed on a fire so as to convert the water into steam, and 
then had the orifice placed in water, the steam remaining in the 
vessel would condense, and a fresh charge of water would be 
sucked up through the orifice. 



* "Newcomen." Digest of a paper read at the Exeter Meeting of the 
Royal Archaeological Institute, August 1st, 1873, by Mr. Thomas Lidstone, 
of Dartmouth. Reprint from the Dartmouth Chronicle. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 97 

In 1678-9 Huyghens proposed to use the cylinder and piston, 
in common use for pumps, for the production of motive power 
from the pressure of the air, using the rarefaction produced by 
the explosion of gunpowder under the piston. In 1687 Papin, 
a Frenchman, was engaged on the same project — the use of gun- 
powder ; then in 1690 he conceived the idea of forming a vacuum 
under the piston by the condensation of steam. This is the 
principle of the atmospheric engine, but Papin did not make an 
engine or suggest a construction which could be applied in 
practice. His apparatus was fitted merely for laboratory 
experiments, and apparently he proposed both to generate and 
condense the steam in the working cylinder. 

The next step we have to consider is the invention of Thomas 
Savery, another Devonian. In 1698 Savery obtained a patent 
for fourteen years for " A new invention for raising of water and 
occasioning motion to all sorts of mill work by the impellent 
force of fire." In the following year an Act of Parliament was 
passed which extended the term of his patent to thirty-five 
years. Briefly, Savery's apparatus was of this nature. The 
suction and force pipes were connected to the bottom of a vessel 
called the receiver, to the top of which was connected a pipe 
from a steam boiler. Assuming the apparatus to be in normal 
work, with the receiver charged with water, the admission of 
steam at the top of the receiver pressed upon the surface of the 
water and forced it up the force pipe, where it was retained by a 
valve ; the receiver having become charged with steam, the 
steam valve was closed and cold water applied to the outside of 
the receiver, condensation followed, and the water in the suction 
pipe rushed up into the resulting vacuum, its return being 
prevented by a valve. 

Savery's engine, except when made on a small scale, and in 
its simplest form, did not meet with success. In or about 1712 
we find him erecting a small apparatus at Campden House, 
Kensington, and a larger and more complicated one at the 
York Buildings Water Works. The former acted well and 
remained in use for years, but the latter seems to have been a 
complete failure. By this time Newcomen had appeared on 
the scene with the atmospheric engine. We are in complete 
ignorance as to the manner in which he first took up the subject, 
for we may dismiss, as a fairy tale, the tea-kettle story. It has 
been said that Newcomen was employed in the erection of some 
of the early Savery engines ; and again, that the description and 
drawing thereof came into his hands, and that he made a model 
himself, and so found out its imperfections. Switzer, who was 
personally acquainted with both Newcomen and Savery, 

7 



98 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

however, states in his Hydrostaticks and Hydraulics, 1729, that : — 

" I am well informed that Mr. Newcomen was as early in his invention 
as Mr. Savery was in his, only the latter, being nearer the Court, had 
obtained his patent before the other knew it, on which account 
Mr. Newcomen was glad to come in as a partner to it." 

Again, Dr. Robison, in his article on the " Steam Engine " in the 
1797 edition of The Encyclopedia Britannica, has the following 
account : — 

" Newcomen was a person of some reading, and was in particular 
acquainted with the person, writings, and projects of his countryman 
Dr. Hooke. There are to be found among Hooke's papers, in the 
possession of the Royal Society, some notes of observations, for the use 
of Newcomen, his countryman, on Papin's boasted method of transmit- 
ing to a great distance the action of a mill by means of pipes. Papin's 
project was to employ the mill to work two air-pumps of great diameter. 
... It would appear from these notes that Dr. Hooke had dissuaded 
Mr. Newcomen from erecting a machine on this principle, of which he 
had exposed the fallacy in several discourses before the Royal Society. 
One passage is remarkable : ' Could he (meaning Papin) make a speedy 
vacuum under your second piston, your work is done.' 

"It is highly probable that in the course of this speculation, it 
occurred to Mr. Newcomen that the vacuum he so much wanted might 
be produced by steam, and that this gave rise to his new principle and 
construction of the steam engine. The specific desideratum was in 
Newcomen's mind, and therefore when Savery's engine appeared, and 
became known in his neighbourhood many years after, he would readily 
catch at the help which it promised." 

The papers referred to have been lost sight of, and subsequent 
writers have had to rely upon Dr. Robison's note ; there is, 
however, no reason to doubt its accuracy. This information 
establishes the fact that Newcomen was engaged in the problem 
before the end of 1702 — Hooke died in March, 1703 — and it 
suggests that he may have been so engaged before 1690, the 
year in which Papin published on the Continent his plan for the 
production of a vacuum by the condensation of steam. The 
note clearly is subsequent in date to 1687, when Papin proposed 
to transmit power by means of a vacuum. 

Galloway (The Steam Engine, and its Inventors, 1881) suggests 
that although Newcomen may have been contemplating the 
construction of an atmospheric engine before the date, 1698, of 
Savery's patent, he may have thought Savery's plan, when he 
became aware of it, to be superior to his own, and did not proceed 
further with his scheme until it became clear that Savery's plan 
was a failure. 

The persistence of the idea that a patent was granted to 
Newcomen in 1705 also seems to lend colour to the view that he 
was in the field almost, if not quite, as early as Savery. It has 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 99 

been established that no patent was granted to Newcomen, a 
recent search at the Record Office failed to reveal even a petition 
for a patent in his name, and it is now the generally accepted 
view that Newcomen' s invention was worked under Savery' s 
patent. Probably it was held at the time that the grant to 
Savery covered all means for raising water by the aid of fire. 

However, we do not learn of any attempt to apply the 
Newcomen engine in practice until the year 1711, or of an actual 
application until 1712. Desaguliers (Experimental Philosophy, 
1744) states that " Tho. Newcomen Ironmonger and John 
Cawley or Calley glazier of Dartmouth — Anabaptists — in the 
latter part of the year 1711 made proposals to draw the water 
at Griff in Warwickshire, but, their invention being rejected, 
they in the following March, through the acquaintance of Mr. 
Potter of Bromsgrove in Worcestershire, bargained to draw 
water for Mr. Back of Wolverhampton, where after a great 
many laborious attempts they did make the engine work." 

This is the first cylinder and piston steam engine of which we 
have any record, and fortunately contemporary engravings 
are still in existence which show the construction fairly clearly. 
The prints bear the inscription — The Steam Engine near Dudley 
Castle. Invented by Capt. Savery, and Mr. Newcomen. Erected 
by ye latter 1712. Delin : & Sculp : by T. Barney 1719. The 
engine is shown with a self-acting valve gear, and with an arrange- 
ment for injecting water into the cylinder ; but it will be observed 
that the print is seven years later in date than the engine. 
Probably the engine when first set up had the valves worked by 
hand, and the condensing water applied outside the cylinder, 
and the print represents the machine as improved by experience 
in its working. 

Savery's patent and Act of Parliament, under which, as we 
have seen, Newcomen's invention was worked, became vested 
in a Company — " The Proprietors of the Invention for raising 
water by fire " — it is not clear at what date, possibly on the 
death of Savery in 1715. Savery by his will, made just before his 
death, left all his " estate, termes, and interest of and in any 
invention or inventions by virtue of any letters patents under 
the Great Seal or by Act of Parliament " to his wife, without 
qualification of any sort. It seems fair to assume that had he 
at that time transferred any of his rights, evidence to that 
effect would have appeared in the will. The transfer had been 
effected by 1716, for in that year we find in the London Gazette, 
Aug. 11-14, an announcement by the Company: — 

"Whereas the invention of raising water by the impellent force of 
fire, authorised by Parliament, is lately brought to the greatest perfec- 



ioo The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

tion, and all sorts of mines, etc., may be thereby drained, and water 
raised to any height with more ease and less charge than by the other 
methods hitherto used, as is sufficiently demonstrated by diverse 
engines of this invention now at work in the several counties of Stafford, 
Warwick, Cornwall, and Flint. 

" I have now therefore to give notice that if any person shall be 
desirous to treat with the Proprietors for such engines, attendance will 
be given for that purpose every Wednesday, at the Sword Blade Coffee- 
House in Birchin-lane, London, from three to five o'clock ; and if any 
letters be directed thither to be left for Mr. Eliot, the parties shall receive 
all fitting satisfaction and dispatch." 

This advertisement affords distinct evidence of the increasing 
use of the invention. The engines referred to are : in Stafford- 
shire, that near Dudley Castle ; in Warwickshire, one erected at 
Griff for Sir Richard Newdigate in 1713-15 ; in Cornwall, at Huel 
Vor ; the locality of the engine erected in Flintshire has not 
been determined. 

In 1717 an engine was at work in Austhorpe, in Yorkshire, and 
here died Newcomen's partner, Cawley, who had been engaged 
in its construction. It was at about this period that the engine 
was first applied in the coal-pits of the Newcastle-on-Tyne 
district, and a few years later the proprietors had a resident 
agent in the north, as appears from an advertisement in the 
Newcastle Courant for 1724 : — 

" This is to give notice to all gentlemen, and others, who have occasion 
for the fire engine or engines for draining of water from the collieries, 
etc., to apply to John Potter, in Chester-le-Street, who is empowered by 
the proprietors of the said fire engine to treat about the same." 

This John Potter was concerned in the erection of an engine in 
Scotland in 1725. The deed of agreement between the pro- 
prietors of the invention and the colliery owner has been 
published, and it gives, together with other information of 
value, the names of the Committee acting for the proprietors, 
viz., John Meres, of London, gent ; Thomas Beake, of West- 
minster, esquire ; Henry Robinson, citizen and mercer of 
London ; Wm. Perkins, of Westminster, tallow chandler ; and 
Ed. Wallin, of London, gent. 

Coming on to the year 1726, we find an engine at work pumping 
water from the Thames for a public supply in London. The 
York Buildings Water Works had been set up in 1676, on the 
bank of the river in York House Gardens, on a site at the lower 
end of Villiers Street, Strand, near the position of the South 
Eastern Railway station. As in other works of that period for 
supplying Thames water, the work of pumping was done by 
horses. About 1712 an engine on Savery's plan had been 
erected ; but this proved a failure, and it continued in use for 
but a short period. The Newcomen engine appears to have 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 101 

worked successfully, but the cost of fuel was found to be very 
high in proportion to the work done. Dr. Allen, a friend 
of Newcomen's stated that it amounted to at least £1000 a year. 
The cost of fuel was, of course, of vastly greater importance in 
London than it was on the coalfields, and, at any rate partly, on 
this ground the use of the engine was discontinued in 1731. 
The installation of this engine attracted a considerable amount 
of public attention and some unfavourable comment. The 
occasion was taken to issue another engraving, which is entitled, 
" The Engine for raising Water by fire." The engraver was 
Sutton Nicholls, and the plate is dated 1725. 

The York Buildings engine remained in position for some 
years after it had ceased to be worked.* In an account of 
London published in All Alive and Merry ; or, the London Daily 
Post, of Saturday, April 18, 1741, we have the following notice 
of it :— 

" There is a famous machine in York Buildings, which was erected to 
force water by means of fire, thro' pipes laid for that purpose into 
several parts of the town, and it was carry'd on for some time to effect ; 
but the charge of working it, and some other reasons concurring, made 
its proprietors, the York Buildings Company, lay aside the design ; and 
no doubt but the inhabitants in its neighbourhood are very glad of it ; 
for its working, which was by sea-coal, was attended with so much 
smoak, that it not only must pollute the air thereabouts, but spoil the 
furniture, "f 

At the same time that the York Buildings engine was being 
set up to pump water from the Thames, an engine was in course 
of erection at Passy, near Paris, to pump water from the Seine. 
In the French accounts of this engine, it is said to be by MM. 
Mey and Meyer. It appears, however, that " Mey " was one 
John May, an Englishman, and " Meyer," without doubt, was 
John Meres, of the Committee of the Proprietors. In the Report 
of the Historical Manuscripts Commission on the MSS. of the 
Earl of Egmont (vii. p. 248), is a letter, dated Paris, May 4, 1726, 
from D. Dering to Lord Percival, in which it is stated that : 

" The writer went to see Mr. Meers' fire engine at Passy. A cord and 
a half of wood serve 24 hours, and it throws out of three pipes, 24 inches 
wide, near 16 muids of water in a minute. Meers computes that when 
going to perfection it casts about 25,000 muids in 24 hours. Captain 
Savery, in England, gave the first hint of this machine." 

* Its use was discontinued in 1731, but the York Buildings Company 
had not at that date paid for it. From an account (in the Guildhall 
Library) it appears that at Christmas, 1732, among other liabilities was a 
bond to the Proprietors of the Fire Engine for ^787 10s. od. At the same 
date they owed Sir Maltis Ryal for coals to the Fire Engine £660 15s. od. 

f Wright : Caricature History of the Georges. 



102 The Devonian Year Book, 19 13 

Newcornen died in 1729. There is an obituary note in the 
Monthly Chronicle, vol. ii., p. 169 : " About the same time 
(August 7th, 1729) died Mr. Thomas Newcornen, sole inventor 
of that surprising machine for raising water by fire." Lidstone, 
from traditional information, stated that he died of a fever at 
the house of a friend in London, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 

We are now in position to substantiate the statement that 
Newcornen died in London, and to give the exact date of his 
decease, by the discovery of a most interesting letter in Dr. 
Rippon' s Collections relating to the Bunhill Fields Burial Ground, 
now preserved in the British Museum.* 

It would appear that a Thomas Newcornen, probably a son 
of Thomas Newcornen, the serge-maker of Taunton, and a 
grandson of the inventor, had come to London in 1794, and had 
applied to Dr. Rippon (who was a Devonian) for information as 
to the place of burial of his ancestor, and at Dr. Rippon's request 
had sent him the only particulars in his possession as to the 
date and circumstances of the death. The letter is on a single 
sheet of letter-paper, and is addressed on the back to Rev. Mr. 
Rippon, Grange Walk, Southwark ; it runs as follows : — 

London, $th. August, 1729. 
Dear Coz 

I am sorry that I should be the messenger of the ill tho' expected 
news of my Uncle's, yr Fathers Death, for this morning about 6 of the 
clock it pleas'd the Almighty to take him out of this miserable world, 
doubtless to enjoy a far better. Indeed Mr. Wallin very prudently 
ordered the greatest care to be taken of him that possibly could. He had 
the advice of two Skilful Physitians every day, He had a careful Nurse 
continually with him, and one or two sat up with him every night. He 
was very submissive and patient all his Illness and departed without a 
sigh or a groan, as if He had been fallen asleep. If you have any Business 
here, which I can by any possible means do for you, I desire you would 
send word of it to 

Sr Yr Sincere Friend & Servt 

John Newcomen 
Please to direct to me at 

Mr Thos Dugdale's attorney at law 
in Token House Yard, London 

To Mr Thomas Newcomen 
In Taunton 

Somerset. 

London, Somerset Coffee — in ye Strand 
Octr 4, 1794. 
Revd Sir 

Above is a Coppy of the letter you requested : shd anything come to 
hand in yr search, that wd assist me in my enquiries, please to direct for 
me whence this is dated, and you will much oblige 
" Sr Yr Obed. hble. Servt 

Thos Newcomen. 

* Add. MSS., No. 28513. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 103 

The statement, made by Lidstone, that Newcomen was buried 
in Bunhill Fields, has been verified by reference to the Register 
Book of Burials, in which, under the date, August 8th, 1729, 
is an entry, " Mr. Newcomen from St. Mary Magdalen buried in 
a valt 00-14-00." The entry supplies incidentally the name 
of the London parish in which the death took place. 

From the terms of John Newcomen's letter it would seem 
not unlikely that Newcomen died in the house of the Mr. Wallin 
referred to, but whether he lived in the parish of St. Mary 
Magdalen, or not, has not been ascertained. Mr. Wallin was no 
doubt the same person as the Ed. Wallin, of London, Gent., 
who figures in 1725 as one of the Committee of the Proprietors 
of the Invention for raising water by fire. 

It is clear that, at the time of his death, Newcomen did not 
live in London, and, although his business engagements in 
various parts of the country would suggest the desirability of 
some place of residence less inaccessible than Dartmouth must 
have been in his days, it would seem that his native place, and 
perhaps the house in which he was born, was still his home. 
The house, in Lower Street, Dartmouth, in which it was said 
that he lived, was sold and taken down in 1864 by the order 
of the Local Board of Health. Mr. Lidstone " purchased the 
ancient carved and moulded woodwork of its street frontage, 
etc., which he rebuilt in Ridge-hill, in the parish of Townstall, 
in Dartmouth ; carefully replacing in the sitting-room the clavel 
(wooden lintel) of the fireplace at which Newcomen (according 
to popular tradition) sat when he first noticed the effect steam 
produced on the lid of his tea-kettle. The house is named 
' Newcomin Cottage.' "* 

Newcomen died intestate, and letters of administration were 
granted to his widow. On this point there is, in the Woodcroft 
Collection in the Patent Office Library, a note, dated Dartmouth, 
23rd December, 1871, addressed to Bennet Woodcroft, in which 
Lidstone states : "I had an old gentleman staying with me 
this year, who has told me a host of things about Newcomen. 
This gentleman's father wound up Mrs. Newcomen's (the widow's) 
business in Dartmouth." If we are to read this note as implying 
that Newcomen carried on the business of ironmonger in Dart- 
mouth throughout his life, we are driven to the conclusion that 
he, in common with many another great inventor, had not 
found his invention pave the way to wealth. 

Newcomen did not quit the scene until he had seen a number 

* Some Account of the Residence of the Inventor of the Steam-engine, 
by Thomas Lidstone, of Dartmouth, 1869. 



104 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

of his engines successfully at work in pumping water from the 
mines in various parts of Great Britain. Others were at work 
on the Continent — in Germany, Hungary, and France. 

The protection accorded by Savery's Act of Parliament expired 
in 1733, and the removal of this restriction conduced to a more 
extended application of the engine. The celebrated engineer, 
Smeaton, erected a great number of them ; but although he 
improved the proportion of the parts, it does not appear that he 
effected any change in the essential features of the machine. 

James Watt entered the field in 1769 with his invention of the 
separate condenser ; that is to say, instead of condensing the 
steam in the working cylinder, he conceived the idea of providing 
a separate chamber for this purpose. A very considerable 
economy in fuel resulted from this invention, which was followed 
up by a series of other improvements ; these, together with the 
organization and skill of the workmen at the celebrated Soho 
works of Boulton & Watt, caused an immense advance in the 
construction of the steam engine. Nevertheless, the Newcomen 
engine still continued to be made ; and, in fact, at least one 
example is at work at the present time. 

Without detracting in any way from the genius of Watt, or 
the immense services which he rendered in the application of 
steam as a motive power, we must remember that the pioneer 
work had been done by Thomas Newcomen. 



The Newcomen Engine. 

Nymphs ! you erewhile on simmering caldrons play'd, 

And call'd delighted Savery to your aid ; 

Bade round the youth explosive Steam aspire 

In gathering clouds, and wing'd the wave with fire ; 

Bade with cold streams the quick expansion stop, 

And sunk the immense of vapour to a drop. 

Press'd by the ponderous air, the piston falls 

Resistless, sliding through its iron walls ; 

Quick moves the balanced beam, of giant birth, 

Wields his large limbs, and nodding shakes the earth. 

The giant-power from earth's remotest caves 
Lifts with strong arm her dark reluctant waves ; 
Each caverned rock and hidden den explores, 
Drags her dark coals, and digs her shining ores. 

Dr. Erasmus Darwin. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 105 

Some Recent Devonshire Literature.* 

Compiled by H. TAPLEY-SOPER, City Librarian, Exeter. 

Drake, Maurice. " History of English Glass Painting." (T. 
Werner Laurie, 42/-.) 

Gribble, Francis. " Romance of the Men of Devon." 1912. 
(Mills & Boon, 6/-.) 

Heath, Sidney. " Exeter." Illustrated in Colour by Hasle- 
hurst. (Blackie, 2/-.) 

Houghton, C. A. "The Christian Scheme and Human Needs." 
1912. (Skeffington, 2/-.) 

Keene, C. J. Perry-. " Songs of the Dean Bourn." (Bowering 
& Co., Plymouth, 2/6.) 

King, Arthur Steele. " Branscombe : Its Church and Parish." 
2nd Ed. 1912. (Southwood & Co., Exeter, 1/- net.) 

Phillpotts, Eden. " Dance of the Months." Illustrated in 
colour by A. T. Benthall. 1911. (Gowans & Gray, 12/6.) 

Phillpotts, Eden. " Forest on the Hill." 1912. (Murray, 6/-.) 

Phillpotts, Eden. " From the Angle of Seventeen." (Murray, 
3/6.) 

Pile, W. (Ed.). " An Historic Parish." Being some Account of 
the Parish and Church of St. Sidwell, in the City of Exeter. 
1912. (Townsend & Sons, Exeter, 1/-.) 

Prideaux, E. K. " Figure Sculpture of the West Front of Exeter 
Cathedral." 1912. (Commin, Exeter, 3/6.) 

Reynolds, Stephen. " How 'Twas." 1912. (Macmillan, 5/-.) 

Reynolds, Stephen. " Lower Deck." 1912. (Dent, 1/-.) 

"'[Seigneurs and Sovereigns of Mediaeval Exeter." 1912. 
(Wheaton & Co., Exeter, 3/6.) 



* Publishers are invited to send to the compiler of this list copies of new 
books for notice in future issues of the Year Book. 



io6 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Vining, Frank Whitaker. " Kenn, Our Home." 1912. (Eland 
Bros., Exeter, 2/6 net.) 

Willcocks, M. P. " Wings of Desire." 1912. (Lane, 6/-.) 

Willcocks, M. P. " Wind Among the Barley." 1912. (Mills 
& Boon, 6/-.) 



PERIODICALS, Etc. 

Publications of the Devon and Cornwall Record Society. 
Works now in progress : — 

Feet of Fines for Devon and Cornwall. Hooker's " History 
of Exeter." 

Registers of Births, Marriages, and Deaths of the Parishes of 
St. Paul's, Exeter ; Branscombe ; Colyton ; Falmouth ; and 
Ottery St. Mary. (Annual Subscription, one guinea. H. Tapley- 
Soper, Hon. Secretary, Exeter.) 

" Transactions of the Devonshire Association." (Annual 
Subscription, 10/6.) 

" Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries " (Quarterly). (Annual 
Subscription, 6/6. J. G. Commin, Exeter.) 

" Transactions of the Plymouth Institution and Natural History 
Society." (Annual Subscription, one guinea.) 

The following Colleges and Schools publish Magazines at irregular 
intervals : — 

Exeter : The University College ; Exeter School ; High School ; 
Hele's School ; Central School ; Mint School. 

Dartmouth : The Royal Naval College. 

Honiton : All Hallows School. 

Newton Abbot : Newton College. 

Plymouth : Plymouth and MannameadljCollege. 

Tavistock : Kelly College. 

Tiverton : Blundell's School. 

West Buckland : West Buckland School. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 107 



The Devonshire Association 

FOR THE 

Advancement of Science, Literature, 
and Art. 

By MAXWELL ADAMS, Hon. Secretary. 

This Association celebrated its Jubilee in July, 1912, in Exeter, 
the city in which its first meeting was held in August, 1862. 
The Rev. William Harpley, in a paper entitled " A Short Account 
of the Origin of the Association," published in the Transactions for 
1912 (Vol. xliv., p. 154), gives an interesting account of how the 
Association came into being. He describes how on a bright 
afternoon towards the end of October, 1861, Mr. William Pen- 
gelly, Mr. C. Spence Bate, and himself, each armed with a 
formidable geological hammer, were walking along the Millbay 
Road, in Plymouth, with the intention of. breaking a few stones 
in the quarry behind St. George's Hall, Stonehouse, when Mr. 
Pengelly suddenly remarked that he thought it would be a very 
good thing if an Association for the County of Devon, on the 
lines of the British Association, could be formed. This suggestion 
being enthusiastically agreed to by the three friends, Mr. Harpley 
proceeds to describe the steps taken to give effect to it ; how the 
project was canvassed among their personal friends during the 
winter months, and receiving the promise of sufficient support, 
a meeting was convened to be held on Tuesday, 22nd April, 1862, 
at the Athenaeum, Plymouth, at which the following gentlemen 
were present, viz. : Messrs. Pengelly, Vicary (Exeter), Spence 
Bate, J. IS!. Hearder, Oxland, A. Balkwill, A. Rooker and the 
Revs. W. Harpley and J. E. Risk, with Mr. W. F. Moore, the 
President of the Plymouth Institution, in the Chair. Mr. 
Pengelly moved the following Resolution : " That an Associa- 
tion be formed called the Devonshire Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Literature, and Art," which was carried unani- 
mously, and then the following was proposed as a statement of 
the object of the Association : "To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific enquiry, to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate science, literature, and art in 
different parts of Devonshire with one another and with others ; 



108 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

and to obtain a more general attention to the objects of science, 
especially in relation to the County." It was agreed that the 
first meeting should be held in Exeter, and Mr. Spence Bate and 
the Rev. W. Harpley were requested to act as secretaries — a 
post Mr. Harpley held with great success until the yeai 1900, a 
period of 38 years. The next step was to find a President, and 
after some little time Mr. Harpley succeeded in securing the 
services of Sir John Bowring, who cordially accepted the office, 
and a successful meeting was held on the 14th August, 1862, in 
Exeter, where the infant Association was warmly received and 
welcomed, and the President gave the Association a favourable 
start by an admirable address, or, as Mr. Harpley says, " to use 
Sir John Bowring's own metaphor. ' launched the good ship/ 
which has sailed through tempestuous seas once or twice, but 
has always weathered the storm." 

The objects of the Association, as laid down at the preliminary 
meeting held at the Athenaeum, in Plymouth, on the 22nd April, 
1862, have been faithfully carried out, as is evidenced by the 
44 volumes of its Transactions published during the fifty 
years of its existence. Each member who has paid his subscrip- 
tion receives a copy of the annual volume, which includes the 
Rules of the Association, a Report of the Council on its general 
progress and affairs and of the Proceedings at each meeting ; 
the Presidential Address ; Obituary Notices of deceased mem- 
bers ; the Reports of Committees appointed by the Council to 
gather information on Botany, Meteorology, Scientific Memor- 
anda, Church Plate, Folk Lore, Verbal Provincialisms, Records, 
the Exploration of Camps and Barrows, etc., and of Dartmoor, the 
Preservation of Ancient Monuments, and other special subjects ; 
also Papers read at the meetings (which are generally printed 
in extenso and illustrated) ; and Lists of the Officers, Council, 
and Members. The Association has also published in two volumes 
the Devonshire Domesday — extended text and translations — and 
is in course of printing a Calendar of Devonshire Wills and Admini- 
strations — a copy of each part being issued free annually to the 
members. 

A meeting of the Association is held in July or August of each 
year at some Devonshire town from which an invitation has 
been received. The reception of the Association by the local 
authorities and inhabitants has always been of a cordial and 
hospitable character, and these annual gatherings have proved 
to be occasions of great interest, as advancing the objects of the 
Association and in promoting the fellowship of Devonians 
engaged in Scientific, Literary, or Artistic pursuits. The pro- 
ceedings extend over four days, the first being devoted to the 






The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



109 



Annual Meeting for the transaction of the business of the Associa- 
tion, the formal reception by the local authorities, and the 
delivery of the Presidential Address ; the two succeeding days 
are occupied by the reception of the Reports of the Committees, 
and the reading and the discussion of Papers, which must 
strictly relate to Devonshire. For the afternoons, entertain- 
mjcnts or excursions are arranged by the local reception Com- 
mittee ; and the last day is usually devoted entirely to excursions 
to places of interest in the neighbourhood. 

The following is a list of places in which the annual meetings 
have been held since the Association was formed, and of the 
Presidents who have held office in each year, viz. : — 





Place of Meeting. 


1862. 


Exeter 


1863. 


Plymouth . 


1864. 


Torquay . 


1865. 


Tiverton 


1866. 


Tavistock . 


1867. 


Barnstaple 


1868. 


Honiton 


1869. 


Dartmouth 


1870. 


Devonport 


1871. 


BlDEFORD . 


1872. 


Exeter 


1873. 


SlDMOUTH . 


1874. 


Teignmouth 


1875- 


Torrington 


1876. 


ASHBURTON 


1877. 


KlNGSBRIDGE 


1878. 


Paignton . 


1879. 


Ilfracombe 


1880. 


TOTNES 


1881. 


Dawlish 


1882. 


Crediton 


1883. 


EXMOUTH 


1884. 


Newton Abbot 


1885. 


Seaton 


1886. 


St. Marychurch 


1887. 


Plympton 


1888. 


Exeter 


1889. 


Tavistock . 


1890. 


Barnstaple 


1891. 


Tiverton 


1892. 


Plymouth . 


1893. 


Torquay 


1894. 


South Molton 


1895. 


Okehampton 


1896. 


ASHBURTON 


1897. 


KlNGSBRIDGE 


1898. 


Honiton 


1899. 


Torrington 


1900. 


Totnes 



F.G.S. 
M.A., M.P. 



President. 

Sir John Bowring, ll.d., f.r.s. 

C. Spence Bate, Esq., f.r.s., f.l.s. 

E. Vivian, Esq. m.a. 

C. G. B. Daubeny, m.d., ll.d., f.r.s. 

Earl Russell, k.g., k.g.c, f.r.s., etc. 

W. Pengelly, Esq., f.r.s., 

J. D. Coleridge, Esq., q.c, 

G. P. Bidder, Esq., c.e. 

J. A. Froude, Esq., m.a. 

Rev. Canon C. Kingsley, m.a., f.l.s., f.g.s. 

The Lord Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Temple) . 

Right Hon. S. Cave, m.a., m.p. 

The Earl of Devon. 

R. J. King, Esq., m.a. 

Rev. Treasurer Hawker, m.a. 

Ven. Archdeacon Earle, m.a. 

Sir Samuel White Baker, m.a., 

Sir R. P. Collier, m.a. 

H. W. Dyke Acland, m.a., m.d. 

Rev. Professor Chapman, m.a. 

J. Brooking- Ro we, Esq., f.s.a. 

Very Rev. C. Merivale, d.d., d. 

Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, m.a. 

R. F. Weymouth, Esq., m.a. 

Sir J. B. Phear, m.a., f.g.s. 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, ll.d., 

Very Rev. Dean Cowie, d.d. 

W. H. Hudleston, Esq., m.a. 

Lord Clinton, m.a. 

R. N. Worth, Esq., f.g.s. 

A. H. A. Hamilton, Esq., m.a., j.p. 

T. N. Brushfield, m.d., f.s.a. 

Sir Fred. Pollock, Bart., m.a. 

The Right Hon. Earl of Halsbury. 

Rev. S. Baring-Gould, m.a. 

J. Hine, Esq., f.r.i.b.a. 

Lord Coleridge, m.a. 

Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, b.d. 

Lord Clifford, m.a. 



f.r.s.. f.r.g.s. 



LL.D., F.R.S. 



F.L.S. 
.C.L. 



F.R.S., F.L.S., etc. 



F.R.S., F.G.S., etC. 



no 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 





Place of Meeting. 


1901. 


Exeter 


1902. 


Bideford . 


1903. 


SlDMOUTH . 


1904. 


Teignmouth 


1905. 


Princetown 


1906. 


Lynton 


1907. 


Axminster 


1908. 


Newton Abbot . 


1909. 


Launceston 


1910. 


CULLOMPTON 


1911. 


Dartmouth 


1912. 


Exeter 



President. 

Sir Roper Lethbridge, k.c.i.e., m.a., d.l., j.p. 

Rev. W. Harpley, m.a., f.c.p.s. 

Sir Edgar Vincent, k.c.m.g., m.p. 

Sir Alfred W. Croft, k.c.i.e., m.a., j.p. 

Basil H. Thomson, Esq. 

F. T. Elworthy, Esq., f.s.a. 

The Lord Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Robertson). 

Lord Monkswell, j.p., d.l., ll.b. 

The Lord Bishop of Truro (Dr. Stubbs). 

John D. Enys, Esq., j.p., f.g.s. 

Robert Burnard, Esq., f.s.a., j.p. 

The Viscount St. Cyres, m.a., j.p. 



The annual subscription for membership — whether ladies or 
gentlemen — is 10s. 6d., but members may compound by the 
payment of a fee of £7 17s. 6d., which entitles them to a life 
membership. Only ladies are admissible as Associates, and the 
subscription for Associates for each meeting is 5s. Members, 
besides receiving annually a copy of the volume of Trans- 
actions, are entitled to a ticket admitting a lady to the 
meeting in addition to their own ticket. The general secretary 
may admit a person to membership at any time on the 
nomination of a member to whom the candidate is personally 
known. The Council is very desirous of increasing the member- 
ship in order to add to the usefulness of the Committees appointed 
for special service by grants of money for carrying on their work, 
which the funds do not at present admit, without reducing the 
high standard of annual volume of Transactions issued to the 
members. It is hoped that the Council will, in time, be able to 
give effect to this desire, as the membership, which was in 1862 
only 69, is now (1912) 610, and increases annually. 

Applications for membership should be addressed to the Hon. 
General Secretary, Maxwell Adams, c/o Messrs. W. Brendon & 
Son, Ltd., Plymouth. 



The Best Spot on Earth. 

God gave all men all earth to love, 

But since our hearts are small, 
Ordained for each one spot should prove 

Belov&d over all ; 
That as He watched Creation's birth, 

So we, in godlike mood, 
May of our love create our earth, 

And see that it is good. 

Rudyard Kipling. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 11 1 

9 

Affiliated Societies . 

(For 191 3 Fixtures, see p. 133). 

BARUMITES IN LONDON. 
Founded 1893. 

President : Sir F. C. Gould. 

Hon. Secretary : F. Gabriel, Roborough, Park Avenue South, Crouch 

End, N. 
Object : To promote social gatherings and good-fellowship. 
Qualification : Connection with Barnstaple or its neighbourhood. Limited 

to men. 
Subscription : is. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner in London. 

THE EXETER CLUB. 

(London and District Branch.) 

Founded 1880. 

President : G. W. Cocks, Esq. 

Vice-President : J. J. Murphy, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : N. Cole. 

Assistant Secretary : H. P. Kelly. 

Hon. Press Secretary : J. R. Thomas. 

Hon. Secretary : H. D. Powe, 13, Ellerby Street, Fulham, S.W. 

Objects : To promote friendly and social intercourse, to maintain the 
status of the Exeter Training College for schoolmasters, and to give 
opportunities for inter-communication for mutual assistance. 

Qualification : Training at St. Luke's College, Exeter. 

Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Monthly, in addition to annual dinner and Bohemian concert. 
In connection with this Club are the Old Exonians' Cricket Club, 
with the same Hon. Secretary, and the Exonian Lodge, No. 3415, the 
Hon. Secretary of which is F. J. Thomson, 31, Angell Road, Brixton, 
S.W. 

The Committee has great pleasure in recording the fact that the Club 
has experienced a most successful year. In spite of the fact that many 
new members were enrolled, there is a slight decrease in membership. 
However, as one of our oldest members (Major J. J. Murphy, V.D.) has 
again become Vice-President, hopes are entertained that greater support 
will be forthcoming from the older members. It is again a matter of 
congratulation that we have a balance in the Club's favour. 

The " Exonian " Lodge of Freemasons (No. 3415), now entering upon 
the fourth year of its existence, is making excellent progress. The Lodge 
meets at the Criterion Restaurant, Piccadilly Circus, W. 

Social gatherings have been numerous. The whist drives, a new 
feature of the social life of the Club, have been very popular with the 
members and their friends. The suppers, followed by smoking concerts, 
held at the " George " Hotel, Strand, W.C., have been well attended, and 
the Committee tender their heartiest thanks to all those artists who so 
kindly assisted on various occasions. 



ii2 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



The annual Bohemian Concert was held at Anderton's Hotel, Fleet 
Street, E.C., and was presided over by Mr. N. Cole (Hon. Treasurer of the 
Club). A splendid programme was arranged by Messrs. G. Everest 
Skinner and F. J. S. Thomson (Hon. Musical Directors), and was much 
appreciated by the very large audience of Exonians and their friends. The 
annual dinner was also held at Anderton's Hotel, and all were delighted 
to have the company of our old friend Major W. Weeks, V.D., who repre- 
sented the College. The other guests were Mr. J. W. H. Isaac (Hon. Sec. 
of the parent Club) and Alderman C. Pinkham, J. P., C.C. 

The Old Exonians' Cricket Club has experienced a very successful 
season. Under their popular captain (Mr. S. Nugent) many fine victories 
were secured, and the outings greatly enjoyed. 

The Committee feel that special thanks are due to the President (Mr. 
G. W. Cocks), whose devotion and earnest application to the work have 
combined to raise the status of the Club. That the Club still occupies a 
foremost position among Metropolitan college clubs is also due to the tact 
and energy of the Hon. Secretary (Mr. H. D. Powe). In matters of detail 
and thought his services are invaluable, and the Committee desire to 
express their earnest and hearty appreciation of his excellent work. In 
his onerous duties he has been most ably seconded by the Asst. Hon. 
Secretary (Mr. H. P. Kelly), to whom they tender their heartiest thanks. 
To their worthy Treasurer (Mr. N. Cole), who for so many years has zealously 
worked in the interests of the Club, the Committee desire to return their 
warmest thanks, and trust that they may long retain his valuable services. 

It is with the deepest regret that we have to record the death of two of 
our members — Lieut. -Colonel R. J. Vincent, V.D., the first Worshipful 
Master of the " Exonian " Lodge, and Mr. F. P. Shannon. 

THE OLD EXONIAN CLUB. 
(London Section.) 
Founded 1904. 
President : Mr. Justice Bucknill. 
Vice-President : J. H. Fisher, Esq., F.R.C.S. 
Hon. Secretary : A. Goff, 2, Royal Exchange Avenue, E.C. 
Objects : To renew acquaintance between Old Exonians living in London, 

and to arrange dinners and other entertainments. 
Qualification : Education at the Exeter School. 
Subscription : 3s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner in London, and other gatherings from time to 
time. 
The School Magazine (free to members) is issued each term. 

THE OLD OTTREGIANS' SOCIETY. 
(" Ottregians in London.") 
Founded 1898. 
President : The Right Hon. The Lord Coleridge. 
Vice-Presidents : The Right Hon. Sir John H. Kennaway, Bart., CB. ; 
The Hon. Stephen Coleridge ; The Hon. Gilbert Coleridge ; 
The Hon. Geoffrey Duke Coleridge. 
Chairman : Arthur John Penny. 
Vice-Chairman : William Sheppard Huxtable. 
Assistant Secretary : W. H. Lang. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : Sidney H. Godfrey, " Homeville," Merton 
Avenue, Chiswick, W. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 113 

Objects : To renew old acquaintance ; to strengthen the bond of friendship, 

to give advice and assistance to friendless Ottregians ; to discuss home 

topics, and to publish home news. 
Qualification : Natives of the postal district of Ottery St. Mary, and persons 

who have lived for any length of time in the town. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum ; ladies, is. 6d. 
Meetings : Once in eight weeks at the Ottregian Room, The Cabin, Strand, 

W.C., and once a year at Kew Gardens, an annual concert at St. 

Clement Danes Parish Hall, and a special train on Whit-Mondays 

to Ottery St. Mary. 
A Benevolent Fund. 
A quarterly journal (free to members), containing news of Ottery 

St. Mary, and of Ottery people all over the world. 

The year 191 2 has been a very successful one for this Society, which 
has as its president The Right Hon. The Lord Coleridge. At the close of 
last year the 13th Annual Meeting was held in the Society's room at the 
Cabin in the Strand, where great enthusiasm prevailed, and the Ottery 
Song, especially composed for the Society by Lord Coleridge, was heartily 
sang. 

The Annual Concert was held at Anderton's Hotel, Fleet Street, in 
February, and attracted a large audience of many hundreds. The artists 
were of the best, and nearly all were Ottregians and Devonians. The 
concert was voted by all to be one of the best ever given by a Devonshire 
Society in London. 

One of the several unique features of the Ottregians' Society is the 
running of special trains to Ottery St. Mary, the exiles' native home, on 
Whit Mondays. Nearly 1,000 Ottregians and their friends availed them- 
selves of this rapid and cheap excursion this year, and great was the 
welcome given by the townsfolk of Ottery. A band met the trains, 
bunting was displayed, sports took place, and the whole town was en fete. 

The Annual Summer gathering, which is always held in Kew Gardens, 
took place in July, and was again a great success. 

The meetings have been held bi-monthly at the Cabin in the Strand, 
and these have tended much to promote the esprit de corps among the 
members. 

A large number of new subscribing members have been added during 
the year, and the finances of the Society are in an excellent condition. 

The Benevolent Fund has a good balance at the Bank. This sum is 
always at the call of any needy Ottregian, but is rarely needed, for 
Ottregians seem to make their way in the world. 

The Journal of the Society, which is the only Journal of any Society 
in the world publishing the news of its members' native town specially for 
them, is circulated throughout the world, for the Society of Old 
Ottregians is quite distinct from all other London Devonian Socie ies, in 
that it has subscribing members in every Continent of the world. 

At the time of writing this note the Annual Election of Officers is pro- 
ceeding, every member being supplied with a voting paper. There is 
always a contest for the chairmanship and for membership of the com- 
mittee, and this year the contest is keen and is causing much excitement. 

O ! Ottery dear ! O ! Ottery fair ! 

My heart goes out to thee, 
Thou art my home, where'er I roam, 

The West ! the West for me ! 



114 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

THE TIVERTONIAN ASSOCIATION. 
Founded 1909. 

President : Hon. W. Lionel C. Walrond, M.P. 

Vice-Presidents : Sir George Kekewich, K.C.B., Sir Robert Newman, 
Bart., D.L., J. P., Colonel E. T. Clifford, V.D., Ian M. Heathcoat 
Amory, Esq., J. P., Rev. W. P. Besley, M.A., Rev. S. J. Childs- 
Clarke, M.A., G. E. Cockram, Esq., John Coles, Esq., J. P., J. A. 
Eccles, Esq., Thos. Ford, Esq., J. P., E. V. Huxtable, Esq., The 
Mayor of Tiverton (A. T. Gregory, Esq.), R. Morgan, Esq., H. 
Mudford, Esq., J. P., G. H. Radford, Esq., M.P., Allan Ramsay, 
Esq., Rev. O. R. M. Roxby, Granville Smith, Esq., E. J. Snell, 
Esq., W. Thorne, Esq., Harold Travers, Esq., F. G. Wright, Esq. 

Chairman : W. Sanders. 

Vice-Chairman : F. Snell. 

Hon. M.C. : F. W. Hesse. 

Hon. Treasurer and Assistant Secretary : E. T. Clarke. 

Hon. Secretary : W. Passmore, ioi, Elspeth Road, Clapham Common, 
S.W. 

Objects : To promote friendly intercourse amongst Tivertonians ; to assist 
those in need ; and to advise and influence young men starting on a 
commercial or professional career. 

Qualification : Persons connected with the Tiverton Parliamentary 
Division by birth, descent, marriage, or former residence. 

Subscription : Ordinary members (ladies or gentlemen), 2s. per annum; 
hon. members — gentlemen, 10s., ladies, 5s. 

Meetings : Concerts, whist drives, dances, and annual dinner during the 
winter months. 
The Association has been affiliated to St. Bride Institute. Membership 
over 400. 

WEST BUCKLAND SCHOOL OLD BOYS' ASSOCIATION. 
(London Branch.) 
Founded 1899. 
President : Rev. T. Stone, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents : F. W. Askham, Esq. ; Rev. G. C. Fry, M.Sc. 
Chairman : Prof. T. A. Hearson, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.N.A., F.C.I. P.A. 
Hon. Secretary : W. V. M. Popham, 48, Powis Square, W. 
Objects : To keep Old Boys in touch with the School and with each other ; 
to promote gatherings among Old Boys for pleasure and sport ; and 
to further the interests of the School generally. 
Qualification : Education at West Buckland School. 
Subscription : Life membership, half a guinea. 

Meetings : Annual dinner in London, and other social gatherings during 
the winter months. 
The School Magazine (2s. per annum) is issued each term, containing 
news of Old Boys all over the world. 

The arrangements made by the London Branch included an informal 
supper and entertainment at the Portland Arms Hotel on 23rd Nov., a 
Bohemian Concert at St. Bride Institute on 8th March, and, of course, the 
annual dinner, which was held at Frascati's on 12th Jan. For this function 
the Committee were fortunate in securing as chairman Mr. H. H. Hilton, 
the well-known golfer, and for the time being Amateur Champion of both 
England and the United States. The dinner was well attended, and most 
successful in every way. The Concert at St. Bride's was probably the 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 115 

best of the series of entertainments ever arranged by the Association, and 
was a great musical treat to the goodly number who attended. It is to 
be hoped that a similar success will be recorded at the Concert to be held 
next spring. The Annual Meeting at West Buckland in July is, however, 
the event of the year. The Old School is the Mecca to which the hearts of 
Old Boys turn, even if they are unable to visit it in the body. Here about 
thirty were able to revive the memories of early days amid surroundings 
not perhaps very much changed, and mingling with present boys, who, 
generation after generation, appear to be very much the same. The annual 
cricket match with the school — the actual scores are probably unimportant 
to us here — the services in East Buckland Church, and the strolls in this 
singularly beautiful neighbourhood, afford us pleasant recollections which 
must last us till another July comes round. 

THE PORTSMOUTH DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 1906. 
President : P. G. D. Winter, Esq. 
Vice-President : H. E. Lidiard, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : C. S. Parker. 

Hon. Secretary : W. Butland, ioi, Clive Road, Fratton. 
Objects : To bring together Devonians residing in Portsmouth and district 

by a common County bond of friendship and social or personal 

acquaintance. 
Qualification : Birth, parentage, ten years' residence, or marriage ; lady 

members the same qualifications. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner, whist drives, trips to Devon, etc. 

Badge of office for President bears arms of Devon and Portsmouth 

in enamel, and a link is given annually by the President for the 

year, bearing his name and the date. 
The formation of the Portsmouth Devonian Society in 1906 seemed only 
a natural course when consideration is taken of the fact that ever since 
the early days in the history of our Navy, Devonians were the leaders and 
mainstay of our British Fleet. Hence, in the first Naval port of our 
Empire many descendants of those gallant " Sea Dogs " of Devon are to 
be found, not only afloat, but also helping to create records in the turning 
out of the modern Dreadnoughts. In the early days of its existence the 
Society had uphill work, and the number of members was comparatively 
few ; but thanks to the splendid work put in by the past Presidents, Messrs. 
John Gieve (Chumleigh), Jas. Carpenter (Tiverton), and Kelland Niner 
(Torquay), the Society now totals 158. Since the Devons came into 
existence, other counties have formed Associations, and annual contests 
are held, with much friendly rivalry — whist in the winter months, and a 
boat race in the summer. Fate, however, has never been kind enough to 
let us occupy the premier position, but we generally make a good second. 
Turning to the events of the past year, the seventh annual dinner was 
held in the Mayor's Banquet Chamber, and, taking the cue from Colonel 
Clifford, of the London Devonian Association, much was made of " Drake 
and the British Empire " by means of speeches, the design on the menu 
card, and also by the songs " Drake's Drum " and " Drake is Going West." 
A trip to Arundel proved an enjoyable outing, and here the members 
found the London Association of East Anglians being entertained by the 
Duke of Norfolk, who takes a great interest in their welfare. In August 
the Portsmouth Corporation Pier authorities invited the various County 
Associations to hold a Regatta for whalers, pair-oared boats, and sculling 



n6 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



boats. In the whaler class the Devonian crew, after a long tussle, managed 
to pull off the event. The other night, the Rev F. Sparrow, a member of 
the Swansea Devonian Society, gave this branch of the "Brotherhood" 
a most intellectual and entertaining lecture on " Devonians, Their Wit 
and Humour." The reverend gentleman, it is hoped, will take back to 
Swansea an appreciation of his Portsmouth connections. The whist 
drives, and games of whist for the President's and Vice-President's cups 
are well attended, and, in fact, the members of the Portsmouth Devonians, 
as such, intend to sustain the motto of Exeter, " Semper Fidelis." Floreat 
Devonia. 

SWANSEA DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 1894. 

President : A. C. Bond, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : S. Daniel, Esq., J. Dyer, Esq., W. A. Ford, Esq., 
J. C. Gill, Esq., T. W. Hews, Esq., W. R. Jefford, Esq., J. Jones, 
Esq., C. H. Newcombe, Esq., C. T. Passmore, Esq., J. B. Reed, Esq., 
H. Salter, Esq., E. Serle, Esq. 

Chairman : L. Williams, Esq. 

Hon. Auditor : G. H. Harvey. 

Assistant Secretary : C. Easterbrook. 

Hon. Secretary : S. T. Drew, Public Library, Swansea. 

Objects : To promote fraternal feelings, social intercourse and entertain- 
ment; to purchase books on the history of Devon, and to render 
assistance in case of need. 

Qualification : Birth or descent. 

Subscription : is. per annum. 

Meetings : Social gatherings at intervals, summer excursion in August, 
annual dinner in November. 

The Society was founded in 1894, the first president being H. A. Latimer, 
Esq., M.D., J. P. The membership in that year was 197, but since that 
time there has been a steady increase, and our membership roll to-day 
numbers something over 300. Various forms of social and educational 
meetings have been held, including lectures, concerts, teas, annual dinner 
in November, and annual excursions, generally to our native county, 
which, on a clear day, can be seen on our south-western horizon. The 
benevolent side of our Society has been maintained, and help has been 
rendered in many instances to Devonians in need of aid. We have a very 
fine and varied library of Devonian literature, available for home reading, 
and are subscribers to the Devonshire Association, and other similar 
county publications. The Society has a President's chain and badge of 
office (provided by subscription), which includes the Arms of all the Devon 
townships. It was our pleasure and privilege to join in the re-union of 
Devonians at Earl's Court, on Armada Day, 20th July, and we were deeply 
impressed with the spirit of fraternity and comradeship that prevailed 
there. We ourselves issue an annual report, containing the names and 
addresses of our members, with the name of their birth-place, etc., but 
through the medium of this London publication we send greeting to 
Devonians in all parts of the world. 



Note. — Several other Societies, both at home and abroad, have expressed 
their intention of becoming affiliated. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 117 



Devonian Societies not Affiliated. 

(^4) At Home. 

BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLAND DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 

Founded 1891. 

President : Dr. H. Eales. 

Vice-Presidents : The Right Hon. Jesse Collings, M.P., J. Nelson 
Bond, Esq., J. WinsorBond, Esq., Alderman Bowden, J. Barham- 
Carslake, Esq., T. F. Culley, Esq., T. R. Farrant, Esq., H. Frost, 
Esq., Lieut. -Colonel Halse, J. P., Dr. A. Douglas Heath, F. 
Huxham, Esq., T. W. Hussey, Esq., R. C. Morcom, Esq., W. 
Nicholls, Esq., C. Parkhouse, Esq., R. A. Pinsent, Esq., J. D. 
Prior, Esq., F. C. Rowe, Esq., A. G. Spear, Esq., H. P. Tapscott, 
Esq., W. Voysey, Esq. 

Hon. Auditor : Thaddeus Ryder, F.C.A. 

Hon. Treasurer : C. Parkhouse. 

Hon. Secretary : T. W. Hussey, 21, First Avenue, Selly Park, Birmingham. 

Objects : To maintain interest in the County, and to promote social inter- 
course among Devonians in Birmingham. 

Qualification : Natives of Devon, or connected with the County by marriage. 

Subscription : Gentlemen, 5s., ladies, 2s. 6d. 

Meetings : Social gatherings during the winter months, annual meeting and 
dinner in January. 

BOURNEMOUTH AND DISTRICT WEST COUNTRY ASSOCIATION. 

Founded 191 1. 

President : Alderman H. S. McCalmont Hill, D.C.L., J. P., Mayor of 

Bournemouth. 
Vice-President : C. Pearce, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : T. O. Bartlett. 

Hon. Secretary : E. S. Rosevear, 100, Alma Road, Bournemouth. 
Qualification : Birth, parentage, or marriage. 
Object : Promotion of social intercourse. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner, outing, whist drives, social evenings, etc. 

SOCIETY OF DEVONIANS IN BRISTOL. 
Founded 1891. 

President : E. Widlake, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : A. Dodge. 

Hon. Secretary : F. E. R. Davey, 13, Cranbrook Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Objects : To promote friendly intercourse amongst Devonians in Bristol 
by social gatherings, and to assist benevolent or charitable objects, 
with a special regard to those in which Devonians are interested. 

Qualification : Natives and others connected with Devon. 

Subscription : 5s. per annum ; ladies, 2s. 6d. 

Meetings : Annual dinner, and concerts, etc., from time to time. 

The Society possesses a Presidential Badge, each past President con- 
tributing a link for a chain. 



n8 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



CARDIFF DEVONSHIRE SOCIETY. 
Founded 1906. 
President : R. P. Culley, Esq. 
Vice-Presidents : Hon. Stephen Coleridge, Sir Harry T. Eve, General 

Kekewich, Rt. Hon. George Lambert, M.P., Sir Robert Newman, 

Bart., Jas. Radley, Esq. 
Chairman : Sir Wm. Crossman. 
Hon. Treasurer : A. Akenhead. 

Hon. Secretary : E. W. Benjamin, 99, St. Mary Street, Cardiff. 
Objects : To bring Devonians in Cardiff more closely together, to foster the 

traditions of the County, and to raise a fund to afford temporary relief 

to necessitous and deserving Devonians. 
Qualification : Birth or descent. 
Subscription : 5s. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner. 

WEST COUNTRY ASSOCIATION, EASTBOURNE. 
Founded 1905. 

President : C. Davies-Gilbert, Esq., D.L. 

Vice-Presidents : J. Adams, Esq., M.D., W. Davies, Esq., S. N. Fox, 
Esq., J. P., A. L. Franklin, Esq., C. Godfrey, Esq., H. Habgood, 
Esq., M.D., Major Harris, Rev. E. G. Hawkins, C. W. Mayo, Esq., 
J. Routly, Esq., L. C. Wintle, Esq., W. G. Willoughby, Esq., M.D. 

Chairman : Rev. E. G. Hawkins. 

Hon. Treasurer : C. W. Mayo. 

Joint Hon. Secretaries : W. Percy Glanfield and E. Akery, Albemarle 
Hotel, Eastbourne. 

Objects : The promotion of friendly intercourse and good fellowship by 
holding meetings, social gatherings, etc. 

Qualification : Birth or parentage. 

Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Concerts, games, tournaments, dinner, etc. 

Head Quarters : Albemarle Hotel, Eastbourne. 

THE ASSOCIATION OF WEST COUNTRYMEN IN HAMPSHIRE. 

President : A. Broomfield, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : G. Crocker, Esq., A. W. Monkhouse, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : A. Hill. 

Hon. Secretary : T. Rice, 14A, London Road, Southampton. 

Objects r To promote social intercourse, and to foster and encourage 
national sentiment, love of country, and everything pertaining to 
the honour and welfare of the three Western Counties. 

Qualification : Connected with Devon, Cornwall, or Somerset by birth, 
marriage, or adoption. 

Subscription : is. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner, and periodical social gatherings. 

LEICESTER AND SOUTH MIDLANDS DEVON AND CORNWALL 

ASSOCIATION. 
Founded 1900. 
President : Joseph Howe, Esq. 
Vice-Presidents : H. Burdett, Esq., C. J. Hopkins, Esq., E. Pattison, 

Esq., E. Tardrew, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : W. A. Clarke. 
Hon. Secretary : J. Title y, jun., 26, Lower Hastings Street, Leicester. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 119 



Objects : To promote social intercourse between Devonians and Cornish- 
men resident in the district, and the study and cultivation of the 
folk-lore of the two counties. 

Qualifications : Birth, parentage, or residence for 20 years in Devon or 
Cornwall. 

Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner. 

DEVONIANS IN LIVERPOOL AND DISTRICT. 

Founded 1895. 
President : Judge J. F. Collier, J. P. 
Vice-Presidents : H. Cuming, Esq., G. R. Searle, Esq., H. Smith, Esq., 

E. F. Stanley, Esq., Capt. A. B. Toms, J. R. Watkins, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : J. Furze. 

Hon Secretary : G. A. Brooking, 17, Molyneux Road, Waterloo, Liverpool. 
Object : Social intercourse. 

Qualifications : Birth, parentage on either side, residence, or marriage. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner and picnic, social gatherings, whist drives, 

dances, children's parties, etc. 

DEVONIAN SOCIETY, MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT. 

President : R. G. Evans, Esq. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : J. E. R. Holman, Beech Lawn, Whalley 

Range, Manchester. 
Object : To promote social intercourse among Devonians. 
Qualification : Birth, parentage, or marriage. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : Whist drives, and an annual dinner. 

DEVON AND CORNWALL SOCIETY, NEWPOR1 (MON.) AND 

DISTRICT. 

Founded 1889. 

President and Chairman : W. Anning, Esq., J. P. (1911-12) ; G. R. Martyn, 

Esq., J.P. (1912-13). 
Hon. Treasurer : A. C. Mitchell. 
Financial Hon. Secretary : C. H. Adams. 
Assistant Secretary : P. L. Pugsley. 

Hon. Secretary : J. Cowling, 3, Annesley Road, Maindee, Newport, Mon. 
Objects : The promotion of good fellowship between West Countrynien, 

and the advancement and protection of their interests generally. 

Benevolent Fund. 
Qualification : Natives of Devon or Cornwall, and their sons and grandsons. 
Subscription : is. minimum, 5s. maximum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner, whist drives and lectures in winter, and picnics 

in summer. 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE WEST COUNTRY ASSOCIATION. 
Founded 1909. 
President : J. F. Stanbury, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : (Kettering Centre) J. C. Lewin. 

Hon. Secretaries : (Kettering Centre) E. T. Lawrence, The Firs, Warkton, 
Kettering ; (Northampton Centre) A. Musgrave, 235, Wellingboro' 
Road, Northampton. 



120 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Objects : To promote and maintain social intercourse and good fellowship 

between natives of the three counties now resident in the Town and 

County of Northampton. 
Qualification : Natives of Devon, Somerset, or Cornwall, and sons of 

natives. 
Subscription : 2s. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner at each centre, annual outing, and other events 

during the summer months. 

READING AND DISTRICT DEVON AND CORNISH ASSOCIATION. 

Founded 1895. 

President : Rev. G. F. Coleridge, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents : H. Chown, Esq., Rev. Canon W. W. Fowler, M.A., 

D.Sc, J. Harris, Esq., J. Morse, Esq., G. E. B. Rogers, Esq., J. H. 

Rowe, Esq., H. O. Serpell, Esq., G. Sharland, Esq., P. W. Teague, 

Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : Edw. Bowden. 
Hon. Secretaries : E. S. Smith, 32, Brisbane Road, Reading ; F. H. Yellan, 

47, Market Place, Reading. 
Objects : To maintain the interest of members in the old Counties ; to 

foster the wholesome clannish characteristics of Devonians and 

Cornishmen ; and to encourage friendly intercourse among members. 
Qualifications : Birth or descent. 
Subscription : is. per annum (minimum). 
Meetings : Annual dinner and picnic, social gatherings, whist drives, etc. 



REIGATE AND REDHILL AND DISTRICT DEVON AND 
CORNWALL ASSOCIATION. 

Founded 1907. 

President and Chairman : J. Trevarthen, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : Geo. Gilbert, Esq., J. P., Henry Libby, Esq., F. G. 

Pyne, Esq., J. Saunders, Esq. 
Vice-Chairman : G. Gilbert, Esq. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : Henry Libby, 118, Station Road, Redhill. 
Objects : Social intercourse, and the advertisement of Devon and Cornwall. 
Qualification : Natives of Devon or Cornwall. 
Subscription : 2 s. ' 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : July and December. 



ROCHESTER, CHATHAM, GILLINGHAM AND DISTRICT DEVON 
AND CORNWALL ASSOCIATION. 

Founded 191 2. 

President : The Right Hon. Lord Churston, M.V.O. 

Vice-Presidents : R. J. Parr, Esq., Deputy Surgeon-General W. W. 

Pryn, Sir W. P. Treloar, Bart. 
Chairman : F. Wingent, Esq., J. P., C.C. 
Vice-Chairman : J. T. Snell, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : W. Coleman. 
Asst. Secretary : H. E. Libby. 
Hon. Secretary : T. R. Brookland, 77, High Street, Rochester, Kent. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 121 



THE WEST COUNTRY ASSOCIATION, SOUTHEND-ON-SEA. 

President : J. H. M. Kirk wood, Esq., M.P. 

Treasurer : W. T. Darke. 

Hon. Secretary : F. T. Fisher, 44, Alexandra Street Southend-on-Sea. 

Objects : To promote friendly intercourse among West-country men and 
women residing in Southend and district ; to foster a knowledge of the 
history, folk-lore, literature, music, art, and antiquities of the three 
counties ; and to carry out approved schemes for the benefit of West- 
country men and women residing in Southend and district. 

Subscription: Gentlemen, 5s., ladies, 2s. 6d. per annum. Life member- 
ship — gentlemen, 3 guineas, ladies, i£ guineas. 



DEVON, CORNWALL, AND WEST COUNTRY ASSOCIATION FOR 
THE COUNTY OF SURREY. 
Founded 1908. 

President : Sir Wm. Treloar, J. P. 

Vice-Presidents : J. J. Brewer, Esq., Sir A. T. Quiller Couch, Rev. 
G. Dandridge, M.A., Hon. Arthur J. Davey, W. J. Davey, Esq., 
W. E. Horne, Esq., M.P., Rev. E. C. Kirwan, M.A., Rt. Hon. G. 
Lambert, M.P., H. F. Luttrell, Esq., M.P., G. H. Morgan, Esq., 
M.P., W. T. Pilditch, Esq., G. H. Radford, Esq., M.P., S. P. 
Rattenbury, Esq., Sir J. Ward Spear, M.P., J. St. Loe Strachey, 
Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : W. J. Davis. 

Hon. Secretary : R. Snodgrass, 56, Agraria Road, Guildford. 

Objects : The promotion of friendly intercourse and mutual interest 
among the members ; the provision of social and literary entertain- 
ment. 

Qualification : Natives of Devon, Cornwall, or the West Country, and 
their families. 

Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner, socials, and whist drives. 



DEVONIANS IN WESTON-SUPER-MARE. 

President : Dr. Vickery. 

Hon. Treasurer : S. Pady. 

Hon. Secretary : T. J. Kerslake, Alexandra Parade, Weston-super-Mare. 

Object : Social intercourse. 

Subscriptions : 28. 6d. and is. 

Meetings : Annual dinner and conversazione. 



WEYMOUTH AND DISTRICT DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 

Founded 1912. 

President : H. A. Huxtable, Esq. 
Vice-President : Dr. F. R. Heath. 
Chairman : H. B. Vickery, Esq. 
Vice-Chairman : A. J. Digby, Esq. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : Fred Drawer, 6, Maycroft Road, Wey- 
mouth. 



122 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Objects : To encourage local patriotism, to promote Devonian interests 
and friendly intercourse among Devonians, to foster a knowledge of 
the County, and to carry out approved schemes for the benefit of 
Devonians in the district. 

Qualification : Birth, descent, marriage, or former residence. 

Subscription : Annual — Gentlemen, 2s. 6d., ladies, is. Life — Gentlemen, 
2 guineas, ladies, 1 guinea. 

Meetings : Annual dinner, and frequent social gatherings. 

DEVONIANS IN THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Founded 1905. 

President and Chairman : R. Stewart Savile, Esq. 

Vice-President and Vice-Chairman : Dr. M. L. B. Coombs. 

Hon. Treasurer and Secretary : W. Ormsby Rymer, 33a, Holyrood Street, 

Newport, I.W. 
Objects : Social intercourse. 

Qualification : Born in Devon or of Devonian parents. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual and occasional. 

The Isle of Wight and Devon are connected by an ancient link in the 

Patron Lady, Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Devon and Lady of 

the Isle, a.d. 1 3 10. 

DEVONIANS AND CORNISHMEN IN WORCESTERSHIRE. 

Founded 1901. 

President : T. F. Culley, Esq. 

Hon. Secretaries : W. J. Pearce and C D. Willis, Berrow's Worcester 

Journal Office, Worcester. 
Objects : To revive old friendships, and to get into touch with West 

countrymen arriving in the county. 
Qualification : Birth or marriage. 
Meetings : Annual dinners. 



(B) Abroad. 

♦DEVONIAN SOCIETY IN CALCUTTA. 
Founded 1901. 

President : W. H. Sparkes, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : J. Cottle, Esq., Dr. T. F. Pearse. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : F. P. Milford, 31/1, Chowringhee, Calcutta. 

Objects : To promote a common County bond of friendship, and to render 

aid to Devonians in India. 
Qualifications : Birth or long residence. 
Subscription : Rs. 24 per annum. 
Meetings : Annual Dinner and Ball, generally in January. Recreation 

club on the Miadan, tennis, croquet, etc. 

* Since Affiliated. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 123 

THE HONG-KONG DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 1896. 

President : A. Shelton Hooper, Esq., J. P. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : Mowbray Stafford Northcote, Hong- 
Kong. 

Objects : Social intercourse amongst Devonians. 

Qualification : Birth, parentage, marriage, or connection with Devon. 

Subscription : Two dollars per annum. 

Meetings : Annual meeting and dinner on a date during the first three 
months of the year. 



WEST OF ENGLAND ASSOCIATION, SOUTH AFRICA. 

President : Sir Lewis Michell, C.V.O. 

Vice-Presidents : Major Edwards, G. Elliott, Esq., C. Matthews, Esq., 

C. A. Organ, Esq., J. Wannell, Esq. 
Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : T. E. King, Cape Town. 



THE DEVONIAN SOCIETY OF RHODESIA. 

Patrons : Sir Lewis Michell, C.V.O. , R. T. Coryndon, Esq. 

President : C. Corner, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : Dr. J. Dyke-Acland, E. Basch, Esq., W. Bridgman, Esq., 

J. W. Mayne, Esq. 
Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : C. F. Osmond, P.O. Box 165, Bulawayo, 

Rhodesia. 
Objects : To encourage and promote social intercourse and good fellowship ; 

to advance the interests of Devonians in Rhodesia and to co-operate 

with kindred societies ; and to help Devonians in distress. 
Qualification : Birth, parentage, or seven years' residence. 
Subscription : 10s. 6d. per annum, or 5 guineas for life membership. 



DEVONIAN SOCIETY OF OTTAWA. 

Founded 191 2. 

President : Lieut. -Col. S. Maynard Rogers. 

Vice-Presidents : Commander P. C. W. Howe, R.N., Hon. W. H. Hoyle, 

M.P., Hon. F. D. Monk, M.P., Rev. G. P. Woollcombe. 
Chairman : W. E. Hooper, Esq. 
Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : A. J. Mudge, 505, Cooper Street, Ottawa, 

Ont. 
Objects : To promote a spirit of fraternity amongst Devonians in Ottawa 

and district, by means of social intercourse ; to foster a continued 

love of the County ; and to advance and protect the interests of 

Devonians generally. 
Qualifications : Birth, descent, marriage. 
Subscription : One dollar per annum. 
Meetings : The third Monday in each month at Moreland Hall, Corner 

Fourth Avenue and Bank Street. 



124 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

DEVONIAN SOCIETY OF TORONTO. 
Founded 1907. 

President : W. C. Borlase, Esq. 

Vice-President : W. Clark, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : J. Saunders. 

Assistant Secretary : A. Horswell. 

Hon. Secretary : W. Skelton, 764, Gerrard Street, Toronto, E. 

Objects : To renew old acquaintances and to form new ones with those who 
hold a common interest ; to foster a knowledge of the traditions, litera- 
ture, folklore, etc., of Devonshire ; and to promote the spirit of 
fraternity among Devonians in Canada. 

Qualification : Birth or descent. 

Subscription : One dollar per annum. 

Meetings : The third Wednesday in each month from May to October, and 
the first and third Wednesday from November to April — the first 
Wednesdays to be Social Evenings. No intoxicants allowed. 

DEVON, CORNWALL, AND SOMERSET SOCIETY OF WINNIPEG. 

Hon. President : James Hooper, Esq. 

President : W. A. Dyer, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents ■ F. Parsons, Esq., E. W. Paul, Esq., F. Vooght, Esq. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : W. W. Pile, 285, Bannerman Avenue, 
Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Objects : To renew old acquaintances and form new ones with common 
interests; to perpetuate the traditions, etc., and foster the study of 
Devon, Cornwall, and Somerset ; and to promote the spirit of frater- 
nity amongst our countrymen abroad. 

Qualifications : Birth or former residence. 

Subscription : Two dollars per annum ; ladies exempt. 

Meetings : Monthly (first Friday), in Fairbairn Hall, corner of Main Street 
and Selkirk Avenue, Winnipeg. 

DEVONIAN SOCIETY OF VICTORIA, B.C. 

Founded 191 2. 

Hon. President : Hon. Edgar Dewdney. 

President : W. J. Dart, Esq. 

Treasurer : W. P. Allen. 

Secretary : Henry Martyn. 

Objects : To encourage immigrants from the West of England, and to give 

them advice and assistance. 
The Society has rebuilt " Fort Camosun " on the site of ruins caused by 

fire, and this was visited on 30th Sept., 1912, by H.R.H. the Duke of 

Connaught. 

DEVON, CORNWALL, AND SOMERSET CLUB, VANCOUVER. 

President : J. Hoskins, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : J. W. Dawe, Esq., G. J. Dyke, Esq., A. J. Ford, Esq., 

J. L. Pratt, Esq. 
Treasurer : W. H. Carnsew. 
Assistant Secretary : E. Pearce. 
Secretary : Ernest J. Down. 
Head Quarters : 445, Richards Street, Vancouver, B.C. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 125 

CORNWALL AND DEVON ASSOCIATION OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

President : F. J. Lukey, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : S. F. Crocker. 

Hon. Secretary : James Jenkin, St. Day, Wilberforce Avenue, Rose Bay, 
Sydney. 

Objects : The promotion of good fellowship between the two Counties, and 
social intercourse. 

Qualification : Natives of Cornwall and Devon, or such other qualification 
as shall satisfy the Committee. 

Subscription : 10s. per annum in advance, or is. per month. 

Meetings : Every fourth Wednesday at the Grand United Order Odd- 
fellows' Building, 328, Castlereagh Street, Sydney, at 8 p.m. 



NEW ZEALAND DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 1912* 

President : W. U. Timewell, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : Miss Heath, D. Teed, Esq. 

Chairman : B. Reeves, Esq. 

Committee : Mrs. Brendon, Mrs. Tozer, Messrs. Brendon, Cranch, 

W. W. Gliddon-Richardson, and Tozer. 
Secretary : W. T. Geen, c/o G.P.O., Auckland, N.Z. 



(Attempts are being made to form Devonian or West-country Societies at 
Tunbridge Wells, Brantford in Canada, and Northam in Western 
Australia, and it is believed that there are several other Devonian 
Societies, both at home and abroad. The Editor will be pleased to 
receive particulars of these for the next issue of the Year Book.) 



My Love-land, 



A land of honey, milk, and cream, 

Whose showers are sweet as roses' tears ; 
Romantic as a poet's dream, 

And fresh as the primeval years ; 
A region rich in fairy tales, 

Where happy mortals go in quest 
Of rarest joys : such are the vales 

Of my dear love-land in the West. 

Edward Capern. 



126 The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 



Learned and Scientific Societies in 
Devonshire. 

(Compiled by H. Tapley-Soper, City Librarian, Exeter.) 

Architectural Society of Plymouth. E. C. Adams, Secretary, 

The Athenaeum, George Street, Plymouth. 
Bradninch Literary and Debating Society. P. Warren, Secretary, 

Bradninch. 
Dartmouth Technical and Scientific Society. S. G. Hearn, Hon. 

Secretary, 5, Victoria Terrace, Dartmouth. 
Devon and Cornwall Record Society. H. Tapley-Soper, 

F.R.Hist.S., Hon. Secretary and General Editor, Royal 

Albert Memorial University College, Museum, and Public 

Library, Exeter. 
Devon and Exeter Architectural Society (in alliance with the 

Royal Institute of British Architects). Allan R. Pinn, 

A.R.I. B.A., Hon. Secretary, 5, Bedford Circus, Exeter, and 

C. Cheverton, Hon. Secretary Three Towns Branch, 64, 

Chapel Street, Devonport. 
Devon and Exeter Law Association. T. W. Burch, Hon. 

Secretary, Palace Gate, Exeter. 
Devon and Exeter Medico-Chirurgical Society. R. V. Solly, 

M.D., Secretary, 40, West Southernhay, Exeter. 
Devon Philosophical Society. Miss L. Wheaton, Secretary, 

19, Bedford Circus, Exeter. 
Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Literature, and Art. Maxwell Adams, Hon. Secretary, c/o 

Messrs. W. Brendon & Son, Ltd., Plymouth. 
Exeter Camera Club. A. J. Tucker, Hon. Secretary, Barnfield 

House, Exeter. 
Exeter Diocesan Architectural and Archaeological Society. Rev. 

S. M. Nourse, Hon. Secretary, Shute Vicarage, Kilmington, S.O. 
Exeter Law Library Society. J. Radcliffe, Hon. Secretary, 

8, The Close, Exeter. 
Exeter Literary Society. J. Isaac Pengelly, Hon. Secretary, 

Barnfield House, Exeter. 
Exeter Pictorial Record Society. F. R. Rowley and H. Tapley- 
Soper, Hon. Secretaries, Royal Albert Memorial University 

College, Museum, and Public Library, Exeter. 
Gallia : French Literary Society. Secretary, A. S. Treves 

University College, Exeter. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 127 

Germania : German Literary Society. Secretary, Miss Dorothy 

Drayton, University College, Exeter. 
Incorporated Law Society (Plymouth). R. B. Johns and 

B. H. Whiteford, Joint Hon. Secretaries, 5, Princess Square, 

Plymouth. 
Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Laboratory. 

Edgar J. Allen, D.Sc, Hon. Secretary and Director of the 

Plymouth Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth. 
Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural History 

Society. Henry Penrose Prance and W. C. Wade, Hon. 

Secretaries, The Athenaeum, George Street, Plymouth. 
Plymouth Medical Society. R. Jaques, Hon. Secretary, Dr. 

A. B. Soltau, Hon. Librarian, Athenaeum Chambers, George 

Street, Plymouth. 
Plymouth Photographic Society. Charles F. Ford, Hon. 

Secretary, The Athenaeum, George Street, Plymouth. 
Teign Naturalists' Field Club. 
Torquay Medical Society. H. K. Lacey, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 

Secretary, " Merita," Torquay. 
Torquay Natural History Society. Major E. V. Elwes, Hon. 

Secretary, Babbacombe Road, Torquay. 
University College Field Club and Natural History Society. 

Miss E. H. Aviolet, Hon. Secretary, University College, 

Exeter. 



The Naturalist. 

" Happy truly is the naturalist. He has no time for melancholy dreams. 
The earth becomes to him transparent ; everywhere he sees significance, 
harmonies, laws, chains of cause and effect endlessly interlinked, which 
draw him out of the narrow sphere of self into a pure and wholesome 
region of joy and wonder." m 

" The perfect naturalist is one who should combine in himself the very 
essence of true chivalry, namely, self-devotion, whose moral character, 
like the true knight of old, must be gentle and courteous, brave and enter- 
prising, and withal patient and undaunted in investigation, knowing that 
the kingdom of nature, like the kingdom of heaven, must be taken by 
violence, and that only to those who knock earnestly and long does the 
Great Mother open the doors of her sanctuary." 

Charles Kingsley. 



128 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



Libraries in Devonshire. 

Barnstaple. 

Athenaeum Library ; 24,000 volumes (large local collection of 
books and manuscripts, including the Borough Records, 
the Oliver, Harding, and Incledon MSS., the Doddridge 
Library, and the Sharland Bequest). Thomas Wainwright, 
Secretary and Librarian. 

Bideford. 

Bideford Public Library; 6,100 volumes. E. B. L. Brayley, 
Librarian. 

Clovelly. 

Village Library ; 500 volumes. Mrs. Hamlyn, Hon. Librarian. 

Devonport. 

Free Public Library, Duke Street ; 25,278 volumes. William 
D. Rutter, Librarian. 

Exeter. 

The Royal Albert Memorial University College, Museum, and 
Public Library ; 50,000 volumes and manuscripts (large 
local collection, including the collections of the late James 
Davidson, Esq., of Axminster ; P. O. Hutchinson, Esq., of 
Sidmouth ; Edward Fisher, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., of Newton 
Abbot ; and J. Brooking-Rowe, Esq., F.S.A., of Plympton). 
H. Tapley-Soper, F.L.A., F.R.Hist.S., Librarian. 

The Devon and Exeter Institution ; 40,000 volumes. J. 
Coombes, Librarian. 

The Cathedral Library ; 8,000 volumes and many manu- 
scripts. The Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, Librarian. 

The City Muniment Room, The Guildhall (collection of manu- 
script Records). H. Lloyd Parry, B.A., B.Sc, Town Clerk. 

The Exeter Law Library ; 4,000 volumes. John Radcliffe, 
Hon. Secretary. 

The Medical Library, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, 
East Southernay. 

Moretonhampstead. 

Bowring Library ; 2,400 volumes. Rev. R. Blake, Hon. 
Librarian. 

Newton Abbot. 

Newton Abbot Public Library ; 10,000 volumes. Wm. Mad- 
dern, F.L.A., Librarian. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 129 

Plymouth. 

Plymouth Public Library ; 60,000 volumes (large local collec- 
tion). W. H. K. Wright, F.L.A., F.R.Hist.S., Librarian. 

Plymouth Proprietary and Cottonian Library ; 30,000 
to 40,000 volumes. J. L. C. Woodley, Librarian. 

Plymouth Institution and Natural History Society ; 6,000 
volumes. C. W. Bracken, B.A., F.E.S., Hon. Librarian. 

St. Giles-in-the-Wood, Torrington. 

St. Giles' Library ; 300 volumes. S. J. Daniels, Hon. Libra- 
rian. 

Swimbridge. 

Village Library ; 750 to 800 volumes. W. Shelley, Hon. 
Librarian. 

Tavistock. 

Tavistock Library, Abbey Buildings ; 15,000 volumes. John 
Quick, Librarian. 

Torquay. 

Torquay Public " Library ; 10,000 volumes. Joseph Jones, 
F.L.A., Librarian. 

Totnes. 

South Devon Library, 12, High Street ; 4,000 volumes. 
Samuel Veasey, Librarian. 

Yealmpton, Plymouth. 

Yealmpton Institute Library ; 450 volumes. 



The Bodleian Library. 

" Examining exactly, for the rest of my life, what course I might take ; 
and having, as I thought, sought all the ways to the wood, I concluded, 
at the last, to set up my staff at the library door in Oxon, being thoroughly 
perswaded, in my solitude and surcease from the common-wealth affairs, 
I could not busy myself to better purpose, than by reducing that place 
(which then in every part lay ruinated and waste) to the publick use of 
students." 

Sir Thomas Bodley. 



130 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Rules of the London Devonian 
Association. 

1. Name. — The name of the Society shall be " The London 

Devonian Association." 

2. Objects. — The objects of the Society shall be : — 

(a) To encourage the spirit of local patriotism — " that 
righteous and God-given feeling which is the root of 
all true patriotism, valour, civilization " — the spirit 
that animated the great Devonian heroes who defeated 
the Spanish Armada and laid the foundations of the 
British Empire. 

(b) To form a central organization in London to promote 
Devonian interests, and to keep Devonians throughout 
the world in communication with their fellows at 
home and abroad. 

(c) To promote friendly intercourse amongst De- 
vonians residing in London and district, by means of 
meetings and social re-unions. 

(d) To foster a knowledge of the History, Folklore, 
Literature, Music, Art, and Antiquities of the County. 

(e) To carry out from time to time approved schemes 
for the benefit of Devonians residing in London or 
elsewhere. 

3. Constitution. — The Society shall consist of Life and Ordinary 

Members and Associates.* 

4. Qualification. — Any person residing in London or district 

who is connected with the County of Devon by birth, 
descent, marriage, or former residence, shall be eligible 
for membership, but such person shall be nominated by a 
Member and the nomination submitted to the Committee, 
who shall at their first Meeting after receipt of the nomina- 
tion by the Hon. Secretary, decide by vote as to the accept- 
ance or otherwise of the nomination. 

5. Subscription. — The annual subscription to the Society shall 

be 5/- for gentlemen, and 2/6 for ladies and those under 
21 years of age. Members of other recognized Devonian 

* All Devonians (whether by birth, descent, marriage, or residence) not at present 
residing in London or district are eligible as Associates. The subscription is 2 6 per 
annum, or two guineas for life, and each Associ.it 2 receives a copy of the Year Book. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 131 

Associations in London shall be admitted as Members on 
the nomination of their representatives on the Committee 
at an annual subscription of 2/6. The subscription for 
Life Membership shall be two guineas for gentlemen and 
one guinea for ladies. Subscriptions will be payable on 
election and each subsequent 30th September. The 
name of any Member whose subscription is in arrear for 
six months may be removed from the list of Members at 
the discretion of the Committee. 

6. Officers. — The Officers of the Society shall be a President, 

Hon. Secretary, and Hon. Treasurer, all of whom shall be 
elected at the Annual Meeting. 

7. Management. — The management of the Society shall be 

vested in a Committee, consisting of the President, Hon. 
Secretary, Hon. Treasurer, and fifteen other Members, 
and a representative elected by each of the other Devonian 
Associations in London, such representatives to be Members 
of the Society. 

8. Meetings of Committee. — The Committee shall meet at least 

once a quarter. Seven to form a quorum. 

9. Chairman of Committee. — The .Committee at their first 

Meeting after the Annual Meeting shall elect a Chairman 
and a Deputy-Chairman from Members of the Association. 

10. Power of Committee. — The Committee shall be empowered 
to decide all matters not dealt with in these rules, subject 
to an appeal to a General Meeting. 

11. Auditors. — Two Members, who are not Members of the 
Committee, shall be elected at each Annual Meeting to 
audit the Accounts of the Society. 

12. Annual General Meeting. — The Annual General Meeting 
shall be held in the month of October, when all Officers, 
five Members of the Committee, and Auditors shall retire, 
but be eligible for re-election. The business of the Annual 
General Meeting shall be the election of Officers, five 
Committee men, and two Auditors ; presentation of 
Annual Report and Balance Sheet for the year ending 
30th September ; and any other business, due notice of 
which has been given to the Hon. Secretary, according to 
the Rules. 

9 * 



132 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

13. Special General Meeting. — A Special General Meeting shall 
be summoned by the Hon. Secretary within fourteen 
days by a resolution of the Committee, or within twenty- 
one days of the receipt of a requisition signed by 30 Mem- 
bers of the Society, such requisition to state definitely the 
business to be considered. 

14. Notice of Meeting. — Seven days' notice shall be given of all 
General Meetings of the Society, the date of postmark to 
be taken as the date of circular. 

15. Alteration of Rules. — No alteration or addition to these 
Rules shall be made except at the Annual Meeting (when 
due notice of such alteration or addition must have been 
sent to the Hon. Secretary on or before 23rd September) 
or at a Special General Meeting. A copy of the proposed 
alteration or addition shall be sent to Members with notice 
of Meeting. 

The Association is affiliated to St. Bride Foundation Institute, 
Bride Lane, Ludgate Circus, E.C., and Members are entitled to 
free use of the Lending and Reference Libraries, * Reading and 
Recreation Rooms, and admission on easy terms to the Gym- 
nasium, Swimming Baths, Technical Classes, etc. 

Oak shields, with the arms of the Association painted in proper 
colours, may be obtained from F. C. Southwood, 96, Regent 
Street, W. Price, with motto, 6s., without motto, 4s. 6d. 

Badges, with the arms in enamel and gilt, price 4s. 3d., or 
brooches, price 3s. 3d., may be obtained from W. J. Carroll, 
33, Walbrook, E.C. Gold brooches, price 25s. 

A few copies of the Devonian Year Books for 1910, 1911, and 
1912 remain in stock. Price 2s. 6d., by post 2s. 9d. Applica- 
tion should be made to the Hon. Secretary, John W. Shawyer, 
St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 



In this room Devonshire papers are placed daily. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 133 



List of Fixtures. 

1913. 

January. 

6 M. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Practice, Sussex 

Hotel, 8.0. 
10 F. West Buckland School Old Boys' Association, Annual 
Dinner, Frascati's Restaurant, Oxford Street, W. 

15 W. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Drive, 

" Mikado," 7.30. 

16 Th. London Devonian Association, Whist Drive, Anderton's 

Hotel, Fleet Street, E.C. 

22 Th. Tivertonian Association, Whist Drive, St. Bride 

Institute, 7.30. 
Portsmouth Devonian Society, Inter-Counties' Whist 

Drive, Fratton Hotel, 8.0. 
Manchester Devonian Society, Whist Drive and Social. 
Rochester, Chatham, Gillingham, and District Devon 

and Cornwall Association, Annual Meeting and 

Conversazione, Masonic Hall, Manor Road, Chatham. 

23 F. Old Ottregians' Society, Annual Concert and Social 

Evening, St. Bride Institute, 8.0. 

February. 
3 M. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Practice, Sussex 
Hotel, 8.0. 

7 F London Devonian Association, Lantern Lecture by 

R. Pearse Chope, B.A., on " A Pageant of Devonians 
in London," St. Bride Institute, 8.0. 

12 W. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Drive, 

" Mikado," 7.30. 
Rochester, Chatham, Gillingham, and District Devon 
and Cornwall Association, Lecture by R. J. Parr, 
on " Some Famous Men of Devon and Cornwall," 
Masonic Hall, Gillingham. 

13 Th. Tivertonian Association, Dance, St. Bride Institute, 

7.30. 

19 W. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Inter-Counties' Whist 

Drive, Fratton Hotel, 7.30. 

20 Th. London Devonian Association, Bohemian Concert, 

Anderton's Hotel, Fleet Street. 
28 F. Manchester Devonian Society, Annual Dinner. 

Portsmouth Devonian Society, Smoking Concert, 
Sussex Hotel, 8.0. 



134 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



March. 
1 S. London Devonian Association, Annual Dinner, Hol- 

born Restaurant. 
3 M. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Practice, Sussex 

Hotel, 8.0. 

5 W. Rochester, Chatham, Gillingham, and District Devon 

and Cornwall Association, Whist Drive and Dance, 
Masonic Hall, Gillingham. 

6 Th. Tivertonian Association, Concert, St. Bride Institute, 

7.30. 

Northamptonshire West Country Association (Ketter- 
ing Centre), Annual Dinner. 

Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Drive, 
" Mikado," 7.30. 

West Buckland School Old Boys' Association, Bohe- 
mian Concert, Food Reform Restaurant, Furnival 
Street, Holborn, 7.30. 

Barumites in London, " Coming of Age " Dinner, 
Holborn Restaurant. Ladies invited. 

Portsmouth Devonian Society, Inter-Counties' Whist 
Match, Fratton Hotel, 8.0. 

Old Ottregians' Society, Whist Drive, St. Bride Insti- 
tute, 7.30. 

Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Practice, Sussex 

Hotel, 8.0. 
16 W. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Inter-Counties' Whist 

Match, Fratton Hotel, 8.0. 
27 Sun. Old Ottregians' Society, Meeting at The Cabin, Strand, 

May. W - C -' 43 °- 

12 M. Old Ottregians' Society, Visit to Home, Special Train 

leaves Waterloo at 12.5 Sunday midnight, returning 
Tuly * rom O tter y St. Mary at 6.0 p.m. 

27 Sun. Old Ottregians' Society, Summer Gathering at Kew 

Gardens, 4.0. Tea at Danebury House, Kew 

October. Green > 4 ' 30 - 
5 Sun. Old Ottregians' Society, Meeting at The Cabin, Strand, 
- W.C., 4.30. 
November. 

27 Th. Northamptonshire West Country Association (North- 
ampton Centre), Annual Dinner. 
December. 

14 Sun. Old Ottregians' Society, Annual Gathering at The 
Cabin, Strand, W.C., 4.30. 



12 


W. 


13 


Th. 


15 


S. 


19 


W. 


27 


Th 


April. 
7 M. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 135 



Drake's Drum. 



Drake he's in his hammock an' a thousand mile away, 

(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Slung atween the round shot in Nombre Dios Bay, 

An' dreamin' all the time o' Plymouth Hoe. 
Yarnder lumes the Island, yarnder lie the ships, 

Wi' sailor lads a dancin' heel-an'-toe, 
An' the shore-lights flashin', an' the night -tide dashin', 

He sees et all so plainly as he saw et long ago. 

Drake he was a Devon man, an' ruled the Devon seas, 

(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Rovin' tho' his death fell, he went wi' heart at ease, 

An' dreamin' all the time o' Plymouth Hoe. 
" Take my drum to England, hang et by the shore, 

Strike et when your powder's runnin' low ; 
If the Dons sight Devon, I'll quit the port o' Heaven, 

An' drum them up the Channel as we drummed them 
long ago." 

Drake he's in his hammock till the great Armadas come, 

(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Slung atween the round shot, listenin' for the drum, 

An' dreamin' all the time o' Plymouth Hoe. 
Call him on the deep sea, call him up the Sound, 

Call him when ye sail to meet the foe ; 
Where the old trade's plyin' an' the old flag fTyhV, 

They shall find him ware an' wakin', as they found him 
long ago ! 

Henry Newbolt. 



The words of this poem are given by kind permission of Mr. Newbolt. 
There are two excellent musical settings, one by Sir C. V. Stanford, in his 
"Songs of the Sea," and the other by Mr. W. H. Hedgcock. The poem 
is, also, most effective as a recitation. — [Editor.] 






136 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



List of Members and Associates. 

An asterisk (*) indicates Life Members. 
A double dagger {%) indicates Associates. 

♦Abell, T. B. (Exmouth), " Fallowcroft," Fallow Court Avenue, North 

Finchley, N. 
X Abell, Westcott Stile (Exmouth), M.I.N. A., Professor of Naval Architec- 

" ture, 49, Croxteth Road, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 
Acland, Captain J. W (Columb-John), 25, Colville Square, W. 
Acland, Theodore Dyke (Columb-John), M.D., 19, Bryanston Square, W. 

Vice-President. 
Adams, A. A. (Werrington), C.A., Frankfield, Stanhope Road, Hornsey 

Lane N 
Adams, E. W. (Kingsbridge), 18 Fleet Street, E.C. 
Adams, Mrs. E. W. (Kingsbridge), 18, Fleet Street, E.C. 
JAdam.3, Maxwell (Wolborough), c/o Messrs. W. Brendon & Son, Ltd., 

Plymouth. 
{Adams, R. P. {Calcutta Devonian Soc). 
JAmery, J. S. (Ashburton), " Druid," Ashburton, Devon. 
Amery, J. J. (Ashburton), 18, Fleet Street, E.C. 
Andrews, Mrs. (Tiverton,) 855 Fulham Road, S.W. 

Andrews, Mrs. Lilian (Plymouth), 3, Old Cavendish Street, Oxford St., W. 
Andrews, R. (Culmstock), 90, King's Road, Chelsea, S.W. 
JAnning, W. (Starcross), Hatherleigh, Newport (Mon.). 
JAshton, S. H. (Beaford), Blaney, King William's Town, South Africa. 
Askham, F. W. (Princetown) , Horseguards, Whitehall, S.W. 
Axhorn, Miss E. B. (Tiverton), 116, Heathwood Gardens, Charlton, S.E. 

Baker, A. C. (Heavitree), 172, Strand, W.C. 

Baker, Richard (Filleigh), Coventry Restaurant, Rupert Street, W. 

Banbury, H. (Devonport), Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, W.C. 

Barker, Mrs. M. Walcot (Plymouth), 150, Murchison Road, Leyton, E. 

Barker, Norman Burdwood (Plymouth), 150, Murchison Road, Leyton, 
E. 

Bastin, T. W. (Paignton), Messrs. Bastin, Merryfield and Cracknell, Great 
Castle Street, W. 

Bate, J. J. (Sutcombe), 87, High Road, Kilburn, N.W. 
JBates, J. H. {Calcutta Devonian Soc). 
{Bazley, Miss Lucy (Starcross), McOwan, Saskatchewan, Canada. 

Bazley, Miss M. (Starcross), 82, Uxbridge Road, West Ealing, W. 

Beckett, A. E. (Plymouth), 61, Westbury Road, Wembley. 

Beer, Miss D. Vernon (Bideford), 9, Probyn Road, Tulse Hill, S.W. 

Bell, Miss Annie (Kingsbridge), 58, Humber Road, Blackheath, S.E. 

Belsey, Herbert H. (Barnstaple), 32, South Eaton Place, S.W. 

Bennett, Samuel (Devonport), 6, Hemington Avenue, Friern Barnet, N. 

Besley, Canon W. P. (Barnstaple), M.A., 9, Amen Court, St. Paul's, E.C. 
Vice-President. 

Bidgood, G. G. (Tiverton), 12, Clifton Road, Peckham, S.E. 

Bidgood, G. S. (Tiverton), 8, Hornsey Lane Gardens, Highgate, N. 

Bidgood, R. (Tiverton), 20, Beaconsfield Road, New Southgate, N. 
{Bidwell, R. (Teignmouth) 2 Osborne Street Somers Road, Southsea 
{Portsmouth Soc.) 

Bird, Wm. (Shaldon), 149, Dartmouth Road, Willesden Green, N.W. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 137 

Bishenden, Mrs. I. M. (Newton Abbot), 105, New Oxford Street, W. 
Blackmore, W. (Uffculme), 50, Aston Road, Raynes Park, S.W. 
Boden, R. H., ir, Derwent Road, Anerley, S.E. 
J Bond, A. C. (Frithelstock), 87, Argyle Street, Swansea. (President, 

Swansea Soc.) 
Bond, Mrs. Douglas (Tavistock), 22, Surrey Street, Victoria Embank- 
ment, W.C. 
Bone, G. B. (Stoke Damerell), 4, Raymond Buildings, Gray's Inn, W.C. 
* Bourne, C. W. (Ilfracombe), 19, Fairlawn Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 
Bowden, A. T. (North Tawton), 76, Newgate Street, E.C. 
Bowden, T. R., 13, Waterford Road, Walham Green, S.W. 
*Boyce, Archdeacon (Tiverton), St. Paul's Rectory, Cleveland Street, 
Sydney, N.S.W. 
Bridgeman, G. E. (Ugborough), 8, Lavender Sweep, Clapham Common, 

S.W. 
Bridgman, Victor (Modbury), 36, Ravenscourt Gardens, W. 
Brimicombe, M. H. (Totnes), 22, Norfolk Street, Dalston, N.E. 
Broadbear/Miss G. L. (Teignmouth), 4, Chapel Place, Cavendish Square, W. 
Brodie, C. H. (Exeter), F.R.I. B.A., 77, Park Lane, Croydon. 
Bromham, Addison J. (Barnstaple), Westward Ho, Wimbledon Common. 
Brookes, Miss Mattie (Lifton), Tudor Lodge, Albert Road, Stroud Green. 
Brooks, Miss E. (Tiverton), Birkbeck House, Lancaster Road, Enfield. 
Broom, Miss Violet (Teignmouth), Staffordshire House, Store Street, W.C. 
Brown, A. S. (Sidbury), 61, Hubert Grove, Landor Road, Stockwell, S.E. 
Brown, Mrs. A. S. (Sidbury), 61, Hubert Grove, Landor Road, Stockwell 

S.E. 
JBrown, Henry T. S. (Plymouth), 17, Newton Street, Ottawa, Canada 

(Ottawa Soc). 
Brown, W. H. (Exmouth), 35, Cumberland Park, Acton, W. 
JBryant, E. D. (descent), 8, Florence Street, Ottawa, Canada. (Ottawa Soc.) 
Burgoyne, Mrs. S. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper 
Clapton, N.E. 
*Burlace, J. B. (Brixham), 38, Corfton Road, Ealing, W. Vice-President] 

Committee. 
♦Burn, Colonel C. R. (Torquay), M.P., 48, Cadogan Place, W. 
Burrow, Miss L. L. (Tavistock), 11, Fitzroy Street, W 
Burrows, B. (Honiton), 67, Peterborough Road, Fulham, S.W. 
Burton, E. Cave- (Exeter), 46, Kenilworth Road, Penge, S.E. 
JButland, W. (Dittisham), 101, Clive Road, Fratton, Portsmouth. (Ports- 
mouth Soc). 

Campbell, R. J. P. (Exeter), 15, St. Margaret's Road, Plumstead. 
Cann, C. E. (Barnstaple), " Fairlight," Regent's Park Road, Finchley, N. 
Cann, J. O (Brixham), 12, Croxley Road, Paddington, W. 
Carnell, John (Ottery St. Mary), 83, Phillimore Mews, High Street, 

Kensington. 
♦Carter, G. E. L. (Exmouth), B.A., I.C.S., Assistant-Collector, Ahmed- 

nagar, Bombay Presidency, India. 
Caunter, L. G. (Exeter), Eversholt Lodge, New Barnet. 
Champion, Norman W. (Shaldon), 8, Holmewood Gardens, Brixton Hill, 

S.W. 
Champion, W. (Shaldon), 8, Holmewood Gardens, Brixton Hill, S.W. 
Chard, G. M. (West Buckland School), Berwen, Canonbie Road, Honor 

Oak, S.E. 
Chettleburgh, Mrs. (Plympton St. Maurice), 38, Redcliffe Gardens, W. 
JChope, H. F. (Hartland), 27, Carsick View Road, Sheffield. 



138 The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 

JChope, J. A. (Hartland), Rothes, Morayshire. 

JChope, Eng.-Commander W. D., R.N. (Hartland), H.M.S. Pembroke, 

Chatham. 
*Chope, R. Pearse (Hartland), B.A., Patent Office, 25, Southampton 

Buildings, W.C. Deputy-Chairman. 
JChubb, R. W. {Calcutta Devonian Soc). 

Churchward, Miss M. (Torquay), 409, Oxford Street, W. 

Churchward, Miss Doris (Torquay), 409, Oxford Street, W. 

Clark, W. H. D. (Plymouth), Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, 
W.C. 

Clarke, Arthur (Sidmouth), 15, Culmstock Road, Clapham Common, S.W. 

Clarke, H. L. (Torrington), London & South- Western Bank, Wanstead, 
Essex. 

Clarke, John (Honiton), 45, Marloes Road, Kensington, W. 

Clarke, Miss E. E. (descent), 41, Church Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Clarke, T. (Ottery St. Mary), 41, Church Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Clatworthy, H. J. (descent), Amberley House, Norfolk Street, Strand. 

Clifford, Colonel E. T. (Exeter), V.D., 6, Cranley Gardens, S.W. Vice- 
President; Chairman of Association ; Committee. 
♦Clifford of Chudleigh, Rt. Hon. Lord (Ugbrooke), Ugbrooke Park, Chud- 

leigh. Vice-President. 
JCoachagar, A. J. {Calcutta Devonian Soc). 

Coad, R. Lawson (Ilfracombe), 27 and 28, Old Jewry, E.C. 

Coker, E. G. (Plymouth), 60, St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 

Cole, N. (Salcombe), 46, Melgund Road, Highbury, N. Committee. 

Cole, Mrs. N. (Salcombe), 46, Melgund Road, Highbury, N. 

Cole, S. J. (Hartland), M.R.C.S., 47, South Molton Street, W. 
*Coles, John (Tiverton), J. P., 4, Kensington Park Gardens, W. 
Vice-President. 

Coles, W. Crosbie (Bideford), 78, Park Lane, Croydon. Committee. 

Collings, J. A. (Plymouth), 273, Uxbridge Road, W. 

Colwill, C. (North Petherwin), Pentire, Coombe Road, Croydon. 

Commin, Miss A. L. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 

Commin, E. G. (Exeter), 94, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 

Commin, Mrs. E. G. (Exeter), 94, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 

Commin, F. J. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 

Commin, Mrs. F. J. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 

Commin, Miss M. O. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 

Commin, R. G. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 

Congdon, A. R. (Hartland), 187a Brompton Road, S.W. 

Cook, Miss A. (Ottery St. Mary), 64, Atlantic Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Coombes, C. S. (Devonport), Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, 
W.C. 

Copp, A. E. G. (Barnstaple), 21, Trinity Road, Wimbledon. 

Copp, S. (Barnstaple), 22, Woburn Place, Russell Square, W.C. 

Cornwall, Sir Edwin A: (Lapford), M.P., L.C.C., 3, Whitehall Court, S.W. 
Vice-President. 

Cornelius, V. A. (Dawlish), Fire Brigade, South wark Bridge Road, S.E. 
J Couch, Mrs. A. W. (Brixham), 16, Palace Avenue, Paignton. 
JCouch, E; (Brixham), 16, Palace Avenue, Paignton. 

Couch, G. W. (Exeter), Vernon Lodge, Carshalton. 

Cox, F., 74, Lansdowne Road, Clapham Park, S.W. 

Cox, Mrs. F., 74, Lansdowne Road, Clapham Road, S.W. 

Coysh, R. H. (Dartmouth), 17, Delafield Road, Charlton, S.E. 

Craigie, D. C, 38, Wilton Place, S.W. 

Crang, W. (Ilfracombe), River Plate House, E.C. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 139 

JCrocker, H. M. (Calcutta Devonian Soc). 

Crook, R. H. J. (Newton Abbot), 15, Bedford Street, Strand, W.C. 

Crossley, W. M. (Sidmouth), Bank of England, E.C. 

Cumming, Arthur A. F. (Ilsington), 9, Netheravon Road, Chiswick, W. 

Cumming, Miss Edith M. (Ilsington), 9, Netheravon Road, Chiswick, W. 

Cumming, Mrs. L. (Bovey Tracey), 9, Netheravon Road, Chiswick, W. 
♦Cummings, V. J., 611, Superior St., Victoria, British Columbia. 

Cummings, S. Abbott (Torquay), 3, Arlington Mansions, Chiswick, W. 

Cummings, William Hayman (Sidbury), Mus.D. (Dub.), F.S.A., Hon. 
R.A.M., Sydcote, Dulwich, S.E: Vice-President. 

Dart, J. A. (Ilfracombe), 19, Waldegrave Road, Hornsey, N. 
Da van, Mrs. (Tiverton), 10, Old Deer Park Gardens, Richmond. 
JDavey, F. E. R. (Exeter), 13, Cranbrook Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Davey, G. W. (Sampford Spiney), 16, John Street, Bedford Row, W.C. 

Committee. 
Dickson, Miss Florence (Dawlish), 22, Caroline Street, Camden Town, N.W. 
*Distin, Alban L. G. (Paignton), 11, Melrose Terrace, Shepherd's Bush 
Road, W. 
Distin, Frank (Totnes), 22, Carter Lane, E.C. 
♦Distin, Howard (Paignton), M.B., Holtwhite House, Enfield. 
Dobell, J. S. (Newton Abbot), 104, Cricklewood Broadway, N.W. 
Dodridge, A. E. (Plymouth), " Moulin," Cromwell Road, Beckenham. 
I Doe, G. M. (Torrington), Enfield, Torrington, North Devon. 
jDoe, G. W. A. (Torrington), Enfield, Torrington, North Devon. 
IDolton, J. A. (Calcutta Devonian Soc). 

Dommett, W. E. (Devonport), The Elms, Milner Road, Kingston-on- 
Thames. 
JDrew, S. T. (Barnstaple), Public Library, Swansea. (Swansea Soc ; 
Corresponding Associate.) 
Duke, H. E. (Plymouth), K.C., M.P., 1, Paper Buildings, Temple, E.C. 

Vice-President. 
Dunn, A. E. (Exeter), 70, Victoria Street, S.W. Vice-President. 
Dunn, F. W. (South Molton), 8, Westmount Road, Eltham, Kent. 
I Dunn, J. H. (Bideford), Crofts, Lea Park, Ilfracombe. 

Eastmond, J. E. Rawle (Tiverton), 44, Charing Cross Road, S.W. 
Easton, H. T. (Exeter), Union of London and Smiths Bank, Lombard 
Street, E.C. Vice-President. 
*Ebden, W. R. Hern, 43, Caledon Road, East Ham, E. 
tEdwards, L. (Calcutta Devonian Soc). 
'Edy, C. W. (Tiverton), 18, Kew Road, Richmond. 
Edy, Mrs. C. W. (Tiverton), 18, Kew Road, Richmond. 
JEdye, Lieut. -Colonel L. (Hatherleigh), Stanley Court, Stanley Street, 
Montreal, Canada. 
Ellis, J. (Moretonhampstead), 31, Milton Street, E.C. 
Emberry, T. E. (Exeter), 133, Bennerley Road, Clapham Common, S.W. 
Endicott, Miss Hetty (Axminster), 102, Winstanley Road, Clapham Com- 
mon, S.W. 
JEvatt, H. A. B. (Calcutta Devonian Soc). 

♦Eveleigh, Miss Helen (Exeter), 186, S. James Court, Buckingham Gate, 
S.W. 
Everett, W. J. (Plymouth), 100, Devonshire Road, Hollo way, N. 

Farrant, H. G. (Hemiock), J.P., 3, Paper Buildings, Temple, E.C. 
JFenn, E. H. (Plymouth), Commercial Hotel, King William's Town, South 
Africa. 



140 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Foale, Miss A. G. (descent), 29, Aldridge Road Villas, Westbourne Park, W. 

Foale, P. (Blackawton), 29, Aldridge Road Villas, Westbourne Park, W. 

Foale, W. E. (descent), 29, Aldridge Road Villas, Westbourne Park, W. 

Ford, Clift (Plymouth), 17, High Street, Harlesden, N.W. 

Ford, J. (Plymouth), 49, Nicol Road, Harlesden, N.W. 

Fortescue, Rt. Hon. Earl (Filleigh), K.C.B., A.D.C., Lord Lieutenant of 

Devon, Castle Hill, South Molton, N. Devon. Past President. 
JFox, Bartholomew (Sidmouth), Carberry Tower, Musselburgh, N.B. 
Fox, Mrs. (Honiton), " Lord High Admiral," Church Street, Edgware 

Road, W. 
Franklyn, F. A. (Stonehouse), 20, Overhill Road, Dulwich, S.E. 
Fraser, Ernest (Exeter), 32, Hatton Garden, E.C. 

Galsworthy, John, Wingstone, Manaton, Devon. Vice-President. 

Gamble, Rev. H. R. (Barnstaple), M.A., Sloane Street, S.W. Vice- 
President. 

Gibson, Thos. (Appledore), 6, Moore Park Road, Fulham, S.W. 

Gill, Allen (Devonport), F.R.A.M., 5, Lincoln House, Dartmouth Park 
Hill, N.W. Vice-President. 

Gillham, H. (Burlescombe) , 222, Central Market, E.C. Committee. 

Gillham, Mrs., 90, Blenheim Gardens, Cricklewood, N.W. 

Glanvill, H. Wreford- (Exeter), 35, Strawberry Hill Road, Twickenham. 

Glanville, J. Pascoe (Plymouth), 3, Danecroft Gardens, Heme Hill, S.E. 

Glass, W. R. B. (North Loo), 60/ Pennard Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

Godfrey, Mrs. F. A. (descent), Homeville, Merton Avenue, Chiswick, W. 

Godfrey, S. H. (Ottery St. Mary), Homeville, Merton Avenue, Chiswick, W. 

Goodman, W. H. (Devonport), 160, Ardgorvan Road, Catford, S.E. 

Gosling, L. G. (Sidbury), " Sidbury," The Avenue, Chingford, Essex. 

Grant, Miss B. M. (Torrington), 42, Weymouth Street, Portland Place, W. 

Grant, Mrs. (Plymouth). 2, St. Mary's Road, North Kensington, W. 

Granwood, J. Northcott (Plymouth), 235, Barry Road, East Dulwich. 

Grigg, F. E. (Plymouth), 40, Jersey Road, Ilford. 

Grigg, R. (Exmouth), 14, Sundorne Road, Charlton, S.E. 

Grills, W. E. (Holsworthy), 524, Caledonian Road, N. 
JGrossmith, H. W. (Tiverton), Grafton House, Commercial Road, Ports- 
mouth (Portsmouth Soc). 

Gulliford, W. (Exeter), 28, Danby Street, Peckham, S.E. 

Halsbury, Rt. Hon. the Earl of (Parkham), 4, Ennismore Gardens, W. 

President. 
Hammick, Miss Daisy (Stoke Gabriel), Clifton House, Bridge Road, 

East Molesey. 
Hancock, Miss A. M. (Barnstaple), Bishop's Road, Paddington, W. 
Hancock, H. H. M. (Barnstaple), 56, Devereux Road, Wandsworth 

Common, S.W. Committee. 
Hancock, Mrs. (Barnstaple), 56, Devereux Road, Wandsworth Common, 

S.W. 
Handford,.W. (Barnstaple), 92, Morshead Mansions, Maida Vale, W. 
JHarding, W. (Parracombe), Landore, Swansea. (Swansea Soc.) 
Harris, J. J. (Bideford), 144, Amesbury Avenue, Streatham Hill, S.W. 
Harris, Mrs. Blanche (Plymouth), 96, Croxted Road, West Dulwich, S.E. 
Harris, Frank (Exeter), L.C.C. School, Orange Street, Southwark, S.E. 
Harry, Miss F. E. (Torquay), 11, Dalmeny Avenue, Camden Road, N. 
J Hawkins, J. (Teignmouth), Summerhill Park, Bathurst, Cape Colony, 

S. Africa. 
Haynes, J. T. (Hartland) J. P., 22, Knollys Road, Streatham, S.W. 






The Devonian Year Book, 1913 141 

JHeard, W. E. (Northam), J. P., Winchester House, Newport, Mon. 

Heard, Dr. J., 25, Woodwarde Road, Dulwich, S.E. 

Hearson, Prof. T. A. (Barnstaple), M.Inst. C.E., 14-15, Southampton 
Buildings, W.C. 

Hearson, W. E. (Barnstaple), " Kippington," Sevenoaks, Kent. 

Hesse, F. W. (Tiverton), 5, Moorgate Street, E.C. Committee. 

Hesse, Mrs. N. (Tiverton), 5, Moorgate Street, E.C. 
+Hews, T. G. (Tiverton), 8, Clarendon Road, Swansea. [Swansea Soc.) 

Heywood, G. W. (Bideford), 336, Holloway Road, N. 

Heywood, Mrs. Isabel (Bideford), 336, Holloway Road, N. 

Heywood, Percy (Bideford), 3. Brigstock Road, Thornton Heath. 

Hill, Edmund J. (Dartmouth), 19, Becmead Avenue, Streatham. 

Hill, Mrs. E. G. (Dartmouth), 19, Becmead Avenue, Streatham. 

Hill, H. W. (Exeter), 14, Highlever Road, North Kensington, N. 

Hill, J. A. (Holcombe Rogus), C.A., 19a, Coleman Street, E.C. Hon. 

A uditor. 
JHine, H. C. (Exeter), 25, Nelson Road, Landport, Portsmouth. (Ports- 
mouth Soc.) 

Hobbs, Frank (Molland), 119, Upper Richmond Road, Putney. 

Hobbs, W. H. (Bideford), 226, Southwark Park Road, S.E. 

Hockaday, F. (Dawlish), 82, Geraldine Road, Wandsworth, S.W. 
JHodder, P. C. (Aveton Gifford), 19, Chitty Road, East Southsea. (Ports- 
mouth Soc.) 
♦Hodge, F. (Heavitree), " The Homestead," Bishop's Avenue, East Finchley. 

Holman, J. Bertram (Bideford), 20, Lordship Lane, East Dulwich, S.E. 

Holmes, A. H. (Parracombe), 32, King Street, Cheapside, E.C. 

Honey, A. (Exeter), 60, Flanders Road, Bedford Park, W. 

Honey, Miss L. (Exeter), 60, Flanders Road, Bedford Park, W. 
♦Hooper, A.Shelton, J. P., Hong-Kong. (President Hong-Kong Devonian Soc.) 
I Hooper, W. E. (Devonport), 43, Strathcona Street, Ottawa, Canada. 

(Ottawa Soc.) 
♦Hooppell, Rev. J. L. E. (Aveton Gifford), St. Peter's Vicarage, Hoxton 
Square, N. 

Hopkins, Marty n (Silverton), 113, Burton Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Horton, A. J. B. (Morleigh), Matlock, Chudleigh Road, Crofton Park, S.E. 

Horwood, E. J. (Exeter), L.C.C. School, Gordonbrock Road, Lee, S.E. 
JHoskin, John, " Armadale," Culverden Park Road, Tunbridge Wells. 

Hosking, W. Champion (Shaldon), 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 

Howie, Mrs. J. R. C. (Tiverton), 36, Pepys Road, Raynes Park, S.W. 
♦Hughes, T. Cann (Hittisleigh), M.A., F.S.A., 78, Church Street, Lancaster, 

Hunter, Mrs. J. Pomeroy, 5, Shaftesbury Villas, Kensington, W. 

Hurley, J. W. (Ottery St. Mary), 80, Eardley Road, Streatham, S.W. 

Hutchings, C. F. H. (Exeter), 10, Old Devonshire Road, Balham. 

Hutchings, Miss Louie (Torquay), 205, Shirland Road, W. 

Hutchings, L. W. (Okehampton), 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 

Inman, Miss Melina (Stoke Gabriel), " Sherbourne," Longley Rd., Tooting. 
Inman, W. (Stoke Gabriel), " Sherbourne," Longley Road, Tooting, 

S.W. Committee. 
Inman, Mrs. W. (Stoke Gabriel), " Sherbourne," Longley Road, Tooting, 

S.W. 
Ireland, Miss G. B. (Bradninch), 66, Sinclair Road, West Kensington, W. 

James, Richard, " Broadclyst," Rutford Road, Streatham, S.W. 
Jarvis, W. T. (Torquay), 64, Goniger Road, Parsons Green, S.W. 
Jeffery, Frank C. (Exeter), Rockdale, Westcliff Park Drive, Westcliff. 



142 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 



Johns, F. P. (Devonport), Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, W.C. 
J Johnson, J. C. (West Buckland School), Grand Oriental Hotel, Colombo, 
Ceylon. 

Joint, E. G. (Plymouth), 22, Clarissa Road, Chadwell Heath. 
\ Jones, John (Barnstaple), 7, Malvern Terrace, Swansea. (Swansea Soc.) 

Kekewich, C. Granville (Axminster), 2, Suffolk Lane, E.C. 

Kekewich, Sir G. W. (Peamore), K.C.B., D.C.L., St. Albans, Feltham, 

Middlesex. Vice-President. 
Kelly, H. P. (Torquay), L.C.C. School, Fulham Palace Road, S.W. 
Kerslake, J. (Exeter), 2, Caple Road, Harlesden, N.W. 
Kerslake, W. (Crediton), 23, Wells Street, Oxford Street, W. 
JKerswell, J. C. (Plymouth), 5, Gwydr Terrace, Swansea. (Swansea Soc.) 
JKingcome, C. (Calcutta Devonian Soc). 
Kingcome, Miss Ada (Plymouth), 12, Burwood Place, Norfolk Crescent, 

W. 
Kingcome, Miss Emily (Plymouth), 12, Burwood Place, Norfolk Crescent, 

W. 
Kinsey, F. M. (West Buckland School), Florence Villa, 16, Harrow 

View, Wealdstcne. 
Kirkwood, J. H. M. (Yeo Vale, Bideford). Vice-President. 
Knight, F. (Exeter), 19, Hereford Road, Acton. 
JKnill, H. I. (Barnstaple), 32, Rhondda Street, Swansea. (Swansea Soc.) 

Laing, Mrs. H. B. ( ), 4, Heath Hurst Road, Hampstead, N.W. 

Lambert, Right Hon. George (Spreyton), M.P., 34, Grosvenor Road, 
Westminster, S.W. Vice-President. 

Lane, John (West Putford), " Bodley Head," Vigo Street, W. Vice- 
President. 

Lang, Mrs. E. L. (Teignmouth), 81, Cannon Street, E.C. 

Lang, C. E. (Teignmouth), 81, Cannon Street, E.C. 

Lang, G. E., 130, Elborough Street, Southfields, S.W. 

Lang, H. W. (Stonehouse), 7, Bayer Street, Golden Lane, E.C. 

Lang, W. H. (Ottery St. Mary), 45, Hopedale Road, Charlton, S.E. 

Larkworthy, H. S. (Kinton), 171, Hartfield Road, Wimbledon. 
♦Larkworthy, J. W. (Meeth), " Bucklands," Nether Street, North Finchley. 
♦Larkworthy, Mrs. J. W., " Bucklands," Nether Street, North Finchley. 

Lascelles, W. H. (Exeter), 28, Barclay Road, Croydon. 

Lawday, Miss K. (Kingsnympton), 45, Cambridge Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 

Lawrence, R. L. (Cullompton), 1 & 2, Russia Row, Milk Street, E.C. 

Lawrence, R. Reginald (Cullompton), 1 & 2, Russia Row, E.C. 
JLaycock, C. H., Cross Street, Moretonhampstead, Devon. 

Leat, J. (Exeter), B.A., Stoke Road, Slough. 

Lester, L. R. (Plymouth), 23, Neal Street, Long Acre, W.C. 

Lethbridge, C, 24, Great St. Helens, E.C. 

Lethbridge, J. (Tedburn St. Mary), 59, The Chase, Clapham Common. S.W. 

Lethbridge, Sir Roper, K.C.I.E.,. Exbourne Manor, Exbourne R.S.O., 
North Devon. Vice-President. 

Leyman, G. A. (Exmouth), no, Milton Avenue, East Ham 
JLiddiard, H. E. (Stonehouse), 12, Albert Grove, Southsea. (Portsmouth Soc.) 

Lishmund, J. W. (Plymouth), 47, Sandmere Road, Clapham, S.W. 

Lock, W. G. (Instow), 5, Copthall Buildings, E.C. 

Lopes, Sir H. Y-B., Bart. (Maristow), Roborough, Devon. Vice-President. 

Lovell, J. (Ottery St. Mary), 161, Eardley Road, Streatham, S.W. 

Luke, T. R. (Shebbear), National Liberal Club, Whitehall. 

Luxton, J. (Coleridge), 184, Essex Road, N. 
♦Lyons, Frank I. (Stonehouse), 15, Old Cavendish Street, W. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 143 

McCormack, W. J. (Plymouth). " Dunkeld," Slough, Bucks. Committee. 
Mallett, H. M. (Crediton), 49, Menard Road, Catford, S.E. 
♦Maries, W. J. (Crediton), 52, Oxford Street, Swansea. {Swansea Soc.) 
Martin, Frank C. R. (Exeter), 65, West Kensington Mansions, W. 
Masters, Miss Jessie (Yealmpton), 25, Bruton Street, Mayfair. 
Matthews, H. B. (Devonport), 14, Chesham Street, Brighton. 
Maunder, W. H. (Staverton), 7, Somerfield Road, Finsbury Park, N. 
Melluish, G. (Ottery St. Mary), 4, Little Pulteney Street, Shaftesbury 

Avenue, W. 
Metherell, C. (North Tawton), 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 
Michelmore, Miss A. M. (Totnes), 53, Grand Avenue, Muswell Hill, N. 
JMilford, F. P. {Calcutta Devonian Soc.) Corresponding Associate). 
Miller, Mrs. A. J. (Burrington) , Flat C, 196, Blythe Road, Kensington, W. 
*Morris, R. Burnet (South Molton), 24, Bramham Gardens, S.W. 
Mortimer, G. P. (Dunsford), 241, Romford Road, Forest Gate, E. 
♦Moyse, C. E. (Torquay), McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 
JMudge, Arthur J. (Plymouth), 505, Cooper Street, Ottawa, Canada. 

{Ottawa Soc.) 
Mutten, A. W. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper 

Clapton, N.E. 
Mutten, Mrs. A. W. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, 

Upper Clapton, N.E. 
Mutten, C. R. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper Clapton, 

N.E 
Mutten, Miss E. B. L. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, 

Upper Clapton, N.E. 
Mutten, Miss N. E. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper 

Clapton, N.E. 
Mutten, Miss W. A. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper 

Clapton, N.E. 

JNewcombe, C. H. K. (Braunton), 21, Mirador Crescent, Swansea. 
Noakes, F. W. (Totnes), 23, Ruskin Road, Lower Tottenham. 
Norrish, A. J. H. (Bideford), Kisber, Queen's Avenue, Church End, 
Finchley, N. 

Oakley, R. O. (Beer), 54, Sydney Road, Hornsey, N. 
Oakley, Mrs. F. E. (Ottery St. Mary), 54, Sydney Road, Hornsey, N. 
Offord, W. (Exeter), 72, Church Road, Willesden, N.W. 
Olliff, Mrs. Amy (Bideford), 12, Symons Street, Sloane Square, S.W. 
JOwen, W. A. (Shaldon), King William's Town, South Africa. 
Owen, W. D. (Axmouth), The Poplars, Somerset Road, Brentford. 

JPallett, Alfred R. (Devonport), 627, McLaren Street, Ottawa, Canada. 
{Ottawa Soc.) 

Parkyn, H. (Okehampton) , 413, Oxford Street, W. 
*Parr, R. J. (Torquay), 40, Leicester Square, W.C. Vice-President. 

Passmore, W. (Tiverton), 101, Elspeth Road, Clapham Common, S.W. 

Paterson, Miss Edith (Honiton), 16, Kingsgate Mansions, Red Lion 
Square. 

Paterson, Mrs. R. M. (descent), 50, Barrington Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Patton, Charles (Paignton), 145, St. Alban's Tor, Bedford Park, W. 

Patrick, F. (Exeter), 71, Sydney Street, Stoke Newington. 

Pawley, Mrs. (Plymouth), 98, Ramsden Road, Balham, S.W. 

Payne, Samuel (Torquay), 122, Albert Mansions, Battersea Park, S.W. 
JPearse, Dr. T. F. {Calcutta Devonian Soc). 



144 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

Peace, J. W. Graham, 61, Dynevor Road, High Street, Stoke Newington, N. 
JPearce, J. Cyprian (Kingsbridge), " The Times of Malaya," Ipok, Perak, 

Federated Malay States. 
JPedler, Dr. H. {Calcutta Devonian Soc). 

Peek, Sir Wilfrid, Bart. (Rousdon), 22, Belgrave Square, S.W. Vice- 
President. 

Penny, A. J. (Ottery St. Mary), 118, Cromwell Road, Wimbledon. 

Perry, F. A. (Tiverton), 4, Kirchen Road, West Ealing, W. Committee. 

Peter, Charles (Bradninch), 9, Cedar Road, Teddington. 

Petherick, P. J. (Holsworthy), 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 

Philp, C. R. S. (Plymouth), The Livesey Library, Old Kent Road, S.E. 
Committee. 

Philp, Mrs. E. L. (Plymouth), The Livesey Library, Old Kent Road, S.E. 

Philp, D. P. (Plymouth), 44, Homefield Road, Chiswick, W. 

Phillpotts, Eden (Exeter), Eltham, Torquay. Vice-President. 

Pike, W. A. (Exeter), 37, Holmewood Gardens, Brixton Hill, S.W. 
*Pilditch, Philip E. (Plymouth), L.C.C., 2, Pall Mall East, S.W. 
Vic&'PvBStd&'Vit 

Pillman, J. C. (Plymouth), J.P., The Cottage, Foots Cray, Kent. Vice- 
President. 

Pinkham, Alderman C (Plympton), J. P., C.C., Linden Lodge, Winchester 
Avenue, Brondesbury, N.W. Vice-President; Chairman of Committee. 

Pinn, F. G. (Sidmouth), 764, Fulham Road, S.W. 

Pinn, Mrs. (Plympton St. Maurice), 764, Fulham Road, S.W. 

Pocock R. W. (descent) 51 Radnor Road, Harrow, W. 

Pope, W. S. (Sidmouth),' 3, St. Ann's Villas, Holland Park, W. 

Popham, Mrs. L. M., 81, Elgin Crescent, W. 

Popham, W. V. M. (West Buckland School), Blomefield House, 85, 
London Wall, E.C. 

Porter, Spicer Russell (Plymouth), Public Trustee Office, 3 & 4, Clement's 
Inn, W.C. 

Potbury, T. R. (Sidmouth), M.A., 35, Park Parade, Harlesden, N.W. 

Powe, G. W. (Cadbury), 44, Creswick Road, Acton, W. 

Powe, H. D. (Plymouth), 13, Ellerby Street, Fulham, S.W. Committee. 

Pratt, Frank (Cullompton), 104, Fore Street, E.C. 

Pride, A. E. (Thorverton), Woodland, Horn Lane, Woodford Green. 

Pullman, James, 8, Eastern Road, Wood Green, N. 

♦Quick, Francis, 78, Gillespie Road, Highbury, N. 
Quick, N. (Tavistock), 552, High Road, Tottenham, N. 

Radford, G. H. (Plymouth), M.P., Chiswick House, Ditton Hill, Surrey. 

Vice-President. 
Rawle, H. (Sidmouth), 15, Corrance Road, Brixton, S.W. 
Reader, F. W. (Barnstaple), 51, Haydons Park Road, Wimbledon. 
% Rider, T. (Plymouth), Sandhurst, Goldsmith Avenue, Southsea. (Ports- 
mouth Soc.) 
Roberts, C. Wynne (Torquay), Dryden House, Oundle. 
Rose, Miss E. L. Smith- (Exeter), 39, Bark Place, Bayswater, W. 
Rose, Miss R. Smith- (Exeter), Postal Order Branch, G.P.O. 
Rose, Mrs. Smith- (Broadclyst), 39, Bark Place, Bayswater, W. 
Ryall, J. (Totnes), 38, Hanover Street, Peckham, S.E. Committee. 
Ryan, W. (Plymouth), 163, Queen's Road, Peckham, S.E. 

St. Cyres, Rt. Hon. Viscount (Pynes), 84, Eaton Square, S.W. Vice- 
President. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 145 

Salter, Mrs. A. J. (Axminster), 62, West Smithfield, E.C. 

Satterford, Percival (Plymouth), 91, Tradescant Road, South Lambeth, 

S.W. 
Scott, Capt. Robert F. (Plymouth), C.V.O., R.N., Admiralty, S.W. 

Vice-President. 
X Scott, T. C, Balfour, British Columbia. 
♦Seaton, Rt. Hon. Lord (Plympton), Beechwood, Plympton. Vice- 

Sellick, Miss B., 28, Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
Serjeant, Owen Russell (North Petherwin), The Link House, Stanmore, 

Middlesex. 
Sharland, A. W. (Exeter), " Edgecumbe," Ashburton Road, E. Croydon. 
Shaw, E. Harved, 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 
Shawyer, J. W. (Filleigh), 5, Hemington Avenue, Friern Barnet, N. 

Hon. Secretary. 
Shawyer, Mrs. J. W., 5, Hemington Avenue, Friern Barnet, N. 
Sheer, J. (North Petherwin), 13, King's College Road, N.W. 
Shelley, F. H. (Swimbridge), National Provincial Bank of England, 

Bishopsgate, E.C. 
JShepherd, H. Julian, " Sunningdale," Westbourne Grove, Westcliff-on- 

Sea. 
Simmons, Sydney (Okehampton), " Okehampton," Torrington Park, 

Friern Barnet, N. Vice-President. 
Simpson, Leslie (Stonehouse), Bank House, King St., Hammersmith, W. 
Skinner, G. E. (Parracombe), 50, Cowley Road, Leyton. 
Skinner, S. M. (Bradninch), 1 Hale Gardens, West Acton. 
Slade, H. J. (Torquay), 11, Maze Road, Kew, S.W. 
Small, A. (Barnstaple), 34, Goldsmith Road, Leyton. 
Smart, A. (Plymouth), 79, Gresham Street, E.C. " 
Smart, W. H. (Plymouth), St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 

Committee. 
Smerdon, W. (South Brent), 11, St. Stephen's Road, Ealing. 
Smith, Granville (Dartmouth), Master of the Supreme Court, Royal 

Courts of Justice, W.C. 
Smith, W. H. (Torquay), 11, Acfold Road, Fulham, S.W. 
Smithers, A. E. (Stonehouse), 27, Kennington Park Road, S.E. 
Snell, C. Scott (Barnstaple), Gravesend House, Ridgeway, Wimbledon. 
Snell, Mrs. C. Scott (Budleigh), Gravesend House, Ridgeway, Wimbledon. 
*Snell, M. B. (Barnstaple), J.P., 5, Copthall Buildings, E.C. Vice-President. 
Snell, J. (Axminster), Hanger Hill Farm, Ealing. 
Snodgrass, Archer A., 7, Charterhouse Square, E.C. 
Snow, R. J. B. (Tavistock), War Office, Whitehall, S.W. 
Soames, D. (Exeter), 52, Manor Road, Brockley, S.E. 
Soper, Rowland (Stonehouse), 13, Morley Road, East Twickenham. 
Southwood, F. C. (Bideford), 105, Abbey Road, N.W. 
Spear, Arthur (Plymouth), 61, Asylum Road, S.E. 
Spear, Sir John W. (Tavistock), M.P., Tavistock. Vice-President. 
Squire, H. Brinsmead (Torrington), London, County and Westminster 

Bank, 90, Wood Street, E.C. Hon. Treasurer. 
Squire, J. P. (North Tawton), 31, Angell Road, Brixton, S.W. 
Stanbury, H. (Plympton), St. Matthew's School, Westminster. 
Stanmore, Miss Florence (Exeter), Scarsdale House, Kensington, W. 
Steed, A. W. (Devonport), 6, Studdridge Street, Parson's Green, S.W. 
Steer, Rev. W. H. Hornby (Woodleigh), M.A., 52, Avenue Road, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
Steer, J. W. (Plymouth), " Wood Lee," 45, Raleigh Road, Hornsey, N. 



146 The Devonian Year Book, 1913 

+ Stentiford, S. J. ( Ashburton) , Stow Park Crescent, Newport (Mon.). 

Stidworthy, G. F. Kendall- (Kingsbridge), Friern Barnet Road, Friern 
Barnet, N. 

Stradling, A. E. (Seaton), 49, Glengarry Road, East Dulwich, S.E. 

Strange, Oliver (Tiverton), 2a North Avenue, Kew Gardens, S.W. 

Strange, Mrs. Oliver (Tiverton), 2a, North Avenue, Kew Gardens, S.W. 
♦Stranger, R. E. (Holsworthy), P.O. Box 1025, Cape Town, S. Africa. 

Streat, F. J. (Ottery St. Mary), 5, Ilminster Gardens, Lavender Hill, S.W. 

Stribling, J. Rowdon (Exeter), 50, High Street, Slough, Bucks. 

Stribling, W. J. L. (descent), Bulstrode, Uxbridge Road, Slough. 

Studley, Frank (Tiverton), " Fairhaven," Cheam Common Hill, Wor- 
cester Park, Surrey. 

Studley, G. (Uffculme), Worcester Park, Surrey. 

Sturdy, A. M. (Plymouth), 40, Petherton Road, Highbury, N. 

Summers, J. (Ottery St. Mary), 44, Grove Hill Road, Peckham, S.E. 
Committee. 

Swigg, F. G. (Plymouth), 163, Queen's Road, Peckham, S.E. 

Talbot, Miss Mabel A. (Hockworthy), 42, Weymouth Street, Portland 
Place, W. 

Tarring, F. W., F.R.I. B. A. (Harberton), 26, Coolhurst Road.Crouch End. N. 

Tatton, C, 145, St. Albans Avenue, Bedford Park, Chiswick, W. 

Taverner, J. L., 24, High Street, Ealing, W. 
♦Taylor, A., West Buckland School, South Molton, North Devon. 

Taylor, A. F. (St. Mary Church), Ingleside, Han well, W. 

Taylor, J. H. (Northam), The Lodge, Old Deer Park, Richmond. 

Thomas, J. R. (Exeter), 112, Manor Park Road, Harlesden, N.W. 

Thomson, F. J. S. (Exeter), 31, Angell Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Thorn, H. B. (Exeter), 117, Dalston Lane, N.E. 

Thorn, Miss I. H. (Chagford), 9, Springwell Avenue, Harlesden, N.W. 

Thorn, R. (Chagford), 9, Springwell Avenue, Harlesden, N.W. 

Titherley, A. (Exeter), Laurence Villa, Boston, Lines. 

Tolchard, W. D., 734, High Road, Leytonstone. 

Toley, A. (Stockland), The Grove, Hanwell. 

Toll, A. E. J. (Torquay), 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.G. 

Tolley, H. (Exeter)", 316, Brixton Road, S.W. 

Tonkin, Miss Ada (Newton Abbot), 5, Upper Brook Street, W. 
*Tozer, Henry (Exeter), 1, Durham House Street, Strand, W.C Vice- 
President. 
JTozer, H. S. (Calcutta Devonian Soc). 

'Tozer, J. R. K. (Paignton), 6, Cannon Street, E.C. 

Train, J. Wilfred (Chudleigh), Secretaries' Office, H.M. Customs and 
Excise, Lower Thames Street, E.C. 

Treharne, W. J. (Ilfracombe), Abbotsford, The Grove, Church End, 
Finchley, N. 

JTreliving, Norman (Okehampton), Public Library, Woodhouse Moor, 

Tucker, G. H. L. ( ), 83, Ham Park Road, West Ham, E. 

Tucker, Thomas (Exeter), 49, Folburg Road, Stoke Newington, N.E. 
*Tucker, Lieut.-General C. (Ashburton), Chalet St. Pierre, Biarritz. 
Tuckett, C. F., 40, Chats worth Avenue, Merton Park. 
Turner, F. J., Ridgway House, Mill Hill, N.W. 
Turner, Mrs., Ridgway House, Mill Hill, N.W. 
Twose, W. (Culmstock), 90, King's Road, Chelsea, S.W. 
Tyte, H. (Barnstaple), 121, Lansdowne Road, Seven ]jKings, Essex. 
Tyte, Miss K. (Barnstaple), 7a, Morgan Mansions, Holloway Road, N. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1913 147 



♦Upcott, Lieut.-Col. Sir Frederick Upcott (Cullompton), K.C.V.O., C.S.I., 
227, St. James Court, Buckingham Gate, S.W. Vice-President. 

♦Upcott, Lady (Cullompton), 227, St. James Court, Buckingham Gate, 
S.W. 
Upham, W. Reynell- (Bicton), 13, Constantine Road, Hampstead, N.W. 

♦Veitch, Sir Harry J. (Exeter), 34, Redcliffe Gardens, South Kensington. 

Vice-President. 
Vellacott, H. D. (Tawstock), C.A., 141, Fenchurch Street, E.C. Hon. 

Auditor. 
Venn, \V. H. (Whimple), M.A., St. Peter's College, Manor Road, Brockley, 

S.E. 
Vibert, F. H. (Totnes), Rock Villa, Sevenoaks. 
Vibert, Herbert (Totnes), 104, Fore Street, E.C. 

Vivian, Henry (Cornwood), 6, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. Vice-President. 
Vivian, Miss Doris, (Devonport), 31. Penwortham Road, Streatham, S.W. 
Vivian, Mrs. (Plymouth), 31, Penwortham Road, Streatham, S.W. 
Vosper, Thos. (Plymouth), 2, Garden Court, Temple, E.C. 

Waghorn, Mrs. A. G. (Horrabridge), 3, Westcombe Park Road, Black- 
heath, S.E. 

Walden, Mrs. A. M. (Exmouth), 8, Parson's Green Lane, Fulham. S.W. 

Waldron, Rev. A. J. (Plymouth), St. Matthew's Vicarage, Brixton, S.W. 
Vice-President. 
* Walker, F. (Drewsteignton) , 68, Coleman Street, E.C. 

Walrond, Conrad M. (Cullompton), " Braeside," St. Catherine's Lane, 
Eastcote. 

Walrond, H. W. (Cullompton), London, County and Westminster Bank, 
Knightsbridge, S.W. 

Walton, C. H. (Teignmouth), 54, Union Grove, Clapham, S.W. 
J Webb, A. O. T. (Calcutta Devonian Soc). 

Webb, Charles (Ottery St. Mary), 138, Bedford Hill, Balham, S.W. 

Webber, W. J. N. (Plymouth), Aspen Cottage, Mitcham Junction, Surrey. 

Westaway, J., 22, Dane's Inn House, 265, Strand, W.C. 

Western, J. R. (Cullompton), Rosario, Holly Park Gardens, Finchley, N. 
J Wheeler, C. (llfracombe), " Norlands," Lyndhurst, Hants. 

White, A. (Diptford), }, Aberdeen Court, Aberdeen Park, N. 

White, F. H. (Teignmouth), 33, St. Mary-at-Hill, E.C. 
♦White, Sir William H., K.C.B. (Devonport), Cedarscroft, Putney Heath. 
Vice-President. 

White, T. Jeston (Stockland), 39, Burne Street, N.W. 

White, W. A. (Exeter), Crabtree, Riverside, Fulham, S.W. 

Whitfield, J. (Bideford), 103, Altenburgh Gardens, Clapham Common, 
S.W. 

Whitley, H. Michell (Plymouth), Broadway Court, Broadway, West- 
minster, S.W. Vice-President. 

Williams, F. (Otterton), 195, Fentiman Road, Clapham, S.W. 

Willis, C. A. (Combemartin), 28, Falmouth Road, Southwark, S.E. 

Willis, P. T. (Combemartin), 28, Falmouth Road, Southwark, S.E. 

Wilton, F. W. (Hartland), " Hartland," Sandringham Road, Golder's 
Green, N.W. 

JWindeatt, E. (Totnes), " Heckwood," Totnes, S. Devon. 

JW T inter, P. G. D. (Torquay), 70, Elm Grove, Southsea. (President, Ports- 
mouth Soc. ; Corresponding Associate.) 

$ Wise, H. Harris (Plymouth), Glen View, Penylan Park, Newport (Mon.). 

Witheridge, W. H. (Plymouth), 105, Dawes Road, Fulham, S.W. 



148 The Devonian Year Book, 191 3 



Wollocombe, J. R. (Lewdown), c/o Rev. G. Sampson, Ramsdell Vicarage, 
Basingstoke, Hants. 

Woodley, E. T. B. (Ashburton), 4, Alexandra Park Road, Wood Green, N. 

Woollcombe, Rev. H. S. (Northlew), M.A. Vice-President. 

Worth, A. J. (Devonport), London County & Westminster Bank, Mary- 
lebone Road, W. 

Wreford, C. W. (Exeter), 42, Dyne Road, Brondesbury, N.W. 

Wreford, Mrs. C. W. (Exeter), 42, Dyne Road, Brondesbury, N.W. 

Wreford, j. (Exeter), M.B.. 66, West End Lane, N.W. Vice-President. 
JWrenford, Rev. H. St. John E., Clannaborough Rectory, Bow, N. Devon. 

Wright, F. G. (Tiverton), io, Old Deer Park Gardens, Richmond. 

Wright. J. L. (Tiverton), 10, Old Deer Park Gardens, Richmond. 
% Wright, W. H. K. (Plymouth), Borough Librarian, Plymouth. Vice- 
President. 
+\Vyatt, F. B. (South Molton), South Molton, N. Devon. 

Yendole, Wm. (Newton St. Cyres), 14, Harbut Road, Clapham Junction, 

S.W. 
Yeo, James (Barnstaple), Woodhurst, Warlingham, Surrey. 
Yeo, S. A. Spear (Exeter), 2, 4, and (>, St. John Street, E.C. 

Zellerg, J. H. (Exeter), 31, Radipole Road, Fulham, S.W. 



Members are earnestly requested to notify alterations of address, and place 
of association with Devonshire {in cases where this is omitted), to the Hon. 
Secretary, John W. Shawyer, St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 




1914 



PRICE 2s. 6d. net. 



DEVONIAN YEAR BOOK 
1914 



*L 




THE LATE CAPTAIN ROBERT F. SCOTT, C.V.O., R.N. 

{Vice-President of the London Devonian Association.) 



Photo t'v Mail it & Fox, 1S7, Piccadilly, II ' (Sec />. I \i ) 



THE 



Devonian Year Book 



FOR THE YEAR 



1914 



(FIFTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION) 



JEDtteD b£ 
R. PEARSE CHOPE, B.A. 



" To the men of Devon England owes her commerce, her colonies, her 
very existence." — Westward Ho ! 



PUBLISHED BY 

XonDon: THE LONDON DEVONIAN ASSOCIATION 

(JOHN W. SHAWYER, Hon. Sec.) 
St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO. LTD. 

Bristol : JOHN WRIGHT & SONS LTD., STONE BRIDGE 

(/or the West of England and South Wales), 



JOHN WRIGHT AND SONS LIMITED 
PRINTERS, BRISTOL. 




r 



Contents, 



The London Devonian Association — Officers and Com- 
mittees ------- 7 

The Year's Work - - 10 

The Annual Dinner - - - - 18 

Captain Robert Falcon Scott, R.N., C.V.O. - 22 

Sir William Henry White, K.C.B., F.R.S., LL.D. - - 27 

National Memorial to Sir Francis Drake - - 30 

Drake in History, Song, and Story— W. H. K. Wright - 36 

" Drake's Drum " — Henry Newbolt - - 64 

The Romance of Devon — H. Michell Whitley - - 65 

" Jan Pook's Midnight Adventure " — Dr. Puddicombe - 84 

Devonians in London — R. Pearse Chope - - 85 

Okehampton Castle : The Keep — Dr. Edward H. Young - 105 

Some Recent Devonian Literature — H. Tapley-Soper - 114 

Affiliated Societies - - - - - 116 

Devonian Societies not Affiliated - - - - 129 

Learned and Scientific Societies in Devonshire - - 135 

Libraries in Devonshire - - - - - 137 

Rules of the London Devonian Association - - 139 

List of Fixtures for 1914 - - 142 

List of Members and Associates - 145 



Officers and Committees 



The London Devonian Association, 
Officers and Committee. 

1913-14. 



President : 

The Right Hon. the Earl of HALSBURY, P.C. 

Past Presidents : 

The Right Hon. Earl FORTESCUE, K.C.B., A.D.C., Lord- Lieutenant 

of Devon (1909-10). 
The Right Hon. Lord NORTHCOTE, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., C.B. 

(1910-11). 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Right Hon. the Earl of MOUNT EDGCUMBE, P.C, G.C.V.O., 

V.D. 
The Right Hon. the Viscount ST. CYRES. 
The Right Rev. The LORD BISHOP OF EXETER. 
The Right Hon. Lord CHURSTON, M.V.O. 
The Right Hon. Lord CLIFFORD OF CHUDLEIGH, V.D. 
The Right Hon. Lord SEATON. 

The Hon. LIONEL WALROND, M.P. Tiverton (Bradfield). 
The Right Hon. GEORGE LAMBERT, P.C, M.P. South Molton, 

(Spreyton) . 
Sir CLIFFORD J. CORY, Bart., M.P. (Bideford). 
Sir H. Y.-B. LOPES, Bart. (Roborough). 
Sir WILFRID PEEK, Bart. (Rousdon). 
Sir GEORGE W. KEKEWICH, K.C.B., D.C.L. (Peamore). 
Sir ROPER LETHBRIDGE, K.C.I.E., M.A., D.L., J.P. (Exbourne). 
Sir JOHN JACKSON, K.C.V.O., M.P. Devonport. 
Lt.-Col. Sir FREDK. UPCOTT, K.C.V.O., C.S.I. (Cullompton). 
Sir EDWIN A. CORNWALL, M.P. (Lap ford). 
Sir JOHN W. SPEAR, M.P. Tavistock (Tavistock). 
Sir HARRY J. VEITCH (Exeter). 

Commander H. L. L. PENNELL, R.N. (Awliscombe). 
Colonel E. T. CLIFFORD, V.D. (Exeter). 
Major A. C MORRISON-BELL, M.P. Honiton (Harpford). 
Captain E. F. MORRISON-BELL, M.P. Ashburton, (Chudleigh). 
T. DYKE ACLAND, Esq., M.D., F.R.CP. (Columb-John). 
W. WALDORF ASTOR, Esq., M.P. Plymouth. 

Rev. W. P. BESLEY, M.A. (Barnstaple), Minor Canon of St. Paul's. 
J. B. BURLACE, Esq. (Brixham). 
JOHN COLES, Esq., J.P. (Tiverton). 
W. H. CUMMINGS, Esq., Mus.D. Dub., F.S.A. (Sidbury). 
H. E. DUKE, Esq., K.C, M.P. Exeter, (Plymouth), Recorder of 

Devonport. 
A. E. DUNN, Esq. (Exeter). 
H. T. EASTON, Esq. (Exeter). 
JOHN GALSWORTHY, Esq. (Manaton). 



The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



Vice-Presidents : — Continued. 
Rev. H. R. GAMBLE, M.A. {Barnstaple), Hon. Chaplain to the King. 
ALLEN GILL, Esq., F.R.A.M. (Devonport). 
T. CANN HUGHES, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. (Hittisleigh) . 
JOHN LANE, Esq. (West Putford). 

F. B. MILDMAY, Esq., M.P. Totnes (Flete, Ivybridge). 
R. J. PARR, Esq. {Torquay). 

EDEN PHILLPOTTS, Esq. {Exeter). 
P. E. PILDITCH, Esq., J.P., L.C.C. (Kingsbridge) . 
J. C. PILLMAN, Esq., J.P. (Plymouth). 
Alderman C. PINKHAM, J.P., C.C. (Plympton). 

G. H. RADFORD, Esq., M.P. (Plymouth). 
SIDNEY SIMMONS, Esq., J.P. (Okehampton). 
MICHAEL B. SNELL, Esq., J.P. (Barnstaple). 
H. TAPLEY-SOPER, Esq. (Stoke Gabriel). 
HENRY TOZER, Esq. (Exeter). 

HENRY VIVIAN, Esq. (Cornwood). 

Rev. A. J. WALDRON (Plymouth). 

H. MICHELL WHITLEY, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. (Plymouth). 

Rev. H. S. WOOLLCOMBE, M.A. (Northlew). 

JOHN WREFORD, Esq., M.B. (Exeter). 

W. H. K. WRIGHT, Esq., F.L.A. (Plymouth). 

Chairman of the Association : 

Colonel E. T. CLIFFORD, V.D. (Exeter), 
Cranley Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 

Committee : 

Chairman. 

Alderman C. Pinkham, J. P., C.C. (Plympton), 

Linden Lodge, Winchester Avenue, Brondesbury, N.W. 

Deputy Chairman. 

R. Pearse Chope, B.A. (Hartland). 

Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, W.C. 

G. E. Bridgeman (Ugborough), 8, Lavender Sweep, Clapham Common, 
S.W. 

J. B. Burlace (Brixham), 38, Corfton Road, Ealing, W. 

N. Cole (Salcombe), 46, Melgund Road, Highbury, N. 

G. W. Davey (Sampford Spiney), 16, John Street, Bedford Row, W.C. 

J. Donald (Three Towns Assoc), 20, Sprules Road, Brockley, S.E. 

H. Gillham (Burlescombe) , 222, Central Market, E.C. 

H. H. M. Hancock (Barumites in London), 56, Devereux Road, Wands- 
worth Common, S.W. 

W. Inman (Stoke Gabriel), Sherbourne, Longley Road, Tooting, S.W. 

J. Lovell (Old Ottregians Soc), 161, Eardley Road, Streatham, S.W. 

W. J. McCormack, J.P. (Plymouth), Dunkeld, Slough, Bucks. 

F. A. Perry (Tiverton), 4, Kirchen Road, West Ealing. 

C R. S. Philp (Plymouth), Livesey Library, Old Kent Road, S.E. 

H. D. Powe (Plymouth), 13, Ellerby Road, Fulham Palace Road, S.W. 

John Ryall (Exeter Club), 38, Hanover Street, Peckham, S.E. 

W. H. Smart (Plymouth), St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 

J. H. Taylor (Northam), The Lodge, Old Deer Park, Richmond. 

Robert Yandle (Tivertonian Assoc), 22, Carter Lane, E.C. 



Officers and Committees 



Hon. Auditors. 
Gilbert Harris, C.A. {Plymouth) , 78, Wood Street, E.C. 
J. Arnold Hill, C.A. (Holcombe Rogus), 19a, Coleman Street, E.C. 

Hon. Treasurer. 
H. Brinsmead Squire (Torrington), London County 6c Westminster Bank, 
Ltd., 90, Wood Street, E.C. 

Hon. Secretary. 
John W. Shawyer (West Buckland School O.B.A.), 5, Hemington Avenue, 
Friern Barnet, N. 

Benevolent Fund Sub-committee : 
G. E. Bridgeman, G. W. Davey, H. H. M. Hancock, W. Inman, 
J. H. Taylor. 

Entertainment Sub-committee : 

N. Cole (Chairman), G. E. Bridgeman, H. Gillham, H. H. M. Hancock, 
W. Inman, John Ryall, C. W. Wreford, W. H. Smart (Hon. 

Secretary) . 

Finance Sub-committee : 

J. B. Burlace, G. W. Davey, W. Inman, W. J. McCormack, W. H. Smart. 

Year Book Sub-committee : 
J. B. Burlace, F. A. Perry, W. H. Smart. 

Note. — The Chairman of the Association, the Chairman of Committee, 
the Deputy Chairman, the Hon. Treasurer, and the Hon. Secretary are 
ex-officio members of the Committee and of all Sub-committees. 



A Devonshire Ditty. 

When we die — we'll think of Devon 

Where the garden's all aglow 

With the flowers that stray across the gray old wall 
Then we'll climb it, out of heaven, 

From the other side you know, 
Straggle over it from heaven 

With the apple-blossom snow, 
Tumble back again to Devon, 

Laugh and love as long ago, 

Where there isn't any fiery sword at all. 

Alfred Noyes. 
[From " Collected Poems " — Blackwood.] 



io The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



The Year's Work. 

The County Society movement has, during the past year, 
made marked progress in the Metropolis. For some years 
there had existed a Conference of Honorary Secretaries of the 
respective Societies, under the Presidency of Major Richard 
Rigg, J. P., of the Cumberland and Westmoreland Association 
of London, which had in a quiet way by informal meetings 
and by the interchange of views between the executive officers 
tended to promote some unification of method and community 
of interest. Useful as their gatherings were, the secretaries 
recognized that their influence was restricted and that the 
precepts imbibed by them would be more far-reaching in their 
effect if the scope of the Conference were extended. The out- 
come was the formation in the autumn of 1912, of the Conference 
of English County Societies in London, and to this the London 
Devonians were among the earliest to pledge their support. 
Fortunate in the adherence of its sister societies in London, 
in the provinces, and beyond the seas, the London Devonian 
Association had often been cited as a model of what the Confer- 
ence might be capable of accomplishing. Local patriotism is 
a great factor in the development of national and imperial 
patriotism. The movement depends on the association of the 
four ideas — home, county, country, empire. The federation of 
Devonian societies throughout the world will, it is hoped, be 
but a prelude to the federation of all Englishmen beyond the 
seas — the forging of a link in the chain that would ultimately 
bind together the English-speaking race. Seventeen out of the 
twenty-seven County Societies in London have already shown 
their allegiance by becoming affiliated. Friendly rivalry 
between them has received encouragement. Through the kind 
co-operation of Fry's Magazine, the Schweppes Golf Challenge 
Cup, a handsome gold trophy of the value of one hundred 
guineas, was offered for competition, and fourteen societies 
entered for the first tournament. The London Devonians were 
represented by Colonel E. T. Clifford (handicap 5), of the Mid- 
Surrey Golf Club, and Mr. M. Bowden Snell (7), of the Westward 
Ho and Tunbridge Wells Golf Clubs. In the first match 
against the Men of Sussex, played on the Sundridge Park course, 
both games were won, but in the afternoon a much more difficult 
task presented itself, our opponents being the Men of Kent and 
Kentish Men. The latter were strongly fancied, inasmuch as 
they were represented by two members of the Sundridge Park 



10 




INTER-COUNTY SOCIETIES GOLF TOURNAMENT. 
SCHWEPPES GOLD CHALLENGE CUP. 

Won by the London Devonian Association. 



The Year's Work n 



Club, Mr. Herbert Nalty (1) and Colonel Griffiths (6), who, 
although giving a stroke on each of their handicaps in con- 
sideration of their knowledge of the course, were thought to 
be capable of conquering all visitors, and had easily disposed of 
London Hampshire in the morning. Each side, however, 
secured a match, so that under the rules of the event the two 
winners, Mr. Bowden Snell and Mr. Nalty, had to play off over 
three holes. They halved, but, going on, Mr. Bowden Snell 
secured the next two holes and gave Devon the victory. It 
is curious and satisfactory to record that four Western 
Counties — Cornwall, Devon, Gloucester, and Somerset — were 
now left to compete in the semi-final round. For this event the 
excellent Sandy Lodge Club course, near Northwood, was placed 
at the disposal of the societies. Our representatives were 
called upon to play Cornwall in the morning, but success was 
not secured without a struggle. Playing level, Colonel Clifford 
was three down at the sixth hole to Mr. Jewill Rogers, who had 
an average of 4's up to that point. The game turned at the 
seventh hole, when Mr. Rogers visited a bunker. He lost that 
hole and the next four, he halved the twelfth, and then sustained 
two more losses. Colonel Clifford, three down at the sixth, secured 
the seventh, and winning seven and dividing two of the next nine 
holes, won the match by 4 and 3 — a noteworthy recovery. Mr. 
Snell's attention was chiefly devoted to keeping a lead which he 
gained early in the round from Mr. Percy Liddell. The final 
round against the Gloucestershire men was played the same 
afternoon. Mr. Bowden Snell defeated Mr. F. W. Davy by 
6 and 5. Colonel Clifford secured the other point for Devon 
after a splendid match with Mr. Picton Ellott. First one and 
then the other secured the lead, Colonel Clifford being one up 
at the sixteenth. The match ended at the seventeenth, where 
the Gloucestershire representative drove into a practically 
unplayable position in a bunker. Further ill-fortune followed, 
as in a determined effort to recover lost ground Mr. Picton 
Ellott drove two successive balls into the wood on the left. 
So Devon won the English County Societies Golf Cup in the 
inaugural tournament. The winners and runners-up were 
presented with handsome souvenirs by the proprietors of Fry's 
Magazine, and the winners will each be presented with silver- 
gilt replicas of the cup at our next Annual Dinner. 

A Miniature Rifle Competition followed for a Silver Challenge 
Cup, presented by Mr. Walter Winans. Six County Societies — 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, London Devonians, East 
Anglians, Men of Kent and Kentish Men, Men of Sussex, and 
Warwickshire — sent teams to compete for the trophy. The 



12 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

result was an easy win for the Men of Kent with a score of 770, 
the London Devonians being second with 726. Although no 
excuse for the indifferent form displayed by our representatives, 
it should be pointed out in fairness to them that Kent certainly 
possesses an advantage over the other County Societies by 
drawing on all the Rifle Clubs throughout the county, whereas 
the other competitors confine their membership to London, 
and consequently have only the London clubs to draw from. 

The London Devonians were represented by : R. C. Lake 
(Plymouth), 95 ; F. A. Cork (Appledore), 95 ; R. W. Mourant 
(Exeter), 94 ; A. V. Mildren (Beer), 92 ; G. B. Godsland (Bovey 
Tracey), Captain, 91 ; E. S. Smart (Barnstaple), 88 ; A. C. T. 
Wild (Beer), 86 ; E. R. Tucker (Morchard), 85 ; W. J. Wright 
(Bideford), 84 ; A. G. Buse (Shebbear), 82. 

All Devonians interested in Miniature Rifle Shooting should 
communicate with the Hon. Secretary without delay, in view of 
the next competition. 

The trophies were presented to the winning societies at a 
Bohemian Concert at Cannon Street Hotel, presided over by 
Major Richard Rigg, the President of the English County 
Societies Conference, supported by the Duke of Norfolk, K.G., 
G.C.V.O., Lord Desborough, K.C.V.O., Lord Northbourne, and 
many more keenly interested in County Society work. 

Separate articles will be found dealing with the work of our 
Association in initiating the movement for a National Memorial 
to Drake in London, and to the loss we have sustained through 
the death in the Antarctic of Captain Robert Scott on his return 
from the South Pole. At the great memorial service in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, attended by His Majesty the King in person, 
the Association was officially represented by Mr. J. W. Shawyer, 
our Honorary Secretary, and how world-wide was the outburst 
of sympathy for the heroic Devonian leader and his comrades 
is instanced by a cutting from the Sydney (Australia) Daily 
Telegraph, sent by one of our over-sea members. After alluding 
to the fact that references were made in most of the churches 
in Sydney, and that services were of an appropriate character, 
special musical items being rendered, it quotes from a sermon 
preached by Archdeacon Boyce at St. Paul's, Redfern. He said : 

" The life and death of Scott and his comrades will be an 
inspiration to high ideals for centuries to come. Their bravery, 
their hardihood, their forgetfulness of self, their perseverance, 
and their success will form a new and splendid chapter in the 
annals of their race. It would be another great memory for 
Empire Day ; indeed, as long as the old flag was kept flying 
the example would speak to one and all. 



The Year's Work 13 



" While Scott belonged to the whole British race, he was of 
his native county, Devonshire, in particular, from whence so 
many great heroes of the sea had sprung. Nowhere would 
Scott be more sincerely mourned and honoured than there. 
He thought of this when reminded of the spirit in which the 
late explorer went forth. On the eve of his departure, at a 
banquet tendered him by Devonians in London, Earl Fortescue 
said, ' They were sure that the honour of his county and of 
his profession were safe in his hands ; that what man could do 
he would do, and by God's blessing he would do a great deal.' 
Scott, in his reply, called his men ' a band of brothers/ and 
warmly eulogized them. A band of brothers ! The youngest 
sailor to the senior, with himself as one of them ! Was not this 
a true spirit, one of brotherhood, in which they were to face 
Antarctic storms and possible death ? Was there not here a 
humility and a kindliness of heart ? And in his last hours that 
loving spirit remained and stood out. 

" Certainly, the British people under their one flag will never 
see the families of these heroes who passed away in any want. 
They are a national charge. Scott reached the Pole and so far 
conquered. The honour to him was rather higher than 
Amundsen's, as the latter had all the records and experience 
of Scott's previous difficult journey to assist him. A few days' 
priority could make no difference in such a case. Scott's daunt- 
less energy will ever remain as a theme for admiration. There 
are great lessons here of self-sacrifice, duty, and devotion to 
the true interests of the race, that should be learnt by every 
young Australian. There is a call to them to work in life for 
high ideals, and, forgetting self, to try to serve their God and 
country in their day and generation." 

The General Committee of the Association, at a special 
meeting, passed a resolution of sympathy with Captain Scott's 
widow and mother, and the following letters will be perused 
with interest : — 

March Uth, 1913. 

Mrs. Hannah Scott, Henley-on-Thames. 

Dear Madam, — I am desired by the Committee of the London 
Devonian Association to convey to you a resolution of condolence 
and sympathy with yourself and Lady Scott in the irreparable 
loss you both sustained through the death of your gallant son, 
Captain Scott. He was one of our Vice-Presidents and we had 
the honour of giving him a send-off dinner just prior to his 
departure on his last expedition. Many members of the Com- 
mittee and of the Association were, consequently, personally 



14 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

acquainted with him and had been hoping to extend to him a 
welcome back worthy of the county to whose long list of national 
heroes he has added lustre. 

It is long since the heart of any country has gone out in 

sympathy and sorrow as the heart of England has gone out 

to you and Lady Scott in your bereavement, and in it London 

Devonians desire to express to you their claim to a full share. 

I am, dear Madam, 

Yours faithfully, 

Jno. W. Shawyer 
{Hon. Sec). 

Holcombe, 
Henley-on-Thames, 

15th March, 1913. 

Dear Sir, — I beg to acknowledge your letter of the 14th of 
March, enclosing the resolution of condolence and sympathy 
of the Committee of the London Devonian Association, and 
to ask you to convey to the President, The Right Hon. the Earl 
of Halsbury, and his colleagues, my heartfelt thanks and those 
of my family for the deep sympathy they have offered to us in 
our great bereavement. 

On Lady Scott's return your resolution, with others, will be 
given to her. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Faithfully yours, 

H. Scott. 
J. W. Shawyer, Esq., Hon. Secretary. 

Through the instrumentality of the Bulawayo Chronicle, the 
Devonian Society of Rhodesia collected and forwarded to us 
the sum of £40 6s. 9d. for the Lord Mayor's Fund, opened in 
response to Scott's dying appeal to his country. Our Association 
in the close of its own separate fund paid over the balance in 
hand, making a total contribution of £251 Is. 8d. 

We deplore, too, the loss of Sir William White, also a Vice- 
President, regarding whose interesting career a note appears 
elsewhere. 

Apart from a satisfactory increase in membership, the Three 
Towns Association, the Cardiff Devonshire Society, the Society 
of Devonians in Bristol, Leicester and South Midlands Devon 
and Cornwall Association, Devonians in Liverpool and District, 
Reading and District Devon and Cornish Association, Devonian 
Societies in Calcutta, Rhodesia, Ottawa, Toronto, Victoria (B.C.), 



The Year's Work 15 



and New Zealand, have become affiliated, so that the affiliated 
societies now number twenty, in addition to twenty-four societies 
which keep in touch with this Association as corresponding 
societies, and of which a full list is given elsewhere. 

To the list of Vice-Presidents have been added: The Earl 
of Mount Edgcumbe, The Lord Bishop of Exeter, Lord Churston, 
The Hon. Lionel Walrond, M.P., Sir Clifford J. Cory, Bart., M.P., 
W. Waldorf Astor, Esq., M.P. Plymouth, T. Cann Hughes, Esq., 
Town Clerk of Lancaster, Sir John Jackson, M.P. Devonport, 
F. B. Mildmay, Esq., M.P. Totnes, Major A. Clive Morrison-Bell, 
M.P. Honiton, Captain E. F. Morrison-Bell, M.P. Ashburton, 
Commander Harry Pennell, R.N., Member of the Scott Antarctic 
Expedition, and H. Tapley-Soper, Esq., Librarian of Exeter. 

It is interesting to note the success that two of our Vice- 
Presidents have achieved as dramatists, Mr. John Galsworthy 
with his plays "The Silver Box," "Joy," " Strife," and 
" Justice," and Mr. Eden Phillpotts with " The Shadow " and 
" The Mother." 

The welcome return to form of Mr. J. H. Taylor (Northam) 
has been further signalized by his winning the Open Golf 
Championship of Great Britain for the fifth time, and it is 
interesting to note that it fell to the lot of the Honorary Secretary 
to wire the congratulations of the Association to him within a 
month after tendering similar congratulations to Mr. Harold 
Hilton, President of the West Buckland School Old Boys' 
Association, on his winning the Amateur Golf Championship for 
the fourth time. 

The Annual Dinner took place on Friday, April 4th, and is 
reported elsewhere. 

Interesting lectures were given by Mr. H. Michell Whitley on 
'• The Romance of Devon," and by Mr. R. Pearse Chope on 
" A Pageant of Devonians in London," both copiously illustrated 
by lantern slides. The large expenditure of both time and 
money which is necessary for the production of an attractive 
lecture, and which is almost entirely borne by the lecturers, 
is not generally appreciated by members of the Association. 
These lectures are worthy of a larger attendance than is usually 
accorded to them, and the hearty thanks of the Association are 
due to those gentlemen who have been so public-spirited as to 
give lectures with such little encouragement. 

The Children's Party at Christmas has become an annual 
event, eagerly anticipated by the young generation of Devonians 
in London, and the Committee are indebted for their assistance 
on the Sub-Committee to the following ladies : Miss Churchward, 
Miss Doris Churchward, Mrs. N. Cole, Mrs. C. R. S. Philp, Mrs. 



16 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

G. S. Bidgood, Mrs. H. D. Powe, Mrs. H. H. M. Hancock, Mrs. 
W. Inman, Miss Melina Inman, Miss A. Foale, Mrs. W. H. 
Smart, Mrs. Vivian, Miss Doris Vivian, Mrs. F. W. Hesse. 

A Bohemian Concert was held in the Cannon Street Hotel, 
under the chairmanship of Alderman Pinkham, and an excellent 
musical programme was carried out under the direction of Mr. 
John Dixon. 

Armada Day was celebrated by a trip up the river from 
Windsor to Boulter's Lock and back, and was very successful, 
Messrs. Smart, Inman, and Hancock being responsible for the 
arrangements. Next summer, Armada Day will be celebrated 
by a joint meeting with the Devonshire Association at Tavistock, 
the birthplace of Sir Francis Drake, on Friday, 24th July. 
Special excursion trains will be run by the Great Western 
Railway. 

The round of social events was completed by three Whist 
Drives, all of which were well attended. 

Lord Halsbury has kindly consented to remain our President. 

By the alteration of Rule 6 at the Annual General Meeting, 
the Chairman of the Association becomes an officer. Colonel 
Clifford, who has rendered great services to the Association, 
particularly in connection with the movement for the federation 
of Devonian Societies and in inaugurating and stimulating 
public interest in the national memorial to Drake, and who in 
enthusiasm for his county gives place to none, occupies the 
position which he is so eminently capable of filling. Conse- 
quently he vacated his seat as an ordinary member of the 
Committee, although, of course, he remains as an ex officio 
member. 

Mr. Crosbie Coles retired, and the vacancies were filled by the 
election of Mr. G. E. Bridgeman, well known at our social 
functions, and Mr. J. H. Taylor, of world-wide reputation in 
another sphere. Alderman Pinkham, Chairman of the General 
Committee, and Messrs. Inman and Perry retired by rotation, 
and were re-elected. Mr. F. W. Hesse, on account of his health, 
ceased to represent the "Tivertonian Association," and is suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Robert Yandle, and Mr. J. Lovell has returned 
to the Committee as the representative of the " Old Ottregians 
Society " in the place of Mr. J. Summers. 

A tribute must be paid to the work of Mr. R. Pearse Chope, 
Deputy-Chairman of Committee and Editor of this Year Book. 
To him the publication owes its standard of excellence, and the 
time and labour expended on its production will be obvious to 
its readers. It forms one of the most valued assets of the Associ- 
ation, and is eagerly looked for by Devonians all over the world. 



The Years Work 17 



Not only does it focus the attention of Devonians at home on 
matters affecting the welfare of their beloved county, but it also 
provides the strongest link we have in keeping us in touch with 
our fellow-Devonians across the seas. 

Mr. N. Cole, who in his recent illness had the sympathy of 
all who knew him, was a popular Chairman of the Entertainment 
Committee, and much credit is due to Mr. W. H. Smart for his 
untiring work as Hon. Secretary of that Committee, to which 
he has now added the duties of Hon. Subscription Secretary. 

Few County Societies can point to a record of such solid 
achievement as is disclosed within these pages. When the 
Association came into existence in 1908, there were several 
local associations representing Devonshire towns or districts in 
London, each pursuing its own course without serious aims or 
any settled object beyond social intercourse, and perhaps to a 
small extent benevolence, and the old Dinner Committee of 
Devonians in London who still dine once a year. It is a pleasure 
to record that, with the welcome adherence of the Three Towns 
Association, all the local associations have become affiliated, 
thus helping to fulfil the mission of the . London Devonian 
Association as the central organization to promote Devonian 
interests throughout the world. The Dinner Committee of 
Devonians in London alone hold aloof, but again the right hand 
of fellowship is extended to them, and soon it is hoped their 
valued influence and support may be forthcoming. By united 
effort, by developing the nucleus now in existence, London 
Devonians can foster the spirit of local patriotism, leading, as 
it does, to the larger patriotism, and thus in these days, when so 
much degenerate materialism is abroad, render to their country a 
service worthy of the descendants and successors of the Devonians 
of old who had so large a share in establishing the found- 
ations of the Empire as we know it to-day. 

J. W. S. 

Hands Across the Sea. 

Spirits of old-world heroes wake, 

By river and cove and hoe, 
Grenville, Hawkins, Raleigh, and Drake, 

And a thousand more we know ; 
To ev'ry land the wide world o'er 

Some slips of the old stock roam, 
Leal friends in peace, dread foes in war, 

With hearts still true to home. 

H. Bonlton, " Glorious Devon." 



The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



The Annual Dinner. 

The third Annual Dinner took place in the Venetian 
Chamber of the Holborn Restaurant, on Friday, April 4th, 
when a large and representative West-Country gathering 
assembled under the presidency of the Earl of Halsbury. Sup- 
porting the President were Lady Evelyn Giffard, Canon and 
Mrs. Besley, Colonel and Mrs. Clifford, Engineer-Commander 
W. D. Chope, Mr. R. P. Chope, Rev. H. R. Gamble, Professor 
T. A. and Mrs. Hearson, Rev. J. L. E. and Mrs. Hooppell, Mr. 
T. Cann Hughes and Mrs. Hughes, Sir George and Lady Kekewich, 
Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Parr, Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Pillman, Mr. and 
Mrs. C. Pinkham, Mr. G. H. Radford, M.P., and Mrs. Radford, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Smart, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Shawyer, Mr. 
H. B. Squire, Sir E. Thesiger, and Mr. W. J. Treharne. Others 
present were Mr. and Mrs. Billing, Mr. C. H. Brodie, Mr. and 
Mrs. Richard Baker, Mr. and Mrs. T. Bromfield, Miss D. M. 
Bromfield, Mr. and Mrs. W. Burgess, Mr. and Mrs. G. Bidgood, 
Mr. and Mrs. Byrne, Miss Churchward, Miss Doris Churchward, 
Mr. and Mrs. C. Cann, Miss Cann, Mr. J. O. Cann, Mr. R. H. 
Coysh, Mr. R. F. Coysh, Mr. E. R. Coles, Mr. N. Cole, Miss F. 
Chapman, Misses F. and E. Columbine, Mr. A. E. G. Copp, 
Mr. J. Clarke, Mr. and Mrs. Chandler, Mrs. Chettleburgh, Mrs. 
Cottle, Mr. M. G. A. Cray, Mr. A. L. G. Distin, Dr. Distin, Mr. 
and Mrs. A. E. Dodridge, Mr. W. Dyer, Mr. G. W. Davey, Mr. 
H. T. Easton, Mr. Wilfred A. Easton, Mrs. Feuillade, Mr. G. J. 
Faulkner, Mr. and Mrs. Grylls, Mr. and Mrs. H. H. M. Hancock, 
Miss A. M. Hancock, Mr. Hoare, Mr. Hooper, Mr. Gilbert Harris, 
Mr. Gordon Higgins, Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Hannaford, Miss W. A. 
Holloway, Mr. Fred Hocaday, Mr. and Mrs. Hillier, Miss Hooppell, 
Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Hesse, Mr. W. F. Hesse, Mr. G. Haywood, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. Inman, Miss Inman, Mr. and Mrs. Frank C. 
Jeffery, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Larkworthy, Mr N. J. Larkworthy, 
Mr. F. A. Larkworthy, Mr. R. L. Lawrence, Mr. R. R. Lawrence, 
Mr. A. S. Lupton, Mr. C. Lethbridge, Mr. A. C. Miller, Miss G. 
Maybury, Mr. Stafford Morgan, Mr. W. J. McCormack, Miss 
Nash, Mr. W. D. Owen, Mr. Horace Parkyn, Mr. Henzel Parkyn, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Pawley, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Pike, Mrs. 
Pike, Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Preston, Mr. W. V. M. Popham, Mr. J. 
Pullman, Mr. and Mrs. Pocock, Mr. and Mrs. Pinn, Mr. H. D. 
Powe, Mr. C. R. S. Philp, Miss K. Pillman, Mr. J. H. Pillman, 
Mr. F. A. Perry, Miss Piercey, Mr. and Mrs. G. F. Rowell, Mr. 



The Annual Dinner 19 



J. Ryall, Mr. and Mrs. F. C. Southwood, Miss Southwood, Miss 
D. Southwood, Mr. J. B. Skeggs, Mr. S. Simmons, Mr. and Mrs. 
Davies Soames, Mrs. Tippetts, Mr. J. W. Train, Mr. R. Thorne, 
Miss Thorne, Mrs. E. Turner, Mr. A. F. Taylor, Mr. J. H. Taylor, 
Mr. F. H. Vibert, Mr. and Mrs. R. H. Vellacott, Miss F. W. 
Williams, Mr. H. Michell Whitley, Mrs. Waghorn, Mr. A. L. 
Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Ward. 

The Chairman proposed the toast of " Devon, our County/' 
remarking that, independent of all political or other considerations, 
that sentiment would be at the heart of every Devonshire man. 
(Hear, hear.) Everyone who knew anything about Devon knew 
that the county was very picturesque, that its women were 
very beautiful, and that its men were very brave. If there was 
one subject on which Devonshire men were enthusiastic more 
than any other, it was the right of Britons to be champions of 
freedom on the sea. Whatever else they might differ upon in 
these days, they had all come to the consideration of the question 
of whether or not we were going to keep up our sea power. 
That was beyond all politics — at least they always said so. We 
ought to take care that the country was safe, but he was not 
going to say a word about whether too much or too little had 
been done. They would all agree that we ought to do all we 
could to keep our shores safe, and prevent ourselves being 
deprived of that freedom which had been the boast of this 
country ever since it had a free Constitution, but whether or 
not that free Constitution had been preserved was another 
matter. (Laughter.) 

Canon Besley, replying, related some humorous anecdotes in 
the Devonshire dialect. 

The toast of the " London Devonian Association " was given 
by Mr. G. H. Radford, M.P., who remarked that it was without 
any anxiety at the British Constitution that he rose to take 
his part in the cheerful symposium. (Laughter.) On looking 
at the Year Book of the Association, which was the best thing 
of the kind he had seen for many years, he was reminded that 
one of the objects of the Association was to promote local 
patriotism, and another was to promote friendly intercourse 
between Devonians in London. As far as he could see, it was 
unnecessary to stimulate local patriotism among Devonshire 
men, but with regard to the friendly intercourse, he thought 
the Association had done some useful and beneficent work in 
giving strangers from Devon a house of call and an opportunity 
of meeting friends and colleagues from the old county. The 
Association was going strong, and the brains of the Committee 
had been shown in utilizing all the good feeling, all the kindness, 



20 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

all the capacity, and other good qualities which distinguished 
Devonians, whether resident in London or in any other part 
of the world, to the very best purpose. (Hear, hear.) 

Alderman C. Pinkham, replying to the toast, said the work 
of the Committee had been a labour of love, not always dissociated 
from responsibility and sometimes anxiety. The more the work 
of the Association was known, the fewer would be their responsi- 
bilities and anxieties, and the greater the sphere of the usefulness 
of the Association a^ a whole. When the Association was first 
established there were some misgivings that it would clash 
and possibly compete with some of the existing Devonshire 
Associations in London. He was glad to say experience had 
proved that not to be the case. On the other hand, they had 
been able to link up the various associations, not only in London, 
but scattered over the provinces and in the dominions beyond 
the sea. Affiliated with the parent society they now had 
branches in Calcutta, Ottawa, New Zealand, and Rhodesia. 
(Applause.) Nearer home, they had branches at Swansea, 
Liverpool, and Reading. The Association had at any rate 
justified its existence, which had been brought about in no 
small measure by the splendid Devon Year Book produced by 
Mr. Pearse Chope. (Hear, hear.) The social side of their 
Association had been very successful, and on the educational side 
they had had a splendid series of lectures by eminent men during 
the winter months. 

Rev. H. R. Gamble gave the toast " The Immortal Memory 
of Drake, and other Worthies of Devon." He said Drake took 
them back to what they might call the heroic days of England 
and of Devon. Those were great days of wonder. They must 
not infer, however, that the men of Devon to-day were less 
ready to do their duty for their country, proof of which was 
evidenced by the recollection of such names as those of Sir 
William White, the great naval constructor, and Capt. Scott. 
(Loud applause.) He knew of few things more simple and 
touching than that last message of Scott's, when, bowing to the 
decrees of Providence, he laid himself down to die among the 
eternal snows, having in his eyes a last vision of the green fields 
of his native Devon, " Dulces moriens reniiniscitur Argos." It 
was such men as Scott who were in their minds that evening, 
and they would never forget them as long as there was a heart 
to feel, a brain to think, or a sense of reverence among the men 
of Devon. (Loud applause.) 

Sir George Kekewich submitted the toast of their President 
and Chairman, Lord Halsbury, who he believed had created a 
record by being Lord Chancellor three times. They hoped, 



The Annual Dinner 21 



if his party should come back into office, to see him sitting 
again upon the woolsack in the House of Lords. (Applause.) 

Lord Halsbury having replied, Mr. R. J. Parr proposed " The 
Visitors," which was acknowledged by Hon. Sir Edward 
Thesiger, K.C.B. 

Colonel Clifford announced that the movement for a memorial 
to Drake was proceeding steadily. A committee had been 
formed in London under most satisfactory auspices, but owing 
to the lamentable death of Captain Scott, it had been decided 
to defer any action on their part for the present. 

The musical part of the programme was arranged by Mr. 
John Dixon. Miss Elena Gadsin and Mr. Arthur Jay sang 
the duet, " It was a Lover and his Lass," very finely, and 
the gentleman was also heard to great advantage in " Red 
Devon by the Sea," " Lovely Devon Rose," and (by special 
request) " Drake's Drum." The one and only " Charlie Wray- 
ford " was in great form. As usual, he provoked immense fun 
with " The Orytorio," but, perhaps because it was new to 
most of us, even more merriment was caused by Jan Stewer's 
" The 'orrible Skirt." 

As on previous occasions, the menu and programme cards 
were generously presented by Mr. F. C. Southwood. The front 
page bore an artistic design in colours, embodying the portrait 
and arms of Drake, a reproduction of which in line only appears 
on the cover of this Year Book. The inner pages bore repre- 
sentations of Buckland Abbey and the famous attack on Nombre 
de Dios in 1572. 



D 



evonia. 



Ay ! thou art fair, Devonia, passing fair ! 

A very princess in thy robes of green, 

Gemm'd with pale daisy stars, and gold cups' sheen ; 
Wreath'd orchard-blossoms deck thy golden hair ; 
Sweet-scented violets of beauty rare, 

With hyacinths entwined and daffodils, 

Form love-knots on thy bosom's swelling hills, 
And make thy lovers pine to linger there. 

John Farmer. 

[From " West-Country Poets."] 



22 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 



Captain Robert Falcon Scott, 

R.N., C.V.O. 

" For my own sake I do not regret this journey, which has shown 
that Englishmen can endure hardship, help one another, and 
meet death with as great a fortitude as ever in the past. We took 
risks. We know we took them. Things have come out against 
us, and therefore we have no cause for complaint, but bow to the 
will of Providence, determined to do our best to the last. But 
if we have been willing to give our lives to this enterprise, which 
is for the honour of our country, I appeal to our countrymen to see 
that those who depend on us are properly cared for. Had we lived 
I should have had a tale to tell of the hardihood, endurance, and 
courage of my companions which would have stirred the heart of 
every Englishman. 

These rough notes and our dead bodies must tell the tale, but 
surely a great, rich country like ours will see that those who are 
dependent upon us are properly provided for." 

Captain Scott's Last Message. 



A NOTE ON HIS LIFE STORY. 

By SIR CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

I knew the late Captain Scott intimately from the time that 
he was a midshipman on board the Rover, aged 18, when his 
captain described him as an intelligent and capable young 
officer. As soon as the Antarctic Expedition was a certainty, I 
wrote to the present Admiral Sir George Egerton, the best judge 
I knew, to ask him who was the fittest officer to command it. 
Without hesitation he gave me the name of Robert Falcon Scott, 
my young friend of the Rover. He was then just the right age, 
a little over thirty. Scott had an unprecedentedly difficult task 
before him. A young officer with everything to learn, he showed 
a grasp of the general problem, as well as of all the intricate 
details, which was most remarkable. He brought to the work 
a very receptive and capable mind, a sound and clear judgment, 
and an excellent memory. He showed unfailing tact and most 



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Captain Robert Falcon Scott, R.N., C.V.O. 23 

conciliatory bearing, combined with firmness and resolution 
when necessary. He was an admirable organizer, a born leader 
of men, sympathetic, and full of forethought and even anxiety 
to meet all the reasonable wishes of his gallant companions. 
Above all, he had the instincts of a perfect gentleman. 

Such was the man before the Discovery sailed, as I knew him. 
During his two memorable expeditions when he became a great 
Polar explorer, and in the interval of service as captain of men- 
of-war, Scott's character developed. We beheld his splendid 
organizing powers, his capture of men's hearts, his dauntless 
courage, his untiring perseverance, his devotion to duty. 

He was most beautiful in his death. Writing, until death 
obliged him to let his pencil fall, without a thought of himself or 
his sufferings, only anxious to console and comfort relations and 
friends. His very last message was to me. I had taken him 
from his profession, which was a great responsibility. He 
feared that I might feel regret and condemn myself for having 
sent him on such a perilous enterprise. Almost the very last 
words he wrote were : " Tell Sir Clements that I never regretted 
his having sent me to the Discovery." 

Surely, such a fine life, closed by a death so heroic, is a tale of 
which the men of Devon may well be proud. 



" Robert Falcon Scott, our lamented hero, rightly takes his 
place with the greatest of our Polar explorers, the Dii Majores, 
with Franklin, Parry, Ross, McClintock, and Mecham. Like 
Franklin and Parry he was unostentatiously religious, and was 
devoted to the care and welfare of his men ; like Ross, he was a 
highly trained scientific officer ; like McClintock and Mecham 
he was a splendid organizer, and made the grandest journeys in 
the Antarctic, as they did in the Arctic regions." Thus writes 
Sir Clements Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., in a highly appreciative 
and eulogistic article in a recent issue of the Cornhill Magazine. 

Sir Clements might have carried his analogy a little farther ; 
for it was a Devonshire man — Captain John Davis, of Dart- 
mouth — who first penetrated the ice-bound regions of the far 
north, as Captain Scott in his memorable voyage 1900-1904 did 
in the far south. Davis was one of that gallant band of 
explorers and colonizers, who in the reign of Elizabeth did so 
much to extend the possessions of England, and we honour 
their memory, as we honour the memory of the brave young 
officer who so lately laid down his life in the dreary wastes 
around the South Pole. 

Captain Scott was born at Outlands, a suburb of Devonport, 



24 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

on the 6th of June, 1868. His father, John Edward Scott, 
carried on the business of a brewer in Plymouth, afterwards 
removing to Bath, there taking over the management of a large 
brewery concern. 

Robert's early education was at home and at local schools, 
finally being sent to Stubbington School, in Hampshire. 

He entered the Navy in 1882, and first served on board the 
Rover, 1887-88, as Lieutenant, one of the ships of the training 
squadron in the West Indies, under the command of Captain 
Noel. He served in the Amphion in 1889, and then studied on 
board the Vernon. He then joined the Majestic, commanded 
by Prince Louis of Battenberg, as Torpedo Lieutenant, a position 
in which he gave great satisfaction. He contributed about this 
time much valuable information to the " Torpedo Manual," 
and suggested all the improvements to be used. " He had a 
thorough knowledge," says Sir Clements Markham, " of survey- 
ing instruments and the principles of surveying, as well as of 
electricity and magnetism." He took the rank of First Lieu- 
tenant 1899-90, Commander 1900, and Captain 1904. 

Such is a brief outline of his career in the Navy. 

From 1900 to his heroic and tragic end his story is akin to the 
romantic, looked at from whatever point we may view it. 

He was Hon. D.Sc. of Cambridge and Manchester ; Gold 
Medallist of the Royal Geographical Society ; also of the Royal 
Scottish Geographical Society, the American, Swedish, Danish, 
Philadelphian, and Antwerp Geological Societies; and many 
other honours awaited him. 

In 1908, after his return from his memorable voyage to the 
Antarctic in the Discovery, he married Kathleen, daughter of the 
late Canon Lloyd Bruce. Mrs. Scott was a perfect helpmate, 
keenly entering into her husband's views, and proving herself 
to be a great help to him in his work. Their little son, Peter 
Markham Scott, was baptized on October 14th, 1909, in the 
old Chelsea Church, with Sir Clements Markham, Sir Francis 
Bridgeman, and Sir J. M. Barrie, as godfathers. All seemed to 
be brightness and happiness before him, with every assurance 
of success and a glorious return home, when he entered upon 
his second great enterprise. 

But Fate willed otherwise. Scott and his gallant comrades 
planted the Union Jack on the South Pole. They faced dangers 
of all kinds, and did their best, so far as human foresight could 
devise, to prepare for nearly every emergency ; but there was 
one danger for which no human foresight could provide, and 
that danger fell upon them. " We took risks— we knew we 
took them," were among the last words of the dying hero. 



Captain Robert Falcon Scott, R.N., C.V.O. 25 

" The return of the Discovery," says Sir Clements Markham, 
" was a great event in the history of geography. The dis- 
coveries and the scientific results were the greatest and most 
important that any Polar explorer has ever brought back. As 
a diligent student of Polar voyages I say this deliberately and 
with knowledge. Eight folio volumes contained the scientific 
results, while Captain Scott's history of the expedition was a 
model of what such a narrative should be, alike interesting 
and full of most valuable original information." 

The account of the " Voyage of the Discovery," by Captain 
Scott, was published in two volumes in 1905, and is certainly 
one of the most graphic accounts of a daring expedition on 
record. 

All the world knows the history of those last few days amidst 
the Polar snows : how the section of the British Antarctic 
Expedition reached the South Pole on January 18th, 1912 ; 
how Captain Scott and his four companions were on their way 
home when they met a succession of bad weather, followed by 
the breakdown and death of Petty-Officer Evans, the ill-health 
of Captain Oates, and his death on February 17th, when he 
voluntarily left the tent never to be seen again. When eleven 
miles from an ample depot, Scott, Dr. Wilson, and Lieutenant 
Bowers found themselves in a condition of hopelessness, due to 
the blizzard, which prevented them from leaving their tent. 
They were short of provisions and fuel, and for four days they 
must have faced death as only such heroes could do. Death 
probably took place on March 29th. On October 12th, a 
search party found the dead explorers in the tent, and covered 
the bodies, erecting a cairn on the spot, and bringing back all 
the diaries of the heroic little band. 

Sir Clements Markham closes his eloquent obituary notice of 
his departed friend : — 

" Scott died as he had lived, a brave and honourable gentle- 
man, whose glorious deeds and heroic death will live for ever in 
his country's annals, unselfish, thinking of others to the very 
last, full of faith, undaunted, with his dead friends beside him, 
a true and spotless knight. Contemplating his beautiful life 
and heroic death, the words addressed to another such hero 
seem to fill the air : — 

" ' Joy may you have and everlasting fame,1 v T 
Of late most hard achievement by you done, 
For which enrolled is your glorious name 
In heavenly registers above the sun. 
Where you, a saint, with saints your place have won.' " 



26 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Or, again, the following lines which appeared in the Memorial 
number of The Sphere, May 24th, 1913, seem absolutely fitting 
to the case : — 

" I believe 
That God has poured the ocean round this world, 
Not to divide, but to unite the lands ; 
And all the English seamen who have dared 
In little ships to plough uncharted waves — 
Davis and Drake, Hawkins and Frobisher, 
Raleigh and Gilbert — all the other names 
Are written in the chivalry of God 
As men who served His purpose. I would claim 
A place among that knighthood of the sea : 
And I have earned it, though my quest should fail. 
For mark me well. The honour of our life 
Derives from this : to have a certain aim 
Before us always, which our will must seek 
Amid the peril of uncertain ways. 

Then, though we miss the goal, our search is crowned 
With courage, and along the path we find 
A rich reward of unexpected things. 
Press towards the aim : take fortune as it fares." 

From " Henry Hudson's Last Voyage," by Henry van 
Dyke, in the New York " Outlook." 

W. H. K. W. 



In Memoriam. 

[Reprinted by the special permission of the proprietors of " Punch."] 

Not for the fame that crowns a gallant deed 

They fixed their fearless eyes on that far goal, 
Steadfast of purpose, resolute at need 
To give their lives for toll. 

But in the service of their kind they fared, 

To probe the secrets which the jealous Earth 
Yields only as the prize of perils dared, 
The wage of proven worth. 

So on their record, writ for all to know — 

The task achieved, the homeward way half won — 
Though cold they lie beneath their pall of snow, 
Shines the eternal sun. 

O hearts of metal pure as finest gold ! 

O great ensample, where our sons may trace, 
Too proud for tears, their birthright from of old, 
Heirs of the Island Race ! 

O. S. 



2l£ 




THE LATE SIR WILLIAM H. WHITE, K C.P. 

(Vice-President oj the London Devonian Association.) 



Photo by Man!/ & Fox, iSf, P.cc<u/i/lv, II'. 



Sir William Henry White, K.C.B., F.R.S., LL.D. 



Sir William Henry White, 

K.C.B., F.R.S., LL.D. 
Late Chief Constructor of the Royal Navy. 

Some three and a half centuries ago (in the spacious times of 
Queen Elizabeth), a Plymouth man — Sir John Hawkins — was 
the head of the navy. Not that there was much of a navy in 
those days, for the greater part of the ships which played havoc 
with Spain's " Invincible Armada," in 1588, were volunteers. 

But it was about that time that the English navy came into 
being, and Hawkins was in supreme command. Upon him 
devolved all the duties which now fall upon the Executive 
Department of the Admiralty, including the planning and 
building of ships. And, according to Froude, our Devon 
historian, " the vessels built by him (Hawkins) had no match 
in the world." It is a somewhat remarkable coincidence that 
in the latter part of the reign of Queen Victoria, another 
Plymouth man (or, to speak more correctly, a Devonport man) 
should have occupied a somewhat similar position, but with 
powers a thousand times greater than those exercised by 
Hawkins in the sixteenth century. 

From the year 1885 to 1902, Sir William Henry White, the 
subject of the present sketch, was the Chief Constructor of the 
Queen's Navee, and wielded immense power — power little 
dreamt of in Hawkins' days. 

Vast changes have come about during the past three centuries, 
notably the immense increase in the magnitude of our navy, 
the size of our ships, and the nature of their armament. 

Sir William White was born at Devonport, on February 2nd, 
1845. At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to Mr. James 
Peake, then master shipwright of the Royal Dockyard. There 
he learned the practical side of the art of shipbuilding, which 
stood him in such good stead in the later years of his life. He 
also received his general education at the Dockyard School. 
In 1864 he obtained a scholarship at the Royal School of Naval 
Architecture, which had recently been opened in London. He 
graduated in 1867, and was immediately appointed by Sir 
Edward Reed a member of the Constructive Staff of the 
Admiralty. In this capacity White served for over twenty 
years. 



28 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

For several years he acted as Sir Edward Reed's confidential 
assistant, and prepared several technical books for publication 
for his chief, notably a standard book on " Shipbuilding in 
Iron and Steel." He also assisted Sir Edward Reed in the 
preparation of some papers published in the Philosophical 
Transactions of the Royal Society. 

In 1872 Sir William White was appointed Secretary to the 
Council of Construction at the Admiralty, and in 1875 Assistant- 
Constructor. During the period from 1873 to 1877 he carried 
out work in various dockyards, and had a great deal to do with 
the construction of the Devastation, Dreadnought, Temeraire, 
and Inflexible. From 1878 to 1883 he was one of Sir Nathaniel 
Barnaby's principal assistants (Sir N. Barnaby being Chief 
Constructor at that time), and was formally promoted to the 
higher office in 1881. He designed, or assisted in the designs 
of, several battleships and cruisers, including the Colossus, 
Imperieuse, Leander, Mersey, and others ; and about the same 
time drew up for Admiral Sir Houston Stewart a scheme for 
the " Constructive Corps," adopted in 1884, and still in operation. 

From 1870 to 1881 Sir William carried out the duties of Professor 
of Naval Architecture, in addition to his other onerous duties. 
He also published the "Manual of Naval Architecture," which is 
still regarded as the text-book on the subject, and has been 
translated into German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish. It is 
an official publication in those countries, and is also used as a 
text-book in the United States Naval Academy. 

Early in 1883 Sir William White left the Admiralty and 
took charge of the great shipbuilding works of Sir W. Armstrong 
& Co., at Elswick, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Here he remained for 
about two and a half years, planning and building ships, not 
only for this country, but for Austria, Italy, Spain, China, and 
Japan. In the last days of his connection with Elswick he 
completed the designs for the cruisers Charleston and Baltimore, 
and it is worthy of mention that four of the ships constructed 
by him at that time took part in the famous battle between the 
Chinese and Japanese at Yalu. 

On the retirement of Sir Nathaniel Barnaby, in 1885, Sir 
William White succeeded as Naval Constructor to the British 
Navy, and continued in that responsible office up to January, 
1902. During that time he had designed 245 vessels, the 
aggregate value of which was eighty millions sterling, exclusive 
of armaments. These included 43 battleships, 26 armoured 
cruisers, 102 protected cruisers, and 74 unprotected. It will 
thus be seen how great a responsibility had rested upon Sir 
William White during the many years of his public service, and 



Sir William Henry White, K.C.B., F.R.S., LL.D. 29 

how deep a debt the nation owed to him for his exceptional 
services. In addition to the above, the vessels which were 
built from his designs for foreign navies were twelve in number, 
carrying eighty guns, and one of 32,000 tons displacement and 
with engines of 75,000 horse power. 

Sir William White, during his long and honourable career, 
received many distinctions. He was a fellow of the Royal 
Societies of London and Edinburgh, an Honorary LL.D. of 
Glasgow University, and was connected with various technical 
societies. He was President of the Institute of Mechanical 
Engineers, Vice-President of the Institute of Naval Architects, 
Member of the Council of the Royal United Service Institution, 
and a Past-Master of the Ancient Shipwrights' Company of the 
City of London. These and many other professional offices 
were filled by him with conspicuous ability. He was also 
honoured by Royal favour. In 1891 he was created a Com- 
panion, and in 1895 a Knight Commander of the Order of the 
Bath, by the late Queen Victoria. The King of Denmark also 
conferred upon him the distinction of Knight Commander of 
the Order of Dannebrog. 

In the year 1899, Sir William White was presented with the 
freedom of his native town of Devonport. 

He was the author of several works, the chief of which was 
that already mentioned, viz. a " Manual of Naval Architecture/' 
and a "Treatise on Ship-Building." On his retirement in 
February, 1902, he was voted a special grant of money by 
Parliament in recognition of his exceptional services to the 
navy. 

He died suddenly on the 27th February, 1913, and was buried 
at Putney Cemetery on 3rd March. He was twice married, and 
left three sons and a daughter. A sketch of his career, with 
appreciative notices from those who knew him well, appeared 
in The Times at the time of his death. 

W. H. K. W. 



30 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



National Memorial to Sir Francis 



Drak 



e. 

'' Drake's light is still shining through the mists of many years, and we 
can now see him as the wisest and best of his time saw him. If it were 
possible to transpose his actions to the present day, emoluments, a grateful 
nation's thanks, and a peerage would be his reward. His death would 
plunge the nation into mourning, and the greatest memorial that could be 
erected to such a man would be the first consideration of a sorrowing 
nation. It should not be, after the lapse of years, too late to honour his 
memory so far as "we are able, and, if men are to be judged by their actions 
and the result of their actions, then it is not too much to say that no 
memorial is too great for Drake, whose claim upon the English-speaking 
race in all parts of the world is that, in spite of every obstacle, it was he 
who defeated the Armada and saved England in her moment of direst 
peril, and who, by laying the foundations of Sea Power, laid the founda- 
tions of this sea-united Empire. It is my firm conviction that the perpet- 
uation of Drake's memory will have the effect of fostering and preserving 
that continuity of Sea Power which we believe is ours by right, and which 
we know must be ours from necessity." — Col. Clifford, in London Budget, 
July 20th, 1913. 

With the virtual offer of a site from the Government for a Drake 
Memorial in the Metropolis, the movement has now reached a 
stage which forms the culmination of the most successful piece 
of work in which the London Devonian Association has ever 
been interested. 

It is with no small sense of gratification that we propose 
here to recapitulate the steps which have led to such satisfactory 
results. 

It is interesting to remember that the triple idea of Federation, 
a festival on Armada Day, and the adoption of Drake as the 
Devonians' hero, took shape from a proposal made by our 
chairman, Colonel Clifford, to the Devonians at Bulawayo, that 
outpost of Empire, in June, 1911, and was warmly received 
by them and subsequently by Devonians in other centres. 
On his return to London, he made a stirring speech on the 
occasion of the annual meeting of the London Devonian Associ- 
ation, in October, 1911, and secured from his hearers the adoption 
of the following proposals : — 

1. A Federation of Devonian Associations. 

2. Ah Anniversary — Armada Day (say July 31st) — on which all 
Devonian Associations might meet and in silence drink to the immortal 
memory of Drake and the other heroes of that great day. 

3. The erection of a Public Memorial to Drake in the heart of the 
Empire for which he lived and fought, and for which he died. 



National Memorial to Sir Francis Drake 31 

In January, 1912, there appeared in the Devonian Year 
Book an article by him, entitled, " The Federation of Devonian 
Associations," in which he strongly advocated Federation, a 
Festival, and a Memorial to Drake, basing his appeal on 
patriotism, on the love of homeland amongst all Devonians 
exiled from their native county, the invaluable services rendered 
by Drake to his country, and the glorious results which have 
flowed therefrom. 

Again, at the annual dinner of the Association in March, 
1912, in response to the toast of the Association, the chairman 
took advantage of the opportunity to urge once more good 
Devonians to support him in his efforts, begging them, one and 
all, to become evangelists for the cause, and there is no doubt 
that the enthusiasm thus created led to the gratifying success 
of the first Annual Festival held at Earls Court on July 20th — 
Armada Day — in the same year. It was a most interesting 
and impressive meeting, and it will long be remembered that 
on the occasion the King and Queen were present, with many 
other distinguished personages, and that the First Lord of the 
Admiralty, Mr. Winston Churchill, addressed the assembled 
Devonians from the deck of Drake's own ship, the Revenge. 

A further impetus to the movement was given during the 
same month — July — by the Devonshire Association, which was 
then holding its Jubilee Meeting at Exeter. Following a paper 
entitled " Drake's Treasure," read by Colonel Clifford to that 
Association and subsequently reproduced in the Devonian 
Year Book, the Association intimated its intention to give us 
cordial and practical support, and this has led to most satisfac- 
tory results. 

By a coincidence, the same year witnessed the rise and exten- 
sion of a strong current of public feeling tending in the same 
direction ; this may, no doubt, be attributed in no small measure 
to the striking drama by Louis Parker, entitled " Drake," which 
was so effectively produced by Sir Herbert Tree at His Majesty's 
Theatre on September 3rd, 1912. It drew large audiences, 
and people went repeatedly to see it. 

" Drake," as a play, appealed to the public generally and to 
Englishmen in particular. It struck a note that awoke definite 
interest, and whether or not every detail in the play was regarded 
as strictly correct or invited criticism, there is no doubt that 
it represented in broad outline the man, his works, and the 
period. 

Criticism instigated enquiry, enquiry led to a realization, 
and people learnt that Drake was no pirate or corsair as we 
understand the terms, but that he was not only a truly great, 



32 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

but also a good man, one of the greatest warrior navigators 
the world has ever known, and that his desire for England's 
safety and greatness was the dominating passion of his life. 
The discoveries he made on behalf of England, and the oppor- 
tunities he secured for English commerce, were incalculable, 
and it is now universally recognized that it was owing to his 
genius that the Armada was defeated and Spanish domination 
at once and for ever destroyed. 

That Drake was, in his day and many years after, a popular 
hero no less on the Thames and the Medway than in Devon, 
admits of not a shadow of doubt, and the fact that his might y 
achievements have lacked recognition daring the many succeed 
ing years must, now that the truth is known, be a source of 
genuine regret to Englishmen. 

On September 15th, 1912, the London Budget, writing under 
the influence of Louis Parker's great play, remarked on the 
extraordinary fact that in all London there was no adequate 
memorial to England's great naval hero, Drake ; it pointed 
out that this marvellous and opulent metropolis — thio greatest 
capital the world has ever known — has a splendid record for 
prompt and worthy recognition of the achievements of English- 
men who have conspicuously served their country, but that, 
strangely enough, there was nowhere within its gates a monument 
to commemorate the man who defeated the invincible Armada 
of the invading Spanish conqueror and saved England to 
Englishmen. 

After saying that it was a reproach to us that we had not 
remembered Drake's great deeds monumentally, the London 
Budget proposed to set afoot a plan for the erection of a Drake 
memorial which should properly commemorate the great sailor 
and be a worthy addition to the many artistic features of this 
metropolis, offering, conditionally, to contribute £1000 to the 
fund, and undertaking at its own expense, to submit for the 
proposed monument designs by some of the foremost artists 
in England, with the result that splendid full-page designs by 
Adrian Jones, Derwent Wood, R.A., Henry Poole, Tom Peddie, 
and Frank Brangwyn, R.A., appeared in subsequent issues. 
Week after week this journal threw itself enthusiastically into the 
scheme, and elicited approval of the project from a number of 
distinguished personages and of societies, amongst which the 
Navy League and West Indian Club were foremost in giving 
the movement their energetic support. 

The letter from the Secretary of the Navy League (Mr. P. J. 
Hannon) to the London Budget, on Sept. 29th, 1912, congratu- 
lating theeditor upon his splendid public spirit in undertaking 






National Memorial to Sir Francis Drake 33 

a national memorial to Sir Francis Drake, with expressions of 
his sympathy and his intention to give the movement every 
possible assistance, showed a wide knowledge and appreciation 
of Drake and his works. This unqualified tribute was followed 
by an official letter informing the editor of the London Budget 
that the Navy League had unanimously decided to support, to 
the utmost of their power, the project for the erection of a 
suitable memorial in London to Sir Francis Drake, and it is 
but due to the Navy League to acknowledge that they have 
acted up to the spirit and word of their promise ; for clerical 
assistance, office accommodation, and organization have all 
been rendered, and with a spontaneity and completeness which 
admit of no qualification. 

Seeing what was taking place, the London Devonian Associ- 
ation sent to the editor of the London Budget the following 
letter, which appeared in the issue of November 3rd, 1912 : — 

October 28th, 1912. 

To the Editor of the London Budget. 

Dear Sir, — On behalf of the London Devonian Association we 
write to say that we have read with great interest the efforts 
of the London Budget to stimulate public interest in the proposal 
to erect a monument to Sir Francis Drake in London. We 
should like to point out that not only has the London Devonian 
Association adopted Drake as its hero, and Armada Day as its 
annual festival, but also has pledged itself to the resolution 
that a statue should be erected in the heart of the Empire for 
which he fought and died, and not in vain. Our president, Lord 
Halsbury, has expressed his entire approval of our efforts in 
this direction, and, although our campaign for such a monument 
antedated your own, we none the less most cordially welcome 
the splendid stimulus which you have given to the movement. 
The London Devonian Association, like the Navy League and 
other organizations from which you have published messages, 
will be glad to cooperate in the formation of a National Committee 
which would undertake the work so dear to the heart of all 
Devonians and so essential to the good name of an Empire 
which Drake not onlyjnade possible but saved from destruction. 

Yours faithfully, 

E. T. Clifford (Colonel) 
(Chairman) . 

J. W. Shawyer, 

(Hon. Secretary). 



34 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

The handsome reply of the London Budget may be summed up 
in the following extract which appeared in the same issue: — 
" To the loyalty of Devonshire the London Budget owes an 
acknowledgment which, herewith, is made wholeheartedly. 
Unconsciously and unwittingly, the London Budget has been 
championing a cause which long ago the London Devonian 
Association made peculiarly its own. From the message which 
is printed in another column it will be seen that Devonians, 
with that same single-purposeness and unselfish breadth of 
view which Drake himself dedicated to the service of his country, 
have waived their claims and magnanimously are joining with 
the London Budget in the endeavour to so stimulate public 
enthusiasm as to ensure erection of a monument in London that 
shall be a fitting memorial to ' the man who ruled the Devon 
seas.' " 

It would be superfluous and perhaps ungrateful to discuss 
here how far the London Devonian Association movement 
would have succeeded unaided, but it must be unreservedly 
admitted that the splendid cooperation of the Navy League, 
the London Budget, the West Indian Club, and our own Associ- 
ation has ensured the pronounced success of the movement. 

With the view of forming a National Committee, a meeting 
of the united forces and the supporters of the movement took 
place at the offices of the Navy League on November 26th, 1912. 
At this meeting a representative Organizing Committee was 
formed, with Colonel Clifford, of the London Devonian Associ- 
ation, as Chairman, and Mr. P. J. Hannon, of the Navy League, 
as Hon. Secretary. 

Much work was done at that and subsequent meetings of 
the Organizing Committee, which ultimately led up to a meeting 
on July 11th, 1913, of the National Committee at Lord Glen- 
conner's house. At this meeting Mr. Winston Churchill, the 
First Lord of the Admiralty, took the chair, having previously 
intimated his willingness to accept the office of President. 

The report of the Organizing Committee having been read, 
its adoption was moved by Mr. Churchill in a very interesting 
speech, in which he suggested that an Executive Committee 
should be appointed and empowered to carry on the work ; 
this was. seconded by Sir Frederick Treves, and unanimously 
adopted. This Committee consists of the following members : 
The Right Hon. Winston Churchill, M.P. (President), Sir 
Frederick Treves, Bart., G.C.V.O., etc. (Chairman), Colonel 
E. T. Clifford, V.D. (Deputy Chairman), The Right Hon. George 
Lambert, M.P. (Hon. Treasurer), P. J. Hannon, Esq. (Hon. 
Secretary), Lord Willoughby de Broke, Lord Glenconner, Admiral 



National Memorial to Sir Francis Drake 35 

Sir A. H. Markham, K.C.B., Sir Everard im Thurn, K.C.M.G., 
Sir William Bull, M.P., Sir Thomas Dewar, Sir F. C. Gould, 
Sir Sidney Lee, Sir Herbert Tree, Lieut. -Colonel A. C. E. Welby, 
Major A. Clive Morrison-Bell, M.P., A. Shirley Benn, Esq., M.P., 
Julian Corbett, Esq., LL.D., W. A. M. Goode, Esq., Albert 
Gray, Esq., K.C. (President of the Hakluyt Society), Hamar 
Greenwood, Esq., M.P., J. Y. McPeake, Esq., John Martin, 
Esq., Leslie Marzetti, Esq., G. Hay Morgan, Esq., M.P., Henry 
Newbolt, Esq., Philip E. Pilditch, Esq., George H. Radford, 
Esq., M.P., John W. Shawyer, Esq., James R. Thursfield, Esq., 
Robert A. Yerburgh, Esq., M.P. (President of the Navy League). 
Naturally the all-important question to be considered, and 
in fact to be decided upon, before a public appeal could be made, 
was that of a site for the memorial, and for this purpose a sub- 
committee, consisting of Lord Glenconner, Sir Frederick Treves, 
Colonel Clifford, Mr. Julian Corbett (author of " Drake and 
the Tudor Navy " and many other notable works), was appointed 
to interview the authorities and report later to the Executive 
Committee. The Sub-Committee has had various interviews 
with the authorities, and negotiations are still in progress with 
regard to the various sites that have been proposed. It is hoped 
that before the Year Book is published, the final selection will 
have been made, and an appeal for funds issued. 



The Armada, 



And God said : " England, this is thine estate ! " 
And gave the sea. 

The sea ! 
Thus did England fight ; 
And shall not England smite 
With Drake's strong stroke in battles yet to be ? 
And while the winds have power, 
Shall England lose the dower 
She won in that great hour — 

The sea ? 

T. Watts-Dunton, Christmas at the Mermaid. 



36 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



Drake in History, Song, and Story. 

A LECTURE 
By W. H. K. WRIGHT, F.R.Hist.S ., etc. 

(Borough Librarian, Plymouth.) 

Sir Francis Drake, unlike his brother Devonian and brother- 
in-arms, Ralegh, was essentially a man of action, a man of 
war. Ralegh was a poet and a courtier, besides being a soldier 
and a sailor. 

Ralegh wrote many books, Drake none ; or, at any rate, it 
can only be said with truth that he inspired the several accounts 
of his voyages, as we shall presently see. 

And yet probably no man ever lived, in modern times, with 
the exception of Napoleon and Nelson, who has left such an 
enduring mark upon literature, the literature of England, the 
literature of the English Navy, nay, more, the literature of the 
world, and political history, as Drake. 

" First of England's Vikings as a sailor," as he has been 
appropriately described by an American writer, Drake, the 
Sea King of Devon, stands out pre-eminently as the personifica- 
tion of England's power, the militant Englishman. 

The most graphic picture of him, as he appeared in his own 
day, to judicious observers, is from the pen of Stow, the 
historian. This old writer says : — 

" He was more skilful in all points of navigation than any 
that ever was before his time, in his time, or since his death. 
He was also of perfect memory, great observation, eloquent by 
nature, skilful in artillery, expert and apt to let blood, and give 
physic unto his people according to the climate. His name was 
a terror to the French, Spaniard, Portugal, and Indian. Many 
princes of Italy and Germany desired his picture. In brief, 
he was as famous in Europe and America, as Tamberlane in Asia 
and Africa." 

Another old writer, Fuller, sums up the character of Drake 
thus : — 

" If any should be desirous to know something of the character 
of Sir Francis Drake's person, he was of stature low, but set 
and strong grown ; a very religious man towards God and His 
houses, generally sparing the churches wherever he came : 
chaste in his life, just in his dealings, true of his word, merciful 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 37 

to those that were under him, and hating nothing so much as 
idlenesse, in matters (especially) of moment, he was never wont 
to rely on other men's care, how trusty or skilful soever they 
might be, but always contemning danger, and refusing no toyl 
(who ever was a second) at every turn, where courage, skill, 
or industry was to be employed." 

The object of this paper is not to set before you details of the 
life of Drake ; or to give the history of the Navy in which he 
held so prominent a place ; but rather to show how his name 
and deeds have affected literature down to our own time. Nor 
do I propose to make this a bare bibliographical treatise. I 
propose to deal, in a chatty sort of way, with the many books, 
prose and poetry, fact and fiction, which have been inspired, 
during three and a half centuries, by the doings of our redoubt- 
able Devonshire hero. 

Drake's life was a short one, comparatively. The actual 
year of his birth is open to question ; but, presuming that he 
was^born in 1540, which there is reason to believe, and that he 
died in 1595, as we know, he had not nearly completed man's 
allotted span of years. 

• But what he had accomplished in that short span of a little 
over fifty years, and his influence on the history and policy of 
the era in which he flourished, may best be gathered by a glance 
at the various records of his voyages, and the numerous entries 
which relate to him in the Catalogues of our great National 
Library, and in the Archives of State Documents. 

The first, and really the most important group of works with 
which I have to deal, includes the original narratives of his 
several expeditions, and other essays bearing thereon : — 

1. "Sir Francis Drake Revived ... by this memorable 
Relation of the rare occurrences (never- yet declared in the 
world) in a third voyage made by him in the years 1572-3, 
when Nombre de Dios was by him, and 52 others only in his 
company, surprised ; faithfully taken out of the report of Mr. 
Christopher Ceely, Ellis Hixon and others who were in the same 
voyage with him, by Philip Nichols, preacher. 

14 Reviewed also by Sir Francis Drake himself before his 
death and much holpen and enlarged by divers notes with his 
own hand here and there inserted. 

" Set forth by Sir Francis Drake, baronet, (his nephew) now 
living (1626)." 

A second edition was published in 1628, and it was reprinted 
in 1882 in Arber's " English Garner." 

It may add interest to these notes to state that the Dedication ( 
to this work (to Queen Elizabeth) was written by Drake himself 



38 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

and in the high-flown and somewhat fulsome language of the 
time. It reads : — 

" The Dedicatory Epistle, intended to 

Queen Elizabeth. 

Written by Sir Francis Drake, deceased. 

To the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, 

my most Dread Sovereign. 

"Madam, 

"Seeing divers have diversely reported and written of these 
Voyages and Actions which I have attempted and made, every- 
one endeavouring to bring to light whatsoever inklings or 
conjectures they have had ; whereby many untruths have been 
published, and the certain truth connected : as [so] I have 
thought it necessary myself, as a Card [chart] to prick the 
principal points of the counsels taken, attempts made, and 
success had, during the whole course of my employment in 
these services against the Spaniard. Not as setting sail for 
maintaining my reputation in men's judgment, but only as 
sitting at helm, if occasion shall be, for conducting the like 
actions hereafter. So I have accounted it my duty, to present 
this Discourse to Your Majesty, as of right ; either for itself 
being the firstfruits of your Servant's pen, or for the matter, 
being service done to Your Majesty by your poor vassal, against 
your great Enemy : at times, in such places, and after such 
sort as may seem strange to those that are not acquainted 
with the whole carriage thereof ; but will be a pleasing remem- 
brance to Your Highness, who take the apparent height of the 
Almighty's favour towards you, by these events, as truest 
instalments. 

"Humbly submitting myself to Your Gracious censure, both 
in writing and presenting ; that Posterity be not deprived of 
such help as may happily be gained hereby, and our present 
Age, at least, may be satisfied, in the rightfulness of these 
actions, which hitherto have been silenced : and your Servant's 
labour not seem altogether lost, not only in travels by land 
and sea, but also in writing the Report thereof (a work to him 
no less troublesome) yet made pleasant and sweet, in that it 
hath been, is, and shall be, for Your Majesty's content ; to 
whom I have devoted myself (to) live or die. 

■• Francis Drake (Knight). 

"January 1, 1592 (i.e., 1593)." 

As has been already said, Drake's nephew (Sir F. Drake, 
Bart.) had a hand in this work, which he dedicated to King 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 39 

Charles the First, and he also contributed an interesting Preface 

" To the Courteous Reader," 
in which he briefly relates the early history of the Drake family ; 
and gives a summary of Drake's exploits, in which occurs the 
following paragraph : — 

" I could more largely acquaint thee, that this Voyage was 
his third he made into the West Indies ; after that [of] his 
excellent service, both by sea and land, in Ireland, under Walter, 
Earl of Essex ; his next about the World ; another, wherein 
he took St. Iago, Cartagena, St. Domingo, St. Augustino ; his 
doings at Cadiz ; his stirrings in Eighty-seven ; his remarkable 
actions in Eighty-eight ; his endeavours in the Portugal employ- 
ment ; his last enterprise, determined by death ; and his filling 
Plymouth with a plentiful stream of fresh water ; but I pass 
by all these. I had rather thou shouldest inquire of others ! 
then to seem myself a vainglorious man. I intend not his 
praise ! I strive only to set out the praise of his and our good 
God ! that guided him in his truth ! and protected him in 
his courses." 

The last lines in the narrative of this voyage contain the 
oft-quoted statement of Drake's return to Plymouth, on Sunday 
about sermon time, August 9th, 1573. 

" At what time, the news of our Captain's return being brought, 
did so speedily pass over all the church, and surpass their minds 
with desire and delight to see him, that very few or none 
remained with the Preacher. All hastening to see the evidence 
of God's love and blessing towards our gracious Queen and 
Country by the fruit of our Captain's labour and success. 
" Soli Deo Gloria. 
" Finis ! " 

2. The next important work claiming our attention is : — 

" The World Encompassed, by Sir Francis Drake, being his 
next voyage to that to Nombre de Dios . . . carefully collected 
out of the Notes of Master Francis Fletcher, preacher in this 
employment and divers others his followers in the same (1628)." 
This first edition is exceedingly rare ; it was republished in 
1635, and again in 1653 ; has been included in various collec- 
tions ; and in 1854 was edited, with much additional matter, 
for the Hakluyt Society, by Mr. W. S. W. Vaux. 

This memorable voyage, which occupied three years and 
was so full of importance to England and her Empire, was 
undertaken with a comparatively small force, five ships of less 
than three hundred tons aggregate ; and with crews of about 
one hundred and fifty sailors, besides a number of gentlemen 



40 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

who had interests in the venture. It will be remembered that 
they passed through the Straits of Magellan, where no English 
ship had ever been before ; that they coasted about South 
America, and as far north as San Francisco, and made important 
discoveries, besides working great harm to the Spaniards. 

There is not time to enter into details concerning this wonderful 
voyage ; read for yourselves in Julian Corbett's " Drake and 
the Tudor Navy," and realize, if you can, how much was accom- 
plished by Drake and his small band, for it must be remembered 
that during the greater portion of the voyage Drake was alone 
with one ship, the Golden Hind, the others having deserted him 
or their ships having been destroyed. It is difficult at this 
time of day to appreciate the great results which sprung from 
this expedition, but you will find it all set forth in the works to 
which I have alluded, and in the biographical and critical works 
dealing with Drake and his times. 

3. "A summarie and true discourse of Sir Francis Drake's 
West Indian Voyage, wherein were taken the townes of Saint 
Iago, Sancto Domingo, Cartagena, and Saint Augustine (1589)." 
The first part of this was written by Captain Bigges, a soldier 
officer ; was continued, after his death, probably by Bigges's 
lieutenant, Master Croftes, and was edited by Thomas Gates, 
who, in a dedication to the Earl of Essex, says that he was 
lieutenant of Master Carleill's own company, can well assure 
the truth of the report, and has recommended the publishing 
of it. It is now very rare, and has never been textually reprinted, 
though most of it is given in Hakluyt's Voyages. At a sale 
in London in 1912, a copy of this book was sold for £700, 
and other Drake items realized extraordinary prices. 

4. "Sir Francis Drake's memorable service done against the 
Spaniards in 1587, written by John Leng, gentleman, one of 
his co-adventurers and fellow-soldiers . . . edited from the 
original manuscript in the British Museum, together with an 
Appendix of illustrative papers, by Clarence Hopper, for the 
Camden Society (Camden Miscellany, 1863)." 

This, of course, deals with the attack on Cadiz and the destruc- 
tion of many ships of the King of Spain, by which the sailing 
of the Armada was considerably retarded. This was what 
Drake called " singeing the King of Spain's beard," and gave 
rise to that verse in Newbolt's " Admirals All " : — 

" Drake nor Devil nor Spaniard feared, 
Their cities he put to the sack, 
He singed his Catholic Majesty's beard, 
And harried their ships to rack." 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 41 

5. "A true coppie of a discourse written by a gentleman 
employed in the late Voyage of Spain and Portugal (1589), 
reprinted in Hakluyt, where it is doubtfully attributed to Colonel 
Anthony Winkfield, and in 1870, for private circulation by 
J. P. Collier." 

This is known as the Lisbon Expedition, and was intended 
as a reprisal against the Spaniards on their own coasts, but it 
was a comparative failure and brought disgrace upon Drake 
and his followers, besides the loss of many ships and thousands 
of lives. There are several accounts of this disastrous voyage 
in Latin, one published in London in 1589, and others. 

6. " Ephemeris expeditionis Norreysii et Drake in Lusatanium 
(Londini, 1589)." 

7. " Narrationes duae admodum memoribiles quarum prima 
continet diarum expeditionis Francisci et Draki equitis Angli 
in Indias occidentales susceptae anno MDLXXXV. Altera 
omnium rerum et eodem Drako et Norreysio in Lusitanica 
irruptione gestarum fidelem continuationem sujecit " (Norribergae, 
1590). 

8. " Sir Francis Drake, his voyage 1595, by Thomas Maynarde, 
together with the Spanish account of Drake's attack on Porto 
Rico, edited from the original MSS. by W. D. Cooley (Hakluyt 
Society, 1849)." 

9. " A Libell of Spanish Lies found at the sack of Cales, 
discoursing the fight in the West Indies, and of the death of 
Sir Francis Drake ; with an answer confuting the Spanish Lies, 
and a short relation of the fight according to Truth. Written 
by Henry Savile, Esq., employed Captaine in one of Her 
Majestie's Shippes (Adventure) in the same service against the 
Spaniard (1596)." (Reprinted in Hakluyt.) 

Of these several voyages early accounts are also given in 
Hakluyt 's Principal Navigations : to Nombre de Dios, Vol. 
III. ; Round the World, Vol. Ill (reprinted in Vaux) ; to 
Cadiz, in 1587, Vol. II ; West Indies and death, Vol. III. 

Turning to the British Museum Catalogue for information 
on these matters, one is perfectly bewildered by the numerous 
entries, column after column being devoted to Drake. There 
are contemporary accounts of his voyages in Dutch, others in 
Spanish, and several in Latin and German. 

Time was when I projected the compilation of a Drake 
Bibliography similar to that recently issued of Ralegh, by Dr. 
Brushfield, but such a work requires time, and a man of leisure ; 
therefore, in existing circumstances, the task is hopeless. 

Passing over many intermediate works, I come to one of 



42 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

considerable importance, published in 1883, by Don Manuel 
M. de Peralta, which contains several original letters from 
Spanish officials in America, at the time of Drake's attack on 
their possessions in the South Sea, which are here published 
for the first time, but were first brought to the notice of English 
readers by Mr. C. R. Markham, in his M Sea Fathers." 

" La Armada Invincible," by Captain C. F. Duro (2 vols., 
1884), is an interesting essay followed by a most valuable 
collection of original Spanish documents. 

Mr. Julian Corbett has made good use of these in his " Drake 
and the Tudor Navy," published in 1898, which is the most 
comprehensive and authoritative work on Drake's career that 
has ever been written. 

Corbett 's work is not a biography, although, of course, we 
get a general outline of Drake's life in it. The aim of the author 
was to give a general view of the circumstances under which 
England first became a controlling force in the European system 
by virtue of her power upon the sea. 

Mr. Corbett very wisely adopts as his motto or foreword, 
those prophetic words of Sir Walter Ralegh : — 

" Whosoever commands the sea commands the trade, who- 
soever commands the trade of the world commands the riches 
of the world, and consequently the world itself." 

" Not only was Drake intimately connected, in all the various 
phases of his life," says Mr. Corbett, " with every aspect of 
the Elizabethan maritime upheaval, but throughout Europe 
he was recognized and applauded, even in his lifetime, as the 
personification of the new political force. Nor has recent 
research disclosed any reason for reversing the verdict of his 
contemporaries. The romantic fascination of his career as a 
corsair and explorer began, it is true, very shortly after his 
death to overshadow his work as an admiral and a statesman, 
but in his own time it was not so ; and a principal object of 
the present work is to restore him to the position he once held 
as one of the great military figures of the Reformation." 

Mr. Corbett 's subtitle is " A History of the Rise of England 
as a Maritime Power," and this, in a work of nearly one thousand 
pages, he has successfully accomplished, gleaning his information 
from the most reliable sources, and mainly at first hand. 

Of Drake biographies there are many, one of the most important 
being that of Barrow, published in 1843, which embodies many 
original papers in the Public Record Office, the British Museum, 
and elsewhere. 

Campbell's " Lives of the Admirals," contains a lengthy 
notice of Drake, so also does Southey's " Lives of the British 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 43 

Admirals." These two biographies have been frequently 
reprinted, and Campbell's " Life " was also published in the 
" Biographia Britannia." Then there was a volume published 
in America, dealing with the lives of Drake, Cavendish, and 
Dampier. 

In 1671 Samuel Clark contributed a short biography, and 
there was another by the author of the Rambler in 1767. 
In our own day we have had a short history of Drake, by G. M. 
Towle, an American writer, entitled, " Drake, the Sea King 
of Devon," and Mr. Julian Corbett, besides the great work 
already mentioned, contributed a concise Life of Drake to 
Macmillan's series, " English Men of Action." 

The late Dr. H. H. Drake was a copious writer on his great 
namesake, and a vast amount of material will be found in notes 
appended to Hasted's " History of Blackheath," edited by him. 

Pass we now to the consideration of a recent work in two 
volumes by Lady Eliott-Drake, which is perhaps the most 
important of all. It is entitled " The Family and Heirs of 
Sir Francis Drake." 

The genesis of this book is told by Lady. Drake herself : — 

" A few years ago, a little book entitled, ' The Family of Sir 
Francis Drake/ was put together and privately printed by 
the late Rev. Thomas Hervey. It consisted of a genealogy, 
the Memoranda of a Lady Drake, written in the reign of William 
and Mary, the reprint of a funeral sermon, and a few miscellaneous 
papers, some of which were new to me. 

" Of these the Memoranda interested me the most, because 
they afforded a clue to the meaning of a bundle of eighteenth- 
century letters which had been preserved for the justification 
of one of the writers, yet without any accompanying explanation 
of the circumstances which had led to the correspondence. 

" As the story thus newly revealed seemed from a family 
point of view to be worth clearing up, I made some notes about 
it, to bind in with my copy of Mr. Hervey 's book, intending to 
add thereto a few particulars respecting each successive Lady 
Drake, her lineage, the amount of her fortune, and any personal 
details discoverable. It soon appeared, however, that the 
addenda would be out of proportion to the volume to be illus- 
trated ; wherefore, at the suggestion of those most interested 
in the matter, I abandoned that plan, and began a more compre- 
hensive history of the Drakes of Buckland." 

Although Lady Drake's book does not profess to be a Life 
of Sir Francis, yet he necessarily occupies a large space in it, 
and incidentally we get many interesting glimpses into his 
personality, his family affairs, and his public services. These 



44 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

are all obtained from original documents, many being from 
the family archives, and other sources not ordinarily available 
to the public. 

One is tempted to quote largely from such a work because 
of its unique local interest. For instance, we are informed that 
Drake had several houses in Plymouth. At one of these he 
and his wife occasionally resided, but the situation of this is 
not exactly known. In another house belonging to him, in 
the High Street, his brother, Thomas Drake, dwelt. A third, 
which had two gardens attached to it, was at the corner of 
Buckwell Street and Looe Street, and this is styled in an old 
deed amongst the Plymouth records " the inheritance of Sir 
Francis Drake, some time in the tenure of Jno. Weeks." 

Then we are told how by his advice, St. Nicholas' Island 
was fortified, and when a guard was established there, it is 
recorded that Sir Francis took the first watch himself, since 
which time the old name has been almost entirely superseded, 
and the place in compliment to him has been commonly called 
Drake's Island. 

Again, the story of Plymouth's Water Supply is told in a 
most interesting manner ; an account being given of the Annual 
Commemoration still kept up by the Plymouth Corporation. 
But this is an oft-told tale for Devonshire people ; accordingly 
I need not enlarge upon it ; but there is one view of the case 
which is not so generally known, so I will give the extract as it 
appears in the book : — 

" Frequent are the entries in the municipal accounts of 
dinners and suppers for Drake and his ladye and other justices, 
and, upon one occasion, when Sir Robert Cecil was expected, 
some of the Mrs. of the towne were included in the invitation 
to meet him. 

" These ladies, the wives of the twelve and the twenty-four 
(that is the Aldermen and the Town Councillors), we may 
suppose, were by no means without a share in the Corporation 
festivities, for we find that during the Mayoralty of Mr. Browne, 
£3 10s. 3d. was paid 'for provisions when the Mistresses rode 
out to view the watercourse.' A pleasant day they must have 
had. We can imagine the procession, the young and lively 
ladies escorted by their courtiers seated on Spanish saddles or 
mounted on pillions behind their husbands, all jogging along 
very decorously out of the town ; but once upon the delightful 
' Down/ with the exciting air, the springing turf beneath 
their horses' feet, and miles of open country before them, could 
they all resist the longing for a spreading gallop ? We fear 
that Mr. Mayor had a difficulty in keeping his party together." 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 45 

We are also told that, whenever the Municipality were in 
any difficulty, it was always to Sir Francis Drake that they 
turned for advice and assistance. A great many of his letters 
must at one time have been amongst the town records, but 
there is only one remaining. It is a letter to Mr. Barons, Mayor 
of Plymouth (1594-5), and it had relation to Mr. William Strode 
(of Newnham, near Plympton). 

Among other things we learn that Drake constructed a weir 
on the River Tavy, just below Denham Bridge, whereby he 
obtained a plentiful supply of salmon and trout, which at one 
time realized about £800 a year to the Buckland property. 
It may be remembered that, in addition to local works, he was, 
with Hawkins, mainly instrumental in founding the Chatham 
Chest (which has developed into the noble Greenwich Hospital) 
for disabled seamen. 

Another interesting fact is brought to light, viz., that Drake 
was fond of music, as was also his friend, Sir Richard 
Champernowne. Sir Francis, when at sea, invariably dined 
alone to the sound of violins, and Sir Richard, who was often 
oppressed with melancholy more than he could wish, solaced 
himself at his Castle of Modbury, with the harmony of a full 
choir. No doubt Sir Francis enjoyed the singing when he and 
Lady Drake visited their friend at Modbury Castle, and we can 
imagine the two knights smiling, as perhaps the choir rendered 
" Mi hermano Bartolo," a little ballad very popular in Spain 
before the Armada set out. It runs, roughly translated into 
English, thus : — 

" And Bartolo my brother 
To England forth is gone, 
Where the Drake he means to kill, 
And the Lutherans every one. 
Excommunicate from God, 
Their Queen among the first 
He will capture and bring back 
Like heretics accurst. 
And he promises, moreover, 
Among his spoils and gains, 
A heretic young serving boy 
To give me, bound in chains ; 
And for my lady grandmamma, 
Whose years such waiting crave, 
A handy little Lutheran 
To be her maiden slave." 



46 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Although I deal with ballads and verses later, I cannot refrain 
from introducing here a specimen of another style of verse, 
published by Richard Hayman, in 1623, under the title, 
" Quodlibets," wherein the writer describes his youthful meeting 
with the great Sir Francis : — 

M The Dragon that o'er the seas did raise its crest, 
Glory of his age. After ages wonder, 
Excelling all those that have excelled before. 
It's feared we shall have none such any more ; 
Effecting all he sole did undertake, 
Valiant, just, mild, honest, godly Drake. 
This man, when I was little, I did meete, 
As he was walking up Totnes' long streete. 
He asked me whose I was ? I answered him. 
He asked me if his good friend were within ? 
A fair red orange in his hand he had ; 
He gave it me, whereof I was right glad. 
Takes and kist me and prayes God bless my boy, 
Which I recall in comfort to this day." 

Sir Francis, sailor-like, was very fond of children, and it 
must have been a great disappointment to him that he had 
none of his own. 

Lady Drake also gives some interesting particulars of the 
proceedings which led up to and resulted in the knighting of 
Drake by Queen Elizabeth at Deptford. 

" The Queen was resolved to read a lesson to those who, 
under the cloak of slights to Drake, had reproached her also 
for her share in promoting that and previous expeditions. She 
had already given him a sword, with the ominous words — 
' Whoso striketh at thee, Drake, striketh also at Us,' and now, 
on New Year's Day, following his return, she wore publicly a 
magnificent crown of emeralds with which he had presented her." 
(It appears that it was the custom to make presents to the 
Queen on New- Year's Day). 

Still further recognition followed. On the 4th of April, 
1581, her Majesty dined at Deptford, and after dinner she 
entered Drake's little weather-beaten ship, which was decorated 
for the occasion as gaily as might be with silken flags and 
streamers ; and there, in the very ship which he had so happily 
guided about the world, she did make Captain Drake Knight, 
for reward of his service, and decorated him with a beautiful 
pendant jewel, containing her portrait, most admirably painted, 
and a scarf of rich green silk edged with gold lace and embroidery, 
at each end whereof, worked in fine gold thread — on both sides 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 47 

alike — are the words, " The Almighty be Your Guide and Your 
Protector to the Ende." Drake's sword, the flags that decorated 
his ship, the jewel and scarf, with other relics, were lent to 
the Corporation of Plymouth by Lady Drake on the occasion of 
the unveiling of the Drake statue, by her, on the Hoe, in 1884. 

Moreover, on the same occasion Lady Drake sat in a chair 
made out of the timbers of Drake's ship, this relic being the 
property of the University of Oxford, and lent to the Corporation 
of Plymouth by that body for this unique ceremony. 

It may be mentioned, in passing, that Abraham Cowley 
wrote a very worthy " Ode Sitting and Drinking in the Chair 
made out of the Reliques of Sir Francis Drake's Ship." 

Some curious details respecting Her Majesty's entertainment 
at Deptford are to be found in two letters to King Philip, written 
by Mendoza, the Spanish Ambassador, within a few days of 
the events he describes. He says that the Banquet given to 
the Queen was finer than any that had been seen in England 
since the days of King Henry ; and relates that as she entered 
the Golden Hind, her purple and gold garter slipped down and 
was trailing, when M. de Marchamount stooped and picked it 
up, gallantly claiming it for his master, the Due d'Alencon, 
whose marriage with the Queen he was endeavouring to bring 
about. But the Queen asked for it, promising that he should 
have it back when he reached home, as she had nothing else 
with which to keep her stocking up. Marchamount returned 
it, and she put it on before him. 

It was Elizabeth's policy just then to show noticeable favour 
to the French envoy, in order to make Philip believe that it 
was her real intention to marry Alencon, and therefore, jestingly 
saying to Drake that she had brought a gilded sword to cut off 
his head, she handed the weapon to Marchamount, telling him 
that she authorized him to perform the ceremony for her, which 
he did . . . and Drake gave her a large silver coffer, and a 
frog made of diamonds, distributing 1200 crowns amongst the 
Queen's officers. 

(It is evident from this that knighthoods cost more in 
Elizabeth's time than they do now.) 

After the ceremony was over, being as highly graced as his 
heart could wish, Drake had the honour of entertaining Her 
Majesty on board his vessel, and the silver goblet out of which 
she drank is preserved as a memorial of her visit. The Queen 
inspected the ship, and was greatly interested in her, and then 
it was that she saw the " Bible that Sir Francis had about ye 
Worlde," and she with her own hand wrote on the title-page 
thereof. 



48 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

(" The title page of the Bible," says Lady Drake, " has been 
stolen. It is known to have been intact in 1856. During the 
last illness of Sir Trayton Drake, a good many things disappeared, 
but circumstances made it impossible to recover any of them.") 

"It is one of the remarkable features of the Elizabethan 
age," says Mr. Corbett, " that its higher literature displays 
hardly a trace of having been influenced by the exploits of the 
seamen." 

On the other hand, Professor Ralegh shows conclusively, in 
his introduction to the recent reprint of Hakluyt, the extent 
to which the voyages and discoveries of that time influenced 
the imagination of contemporary poets. 

I quite agree with the latter opinion, having made a special 
research into this branch of the subject. 

Warner, the poet, inserted in his "Albion's England," a 
spirited description of the fight with the Armada, and a passage 
in praise of " world-admired Drake, his brave breeder Hawkins, 
and others of less note." r It was to be wished, he suggested, 
that some better poet than himself should write "their glorious 
journeys and give them the immortality they deserved, for 
they would make immortal pen work." 

But Drake had already been the subject of poetry. 

In 1587, the year before the Armada, one Thomas Greepe 
published " The true and perfect news of the worthy and valiant 
Exploits of Sir Francis Drake," which contained, in very 
halting verse, an account of the taking of Cartagena. Better 
known perhaps than some others which will be named is George 
Peele's " Farewell to the most famous Generals Sir John Norris 
and Sir Francis Drake, Knights," which refers to their expedition 
to Portugal in 1589. 

Charles Fitz-geffrey, poet and divine, published in 1596, " Sir 
Francis Drake, his honourable Life's Commendation and his 
Tragical Death's Lamentation." 

In this elaborate and rhetorical poem, " that high towering 
falcon," as an Elizabethan critic called Fitz-geffrey, celebrated 
not only Drake, but Drake's predecessors, from Cabot to Hawkins. 

It is interesting to note that Fitz-geffrey was a Cornishman. 
He was born at Fowey, and in process of time became Vicar of 
St. Dominick in Cornwall, being presented to the living by his 
friend, Sir Anthony Rous. 

Halt on, the old home of the Rouses, "is," says Lady Drake 
in her recent book, " now a farm and much altered ; it is 
situated on the banks of the river Tamar. It is within an easy 
distance of Buckland Abbey by boat — little more than an 
hour's row — and we may be sure that the friends saw a good 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 49 

deal of each other. Richard Carew, the historian of Cornwall, 
describes Halton as the pleasant and commodious dwelling of 
Anthony Rouse, Esq." 

The poem was dedicated to Lady Drake, widow of the 
Admiral : — 

" Divorced by Death, but wedded still by love, 
For Love by Death can never be divorced, 
Lo, England's Dragon, thy true turtle-dove, 
To seek his mate is now again enforced. 
Like as the sparrow from the Castrel's ire 
Made his asylum in the wise-man's fist ; 
So he, and I, his tonguesman, do require 
Thy sanctuary, Envy to resist. 
So may heroic Drake, whose worth gave wings 
Unto my Muse, that ne'er before could fly, 
And taught her tune these harsh discordant strings, 
A note above her usual minstrelsy, 

Live in himself, and I in him may live, 
These eyes to both vitality to give." 

Prefaced to the work are commendatory verses by Francis 
Rous, Richard Rous, and others, and in the second edition 
(1596) are other similar verses by Thomas Mychelborne, as well 
as some Latin poets, who have mentioned our worthy in their 
writings, thus, as Fitz-geffrey argues, making up for the 
negligence of his own countrymen. 

The poem extends to nearly three hundred stanzas, but I 
have time to quote only three, these relating especially to 
Plymouth : — 

Stanza 132. 
" Equal with Hercules in all save vice, 
Drake of his country hath deserved grace, 
Who, by his industry and quaint device, 
Enforc'd a river leave his former place, 
Teaching his streams to run an uncouth race, 
How could a simple current him withstand, 
Who all the mighty ocean did command. 

133. 
" Now Plymouth (great in nothing save renown, 
And therein greater far, because of Drake) 
Seems to disdain the title of a town, 
And looks that men for city should her take ; 
So proud her patron's favour doth her make : 
As those whom princes' patronage extoll'd, 
Forget themselves, and what they were of old. 

4 



50 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

134. 

• "Her now bright face, once loathsomely defiled, 
He purged and cleansed with a wholesome river ; 
Her whom her sister-cities late reviled, 
Upbraiding her with unsavoury savour, 
Drake of this obloquy doth now deliver : 
That if all poets' pens conceal'd his name, 
The water's glide should still record the same." 

" The Trumpet of Fame : or, Sir F. Drake's and Sir John 
Hawkins' Farewell, with an Encouragement to all Sailors and 
Soldiers, that are minded to go, in this Worthy Enterprise. 
With the names of many ships, and what they have done against 
our foes," written by H. R. (Henry Roberts), was originally 
published in 1595, and was reprinted at the Lee Priory Press 
in 1818. 

The preface to the later edition says : "The naval enterprise 
which gave rise to this metrical relique, seems to have been 
that undertaken against the Spanish Island of Porto Rico, in 
which the English failed to accomplish their main purpose, 
and in consequence of which failure Hawkins and Drake are 
said to have fallen victims to personal chagrin. It records in 
most homely metre and ' with rude pen,' some details which 
cannot but be interesting to Britons, even when transmitted to 
posterity by the meanest coeval encomiast." 

The tract is very rare. It contains these lines : — 

" O famous men of Plymouth's happy town ! 
Yours is the gain of honour and renown : 
From you these men of worth most part did spring, 
Whose fame throughout the world doth daily ring." 

Before passing on to deal with some of the shorter poems 
and ballads relating to Drake, I must mention a remarkable 
effusion which emanated from the national poet of Spain — 
Lope de Vega. 

As the news of Drake's death spread amongst the islands 
and along the Spanish Main, it was received with transports 
of rejoicing. In Spain it was heralded by the devout as a sign 
that the sins for which he had been permitted by Heaven to 
torment them were expiated, and Lope de Vega wrote this 
triumphant poem " La Dragontea " to celebrate how the 
scourge of the Church had been removed. 

Lord Holland, in his Life of de Vega, (1806), says that it is 
" full of virulent and unpoetical abuse, and gives a false account 
of the death of Sir Francis Drake." 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 51 

There is little in this vindictive poem to interest English 
readers. It is high flown, of inordinate length, grandiose in 
style, scathing in its denunciation of Drake — the Dragon, the 
Incarnation of Evil. I believe it has never been translated 
into English, and I doubt if it ever will be. 

My copy of de Vega's poems, which includes " La Dragontea," 
was printed at Barcelona in 1604. 

Incidentally, the Spanish poet tells us that Drake, trusting 
to his mastery of the Spanish tongue, actually visited Nombre 
de Dios, disguised as a Spaniard. Though this is probably an 
invention of the poet's, for it is more than doubtful whether at 
this time Drake could speak Spanish at all, he certainly 
displayed a strange familiarity with the plan of the place when 
the time came to act. 

Drake, like Ralegh, has been the hero of several plays, and 
an incidental character in others. His first appearance in this 
role was in a play written by Sir William Davenant, poet laureate 
in the time of the Stuarts. 

In " The Playhouse to be Let," occurs a whimsical play 
entitled, '■ The History of Sir Francis Drake expressed by 
instrumental and vocal music, and by Art of Perspective in 
Scenes, etc." This is mainly concerned with Drake's Voyage 
of Circumnavigation, a graphic account of his sighting the 
Pacific Ocean from the top of a tree being introduced. It is 
not particularly quotable ; but it is interesting to note that 
the fame of Drake's deeds and the power of his name were 
considered entertaining enough to amuse a public audience 
nearly a century after the events recorded took place. 

" True to the Core : a Story of the Armada," is the next 
item with which I have to deal ; it was the T. P. Cooke's Prize 
Drama of 1866, by which its author, Mr. A. R. Slous, gained 
£100. It was first performed at the New Surrey Theatre, on 
the 8th September of that year, by the enterprise of Messrs. 
Creswick and Shepherd. 

The scene opens on Plymouth Hoe, with the adjacent bowling- 
green of the Pelican Inn. Nearly all the important historical 
characters are introduced into the bowling scene. The excite- 
ment when the approach of the Spanish Armada is announced 
is well put on ; and later when, in other scenes, the Queen, 
Walsingham, de Valdez, de Silva, Gomez, and Geoffrey Danger- 
field, a Jesuit priest, are introduced, the interest is considerable. 

This play has been performed at the Theatre Royal, Plymouth, 
on several occasions. 

Then again there was the " Grand Spectacular Drama — the 
Armada," produced at Drury Lane in 1888, in connection with 



52 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

the National Armada Commemoration. It was the joint work 
of Henry Hamilton and Augustus Harris, these gentlemen 
visiting Plymouth to get local colour for their scenes. 

It opens on the heights near Plymouth, where harvesting 
is in full operation ; then away to Spain ; back to England 
during the fight with the Armada ; then another Spanish 
scene, the Auto-da-Fe ; finally winding up with the Thanksgiving 
Service at St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Drake is not a prominent figure in this play, except in the 
Tableaux, the first of which, and the most effective, represents 
the historic game of bowls, after Seymour Lucas's picture ; 
the other, the great fight between the two fleets off Calais. 
The representation of Drake's ship during the fight was one 
of the finest pieces of stagecraft ever produced at Drury Lane. 

Drake appears also in the Court Scenes and in consultation 
with the Queen and her advisers. 

I do not think this play has been published ; my copy is a 
typed one given me by the late Sir Augustus Harris, in recogni- 
tion of some services rendered in connection with the Armada 
Exhibition held at Drury Lane in 1888. 

I will quote only a few lines spoken by Fame (as Chorus) 
as a prologue to the first tableau, Act III :— 

'■ Sons of brave fathers ; England of to-day : 
Blent with our idle tale attend such deeds 
As stamped ye in the hour of danger past 
A land of heroes : Say not ye, secure, 
* What is this century-thrice-told tale to us ? ' 
For as your fathers dared, ye must deserve 
That if their peril should befall their heirs— 
Which God forfend — ye, too, may strike as they did, 
Not rust, nor rest : So, when you proudly read 
The names of Howard, Ralegh, Hawkins, Drake, 
Blaze in your annals, deem it no dead scroll 
Of glory ended, but a living page, 
Where it behoves ye, need arising, set 
Your names to shine in deathless company ; 
Here then to ope' their stirring story, mark 
That noble band against the invading foe 
Gathered on Plymouth Heights in pastime whiling 
The hour that waits the tardy-footed foe. 
See here, the spirit that hath made ye great, 
When Drake can hear unmoved, ' The foe's in sight '— 
Nor quits his play, but counts his sport a war, 
And war's stern self but a grander game, 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 53 

A game so vast that it shall have for bowls 
Two rival crowns, two nations' fleet ambitious, 
And for its stakes, fair England's liberties : 
Behold : and think ye hear him — ' Time enough 
To win the game and thrash the Spaniard too,' ' 

A bright little one-act comedy is that by Major W. P. Drury 
— " The Dragon's Drum " — published in 1906 in a volume 
entitled, " Men-at-Arms." The scene is laid at Deptford, and 
the episode of the knighting is picturesquely told. 

Finally, a Pageant Play, having Drake as its hero, has lately 
been running at His Majesty's Theatre, London, under the 
management of Sir H. Beerbohm Tree. After a very successful 
run in London it was brought into the provinces, and, very 
appropriately, Plymouth was the first place to witness it out 
of London. This play, by Louis N. Parker, so well-known in 
connection with various historical Pageants, is in three acts. 
Needless to say, it is magnificently staged, and up to the best 
traditions of His Majesty's Theatre. 

* Playwrights, like poets, have their licence, and in this drama 
Mr. Parker has taken it to the full. But it is not my purpose 
to criticize his action now, except to point out two or three 
departures from historical and topographical accuracy. 

Three local scenes are given, one being the quay at Plymouth 
on that memorable Sunday when Drake returned from his 
long absence, as already recorded. Next is Drake's Garden 
at Plymouth, where he is supposed to have received a visit 
from Queen Elizabeth, an incident which lacks historical 
accuracy ; and the third on that ever-memorable day — July 
19th, 1588 — when the news of the approach of the Spanish 
Armada was brought while Drake and his captains were 
playing at bowls on Plymouth Hoe. This scene wants more 
space than is allotted to it, and might have been more 
effective as a tableau. 

Some of the dialogue in the play is good, and there is a highly 
patriotic tone throughout. The historical sequence of events 
is more than doubtful, but this has been caused by the necessity 
of making the loves of Drake and Bess Sydenham run like a 
golden thread through it all. 

The trial scene of Doughty in Drake's cabin is very realistic, 
while the closing scene is magnificent. 

What could be finer than Drake's speech on that occasion, 
at the National Thanksgiving Service. We do not know, of 
course, that Drake and his brother Captains and Admirals 
were present on that occasion, but that is merely a detail : — 



54 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

" Men of England ! I cannot speak as I would, for your love 

grips me by the throat, and chokes my voice, and makes my 

words seem meaningless. Is it a marvel we fought gladly, aye, 

and would gladly have died, for so dear a land and for such a 

Queen ? We have opened the gates of the Sea, we have given 

you the keys of the World. The little spot ye stand on has 

become the centre of the earth. From this day forward the 

English merchant can rove whither he will, and no man can say 

him nay. Our labour is done ; yours is to begin. Men pass 

away, but the people abide. See that ye hold fast the heritage 

we leave you. Yea, and teach your children its value ; that 

never in the coming centuries their hearts may fail them, or 

their hands grow weak. Men of England ! Hitherto we have 

been too much afraid ! Henceforth we will fear only God." 

Pass we now to a consideration of the shorter poems and 

ballads relating to Drake, and they are many. Writing on this 

topic, Mr. C. A. Frith, editor of " Naval Songs and Ballads," 

published by the Navy Record Society, says : — 

" The surprising thing is not the paucity of literary references 
to the exploits of the Elizabethan seamen, which were generally, 
if inadequately, commemorated, but the limited number of 
songs and ballads on the subject which have reached us. The 
popular literature of the period was very extensive in amount 
and very diverse in character. 

" The Registers of the Stationers' Company for the reign of 
Elizabeth contain very numerous entries of ballads which deal 
with the incidents of "the day or with aspects of the life of the 
time. Few of them, comparatively, deal with sailors or seafaring 
matters, and of these many have perished. . . . Comparatively 
few of the ballads of the Elizabethan period relate to voyages 
of discovery ; plunder and fighting were more attractive subjects 
to the audience for which they were intended." 

But scattered throughout our literature we find many ballads 
and songs relating to the Armada, others dealing with the 
exploits of Ralegh, Frobisher, Cavendish, and others, and not 
a few of which Drake is the theme. 

As I have not space to deal fully with these, I must make 
selections. 

In an "Elegie on the Death of Admiral Blake," which took 
place on board the George, near Plymouth Sound, in 1657, 
occur these lines : — 

" The Spaniards lately fear'd the name of Blake, 
As once their children did the name of Drake." 

It may be remembered that Blake's body was brought ashore 
at Plymouth, his heart being buried in St. Andrew's Church, 
as was that of Frobisher many years before. 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 55 

Again, in " Torringtonia : or, a New Copy of Verses on the 
late Sea Engagement," we read : — 

" I sing not the battle (so fam'd) of Lepanto, 
Nor what the Turks got by the siege of Otranto, 
Nor the Spanish Armada so brave and gallanto. 
Which nobody can deny. 

" Nor how they were bang'd by invincible Drake, 
Nor the courage and conduct of excellent Blake, 
Nor of men who fought bravely when all was at stake, 
Which nobody can deny." 

Again, here are a couple of whimsical verses from the " Chapter 
of Admirals," 1797 :— 

" Lord Effingham kicked the Armada down, 

And Drake was a-righting the world all round, 
Gallant Ralegh lived upon fire and smoke, 
But Sir John Hawkins's heart was broke. 
Yet, barring all pother. 
The one and the other. 
Were all of them Lords of the Main. 

" Sir Humphrey Gilbert was lost at sea ; 

And frozen to death was poor Willoughby; 
Both Grenville and Frobisher bravely fell, 

But 'twas Monson who tickled the Dutch so well ; 
Yet, barring all pother. 
The one and the other, 
Were all of them Lords of the Main." 



An old writer on Queen Elizabeth and Sir Francis Drake, 

says : — 

" Oh, nature ! to old England still 
Continue these mistakes — 
Still give us for our Kings such Queens, 
And for our dux such Drakes." 

Thomas Greepe, already mentioned, writing in 1578, has 
these lines : — 

" His (Drake's) valiant minde, his secrete skill, 
By flying fame, eche where is spred, 
His loyall soul, his meere good will 

To Queene and Realme both seene and read." 

An old writer, named Owen, has this epigram on Drake : — 

" Drake like a Dragon through the world did flie, 

And every coast thereof he did descrie. 
Should envious men be dumbe, the sphere will shew 

And the two poles, his journey which they saw. 
Beyond Cades pillars far he steered his way. 

Great Hercules ashore, but Drake by sea." 

Plymouth people will doubtless recollect the lines inscribed 
beneath the portrait of Drake in the possession of the Corporation 



56 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

of Plymouth, now in the Mayor's parlour : — 

" Sir Drake, whom well the world's end knew 

Which thou didst ' compass round, 
And whom both poles of heaven once saw, 

Which North and South doe bound; 
The starrs above will make thee known 

If men here silent were ; 
The Sun himself cannot forget 

His fellow-traveller." 

" Great Drake, whose shippe about the world's wide waste 
In three years did a golden girdle cast ; 
Who with fresh streams refresht this towne that first 
Though kist with waters, yet did pine with thirst. 
Who, both a pilote and a magistrate, 
Steered in his turn the Shippe of Plymouth's state ; 
This little table shewes his face, whose worth 
The world's wide table hardly can set forth." 

The first of these verses is said to have been set up, with 
other lines in Latin and in English, upon the main mast of 
the Golden Hind (or Pelican) when she was on exhibition for 
many years at Deptford, and they are supposed to have been 
written by some of the scholars of Winchester School. 

Now for a few local references : — 

William Browne, who, like Drake, hailed from Tavistock, 
has several allusions to the Devonshire hero, in " Britannia's 
Pastorals." Here are a few : — 

" Time never can produce men to o'ertake 
The fames of Grenville, Davies, Gilbert, Drake, 
Or worthy Hawkins, or of thousands more 
That by their power made the Devonian shore 
Mock the proud Tagus." 



And again 



Again 



On now, my loved Muse, and let us bring 
Thetis to hear thy Cornish Michael sing ; 
And after him to see a swain unfold 
The tragedy of Drake in leaves of gold. 
Then hear another Grenville's name relate, 
Which times succeeding shall perpetuate. 
And make those two the pillars great of fame, 
Beyond whose worths shall never sound a name. 
Nor Honour in her everlasting story 
More deeper grave for all ensuing glory." 

Had Dido stood upon her cliffs and seen 

Ilium's ^Eneas stealing from a queen. 

And spent her sighs as powerful as were these, 

She had enforc'd the fair Nereides 

To answer hers ; those had the Naiads won, 

To drive his winged pine round with the sun. 

And long ere Drake (without a fearful wrack) 

Girdled the world, and brought the wand'rer back. 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 57 

And he winds up with these self-laudatory words : — 

" And Tavy, in my rhymes 
Challenge a due ; let it thy glory be 
That famous Drake and I were born of thee ! " 

Another Tavistock man, a schoolmaster named Long, also 
apostrophizes Drake, thus : — 

" Go, coast Great Britain's Isle, and in each creek 
Among the noble sons of Neptune seek 
Who has swam farthest in the liquid seas, 
Or who first ranged the world's Antipodes : 
Who round about the world's vast globe did roll, 
E'en from the arctick to the antarctick pole ; 
They will with one consent this verdict make, 
'Twas our Immortal Mortal, Tav'stock Drake." 

The Rev. E. A. Bray, Vicar of Tavistock, wrote, in somewhat 
the same strain, a pretty little poem, " To the Tavy " ; and 
the Rev. John Bidlake, of Plymouth, in his poem, " The Year/' 
speaks of : — 

" Meavy, where flourished once illustrious Drake." 

William Kempe, a Plymouth schoolmaster, published in 1592 
a little book on Arithmetic, in which he gives some laudatory 
verses on Sir Francis Drake, to whom the book is dedicated. 
They are interesting as being perhaps the earliest reference in 
literature to Drake's services to Plymouth in bringing the 
water into the town. 

Sir James Rennell Rodd published in 1897 a book 
entitled " Ballads of the Fleet, and other Poems." It is a 
partial realization of a projected series of ballads on the 
great Elizabethan mariners. It commences, in the first 
chapter, with the " Children of the Sea," in which the 
early years of Drake are dealt with ; then follows a chapter 
entitled " San Jon de Lua," which deals, of course, with John 
Hawkins and his contemporaries. " The Reprisal," in the 
same connection, is the narrative of John Killigrew, gentleman 
adventurer, who accompanied Drake on his second voyage to 
Darien ; done into the modern manner. " The World Encom- 
passed " is, as its title implies, a poetical account of Drake's great 
voyage of circumnavigation. " Greenaway," a shorter poem, 
gives a picture of the home of the brothers Gilbert, and Ralegh, 
their half-brother. These poems are patriotic and inspiring, and 
are among the best things that have been written of late years 
respecting the Sea Kings of Devon. 



58 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Austin Dobson, a modern poet, who was born in Plymouth, in 
" A Ballade to Queen Elizabeth of the Armada," has this verse : 
" Now Howard may get to his Flaccus, 
And Drake to his Devon again. 
And Hawkins bowl rubbers to Bacchus, 
For where are the galleons of Spain ? " 

Douglas Sladen wrote several stirring ballads in commemora- 
tion of the defeat of the Armada, and in connection with our 
Plymouth celebration ; and the Bideford Postman-Poet, Edward 
Capern, was often inspired to song by the brave deeds of our 
Devon Worthies. One of his most stirring poems begins thus : — 
" The brave old men of Devonshire, 
'Tis worth a world to stand 
As Devon's sons on Devon's soil 

Though infants of the band ; 
And tell Old England to her face. 

If she is great in fame, 
'Twas good old heart of Devon oak 
That won her glorious name." 

The Rev. Canon H. D. Rawnsley, in a charming little volume 
entitled " Sonnets round the Coast," has this poem on Drake, 
inspired by Boehm's noble statue on the Hoe : — 
" Mould him in bronze, or hew him out of stone, 
His name shall live beyond what hands can make, 
Who with his fifty fighting men durst rake 
That sea, which heaving cloth of gold, had shone 
Since first those long grey eyes had looked thereon. 
And he had felt the South Pacific wake 
Unconquerable daring — gallant— Drake, 
Prince, sailor, soldier, buccaneer, in one. 
Three years 'neath flying suns and wandering moons 
He sailed his Hind, the sea scourge of the world, 
Then, round the Horn, as full as hull could hold 
Of Devon's courage, and of Spain's doubloons. 
Steered home, but England never since has furled 
Her sails of enterprise in lust for gold." 

Everybody has, of course, heard Henry Newbolt's beautiful 
little ballad, " Drake's Drum," in which the quaint tradition 
of that historic drum is admirably told. "Admirals All," by 
the same writer, has been already quoted. 

I must deal at greater length with the writings of Alfred 
Noyes, who in his " Drake, an English Epic," has produced the 
most brilliant eulogium on our hero that has ever been penned. 
Here is what The Times reviewer said of it, when it was published 
a few years ago: — 

" Mr. Noyes has, we really believe, achieved the impossible. 
He has written a modern epic which can be read. One reader 
can say that he has read it through with an interest that never 
flagged anywhere, and more than once rose to an enthusiasm 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 59 

that made him read aloud. There are few surer tests of fine 
verse than that — that it insists upon being read aloud. An 
epic poet could not have a greater theme. 

" Here is surely enough to make an Englishman throb at 
once with love and pride and with the ' unnamed fears ' which 
even the steadfast Wordsworth could not escape. The air we 
are breathing is great air, and political issues become for once 
eternal things. And they are given an eternal stage for their 
battle. Everywhere through this poem the big things of Nature 
are with us — the air and the clouds, the dawn and the night, 
the sun and the stars ; above all the mighty presence of the sea. 
We go round the world with Drake, and the whole world seems 
one immense and boundless sea. The sea is the spirit that 
broods everywhere over ' Drake,' as the spirit of Rome broods 
over the ^Eneid." 

From the Spectator we get a similar tribute : — 
" A beautiful poem, by far Mr. Noyes' finest achievement, 
and one which few living writers could have equalled. The 
level of craftsmanship is high, and there are passages which 
rank Mr. Noyes among the ablest modern masters of blank 
verse. He can be exquisite, as in such lines as : — 

' The pale princess from some grey wizard's tower 
Midmost the deep sigh of enchanted woods 
Looks for the starry flash of her knight's shield.' 

or harsh and heroical, as : — 

* Whistle in hand he watched, his boat well ready, 
His men low-crouched around him, swarthy faces 
Grim-chinned upon the taffrail, muttering oaths 
That trampled down the fear i' their bristly throats. 
While at their sides a dreadful hint of steel 
Lent stray gleams to the stars.' 

The description of the storm in Magellan's Straits, of Drake's 
return to Plymouth, of his seizure of his sweetheart, of the 
meeting of Drake and Sidney, and, last of all, of the tense hush 
in England before the Armada came, are pieces of noble drama 
and high poetry." 

Alfred Noyes is quite a young man, born in 1880. His. 
first poem, " The Loom of Years," was published in 1902, since 
which date he has been constantly writing, and all his poems 
bear the stamp of genius. 

" Drake " originally appeared in Blackwood's Magazine, and 
met with high approval. It was subsequently reprinted, the 
first portion appearing in 1906, the second in 1908. It only 
brings Drake's history up to the date of the defeat of the Armada, 
consequently we may hope for further instalments from the 
same prolific pen. 



60 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

In another, and later poem, " The Admiral's Ghost," Mr. 
Noyes gives us another version of Drake's Drum, and the 
tradition concerning it. The poem is too long to quote, but it 
may be found in Alfred Noyes' Collected Works. 

The tradition is that one of these days when England is in 
peril, that drum (which is now preserved at Buckland Abbey) 
will sound an alarm, and Drake will rise from his watery 
grave and fight again for England. 

Twice, it is said, since Drake passed away, has the drum 
been sounded. Once his spirit found a tenement in Blake, who 
avenged the insult of the Dutchman who sailed up the Thames 
with a broom at his mast-head, and thereafter carried a whip 
at his, as a sign that he had driven them off the English seas. 

The second time his spirit was summoned, Nelson arose and 
secured to England that supremacy of the seas which she has 
never since lost. 

Is the day coming, we wonder, when Drake's drum must be 
sounded again ? Whether this be so or not, we may depend 
upon it that, inspired by these poetic outpourings of our poets, 
and the story of Drake as told in our literature, the English 
spirit to do and dare as he did will be well maintained, no matter 
how great the odds may be. 

Here is another gem, recently discovered in a volume of 
poems by John Galsworthy, the eminent dramatist and novelist, 
who is a Vice-President of the London Devonian Association, 
and author of the Song of the Association, " Devon to me!" 

DRAKE'S SPIRIT. 

When the land needs, 
I am coming ; 
I, Francis Drake, 
Prom my roaming. 
Till then, howl dogs 
Of prophecy ! 
I yet will drive 
The unknown Sea ! 

If my land calls, 
I am coming ; 
I, Francis Drake, 
From my roaming ; 
So, rest my drum ! 
And phantom barque 
Still for awhile 
Go sail the dark ! 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 61 

When Heaven wills, 
I am coming ; 
I, Francis Drake, 
From my roaming. 
Then, traitors black, 
Grey winds all foul, 
Do ye your worst 
To shake my soul. 

Drake is not only a familiar figure in history, poetry, and the 
drama, but he is also a leading character in works of fiction. 
Few finer subjects could be selected for a stirring tale for boys 
than the exploits of Drake and his contemporaries. They are 
many, but I can give only a few titles : — 

" An Old-Time Yarn," by Edgar Pickering. This story opens 
on Plymouth Hoe, and relates to the disastrous expedition to 
San Juan de Ulloa. 

" Drake and His Yeomen," by James Barnes. A supposititious 
narrative by an American writer, purporting to be the adventures 
of Sir Matthew Maunsell, a friend and follower of Drake. 

" Under Drake's Flag," by G. A. Henty. A capital book for 
boys. 

'■ When Hawkins Sailed the Sea," by Tinsley Pratt. This 
story has more to do with Drake than with Hawkins. There 
is much of Plymouth and its surroundings in the tale. 

" Drake and the Dons," by Richard Lovett. A stirring tale 
of Armada times. 

" Voyage of the Avenger, in the Days of Dashing Drake," 
by Henry St. John. 

" Westward Ho ! " by Charles Kingsley. Too well-known to 
need description. 

" At Sea under Drake," by C. H. Eden. 

" Clare Avery. An Armada Story." 

"Fighting Lads of Devon; or, the Days of the Armada," 
by W. M. Grayson. 

M For God and Gold," by Julian Corbett, author of " Drake 
and the Tudor Navy." 

" Remarkable Adventures of Walter Trelawney, Parish 
Prentice of Plymouth in the Year of the Great Armada," re-told 
by J. S. Fletcher. 

" The Jolly Roger, a Story of Sea Heroes and Pirates," by 
Hume Nisbet. 

" Shore and Sea ; or, Stories of Great Vikings and Sea Cap- 
tains," by W. H. D. Adams. 



62 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

" Knighted by the Admiral ; or, the Days of the Great 
Armada," by Crona Temple. 

These and many others might be cited to prove the influence 
that Drake and his exploits effected upon modern fictional 
literature. 

As may be supposed, the traditions and legends relating to 
Drake are many. Reference has already been made to the 
Drum ; but there are others equally interesting. 

I find them nearly all introduced into a rhythmical story, 
after the style of the " Ingoldsby Legends," in a volume entitled 
" Lays and Legends," illustrative of English life, written by 
Camilla Toulmin, and published in 1845. Strangely enough, 
the author does not include the best-known legend, that relating 
to the Drum, but others are given at considerable length, at 
too great a length I fear, for me to quote. 

One of these stories has to do with the supply of water to 
Plymouth. Hearing that Plymouth lacked water, Drake rode 
out to Dartmoor on a white horse, and reaching the appointed 
place, he pronounced some mystic words, a species of incantation, 
and turning his horse town wards, the stream followed the tail 
of the horse right into the town. 

And another : At the time preceding the fight with the 
Armada, Drake was on the Hoe wearily waiting, so calling for 
a block of wood and a sharp axe, he cut the wood into chips, 
threw the chips into the sea, and thereupon the chips became 
tall vessels, and with this magic fleet he went and fought the 
Spaniards. 

Then there is the stor}/ of his betrothal to Elizabeth Sydenham, 
his second wife. According to a writer in the Western Antiquary, 
there is carefully preserved at Sydenham in Somerset, a large 
ball, seemingly of polished iron, which is held by the people in 
that neighbourhood in great veneration. Local folk aver that 
it dropped from the clouds in most extraordinary circum- 
stances. 

Drake was betrothed, he went away on his long voyage ; no 
tidings were heard of him, and Bess, being a comely young woman, 
having given Drake up as dead, agreed to marry another suitor. 
They stood at the altar and were just about to be declared man 
and wife, when a thunderstorm came on, and this identical ball 
fell, as from the clouds, split the stones of the pavement outside 
the porch, and rolled, glowing furiously, between the lovers. 
" It is the token from Drake," the lady cried, and thereupon the 
ceremony was stopped. Drake returned, and they were duly 
married. 

Another variant of the story is to the effect that the ball came 



Drake in History, Song, and Story 63 

through the earth and parted the lovers as they stood at the 
chancel railings. Be that as it may, a ball is preserved as a 
valuable relic, and is still supposed to possess supernatural 
powers. 

My task is done : much has been adduced but much has been 
left unsaid. I have endeavoured to give a general idea of the 
subject, and to carry out my promise to show that the influence 
of Drake was great in literature, as well as in the world's politics. 

As you are doubtless aware, Drake and Hawkins died at sea 
within a few days of each other, and they were both buried at 
sea. 

The following lines form epitaphs suitable to either of them, 
suitable to the peculiar circumstances of their death and burial. 

" Where Drake first found, there last he lost his name, 
And for a tomb left nothing but his fame; 
His body's buried under some great wave. 
The sea that was his glory is his grave : 
On whom an epitaph none can truly make. 
For who can say, 'Here lies Sir Francis Drake ' ? " 

Or this, by another writer : — 

" The waters were his winding-sheet, 
The Sea was made his Toome ! 
Yet for his fame, the Ocean Sea 
Was not sufficient roome." 

[Note. — Since the above was compiled, the writer has had some corre 
spondence with Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, a well-known authority on Mexican 
archaeology, and with Professor J. K. Laughton, late editor of the Navy 
Records Society's publications. Mrs. Nuttall has discovered, in Mexico 
and elsewhere, a number of original documents relating to Drake and his 
voyages. These she has translated and placed at the disposal of the 
Hakluyt Society, by whom they will shortly be published. They throw 
new light upon Drake's career and character, and form a valuable addition 
to the literature of our renowned Devonian hero. — W. H. K. W.] 



64 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



Drake's Drum. 



Drake he's in his hammock an' a thousand mile away. 

(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Slung atween the round shot in Nombre Dios Bay, 

An' dreamin' all the time o' Plymouth Hoe. 
Yarnder lumes the Island, yarnder lie the ships, 

Wi' sailor lads a dancin' heel-an'-toe, 
An' the shore-lights flashin', an' the night-tide dashin', 

He sees et all so plainly as he saw et long ago. 

Drake he was a Devon man, an' ruled the Devon seas, 

(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Rovin' tho' his death fell, he went wi' heart at ease, 

An' dreamin' all the time o' Plymouth Hoe. 
" Take my drum to England, hang et by the shore, 

Strike et when your powder's runnin' low ; 
If the Dons sight Devon, I'll quit the port o' Heaven, 

An' drum them up the Channel as we drummed them 
long ago." 

Drake he's in his hammock till the great Armadas come, 

(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Slung atween the round shot, listenin' for the drum, 

An' dreamin' all the time o' Plymouth Hoe. 
Call him on the deep sea, call him up the Sound, 

Call him when ye sail to meet the foe ; 
Where the old trade's plyin' an' the old flag flyin', 

They shall find him ware an' wakin', as they found him 
long ago ! 

Henry Newbolt. 



The words of this poem are given by kind permission of Mr. Newbolt 
There are two excellent musical settings, one by Sir C. V. Stanford, in his 
" Songs of the Sea," and the other by Mr. W. H. Hedgcock. The poem 
is, also, most effective as a recitation. — [Editor.] 



The Romance of Devon 65 

The Romance of Devon. 

By H. MICHELL WHITLEY. 

(Abstract of a Lecture delivered at St. Bride Institute, 
November 13th, 1912.*) 

Of all the counties of England there is none fairer than Devon. 
To West-countrymen the name calls up remembrances of soft 
sea breezes, ruddy cliffs and fields, rose- and myrtle-covered 
cottages, and broad green meadows, from which rise the 
steep granite tors of Dartmoor, the mother of rivers, with 
deep ferny hollows, and clear mountain streams running in 
music to the sea, overhung by heather and broom and by the 
long silvery sprays of the birch and the deeper foliage of the 
oak. The charm of Devon lies mainly in the variety of its 
scenery : truly it is " a box where sweets compacted lie." For 
its story it is not only to our old chronicles that we must look. 
History supplies us with outlines, and the spade of the archae- 
ologist reveals the actual facts, while tradition and romance 
fill in the colours of the picture and make the people of the past 
real people of flesh and blood, of like passions with ourselves, 
who live, and move, and act over again for us the deeds that 
history has recorded, as they stand out bathed in the misty 
golden light of romance. 

The Dawn of History. 

The glacial age was not felt with its full severity in Devon ; 
but it was in the post-glacial period that man first appeared in 
our county, when the rivers swollen by torrential floods of rain 
cut deep gorges in the valleys, when dense forests covered all 
the low-lying lands, and animal life, of species now extinct in 
Europe, abounded. 

The caverns of Kent's Hole, Brixham, and Cattedown con- 
tained undoubted relics of these palaeolithic men. How they 
came, and how long they continued here, we have no certain 
knowledge ; but the end came : the land sank and the waters 
swept over western Europe, and all life perished in the great 
flood. 

The curtain rises again on a new land, a land of dense forests 
and sluggish streams and rivers ; the great beasts have perished, 
but the Irish elk, the reindeer, the bison, and the wild bull 

• This Lecture was copiously illustrated with lantern slides. 

5 



66 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

roamed through the woods and glades ; and then Devon was 
repopulated by men from other regions which had escaped 
destruction. 

The first who came belonged to a race of pigmies or dwarfs, 
traditions of which still exist in the legends of the piskies or 
little people, preserved to us in our fast-dying folklore — a race 
like the pigmy bushmen of South Africa. They came when 
Britain was joined to Europe, and spread through Devon and 
Cornwall ; and they were gradually exterminated by their 
successors, the Ivernians, the fiercest fighters of the neolithic 
age. 

The Celts next invaded England, armed with bronze swords 
and shields, and waged a long and bitter conflict in their turn 
with the Ivernians. In this dim distant past, race followed 
race, each doomed in its turn to yield to others of a higher 
social organization, and armed with better weapons. 

Time passes on its stormy way. Caesar tells us that the 
Britons lived mainly on flesh and milk, but it is probable that 
our Devon ancestors of this period depended mainly on the 
chase, and but little agriculture was attempted ; although the 
presence of burnt corn in some pit dwellings of this period that 
I have excavated shows that they knew how to grow wheat. 

On Dartmoor and its borders especially we find numerous 
relics of these British tribes : in their camps, some probably 
altered at a later period, and in their villages, stone avenues and 
circles, which are profusely scattered over these lonely uplands. 
Their dwelling-places were hollows cut in the soil, lined with 
stones set on edge, and roofed with limbs of trees covered with 
bracken ; the remains are now known as hut circles. In the 
majority of cases they burnt their dead, and the ashes were 
deposited in rude urns, frequently only sun-baked, probably 
made by the women of the tribe ; the urn was often deposited 
in a rude chamber, and over this was heaped a mound, now 
known as a barrow, numerous examples of which may be 
found in various parts of the county. 

Roman Devon. 

About fifty years before the Christian era Julius Caesar made 
two expeditions to England, defeating the British, exacting 
from them submission to the Roman power, and taking with 
him on his return hostages to guarantee the terms of his treaty 
with the British chiefs. No further attempt was made to 
enforce a real subjection to Rome until Claudius Caesar sent 
another army to conquer the island in A.D. 43 ; and before 
the end of the first century Britain was entirely brought under 



The Romance of Devon 67 

the power of the empire. To realize with what an iron hand 
Rome held on to her farthest possessions, go north, through 
imperial York, and trace the great paved Roman road running 
straight as an arrow over the barren fells ; and follow Hadrian's 
wall from the Solway to the Tyne, which runs through seventy- 
three miles of desolate land, a vast monument to the might of 
Rome. 

The only Roman town of any importance in Devon was Isca, 
now Exeter. A Roman city was defended by strong walls, 
buttressed by massive solid towers ; and the city walls of Exeter 
are built on the line of the old Roman wall, of which, I am of 
opinion, some considerable portions of the masonry still remain ; 
this was of solid and good work, strengthened with courses of 
large red tiles. The houses had a foundation of masonry rising 
about two feet above the ground, which generally supported a 
superstructure of wood ; all were heated by flues under the 
pavements, and baths were abundant. The streets were well 
paved, and around the walls of the town clustered detached 
houses, whilst the tombs generally stood along the sides of the 
roadway. 

The great military roads were constructed with extraordinary 
skill, raised above the adjoining ground and paved with stone 
laid on a solid concrete foundation. So massive and enduring 
was the construction, that some of our best roads now run on 
the ancient substructure. The only Roman road in Devon 
mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary ran from London to 
Dorchester and thence to Honiton, which I consider to be the 
station of Moridunum ; it then followed the old fosse way, now 
the main road to Rockbeare, passed to the north of Clyst Honiton 
by Pinhoe, and so to the east gate of Isca. 

West of Exeter the Romans adopted the old British track- 
ways, which they no doubt improved where necessary. One 
of these passed from Exeter over Haldon to Chudleigh, and 
then climbed to Dartmoor, where it has been traced for several 
miles, and is known as the Great Central Trackway, a well- 
defined and paved road, the rivers and streams being crossed 
by fords or cyclopean bridges, such as that at Postbridge. 
This old trackway passed by way of Tavistock to a ford over 
the Tamar, and then followed the central range of hills of Corn- 
wall to Mounts Bay. Another old trackway passed to the 
south of Dartmoor by Newton Abbot, Totnes, Brent, Ivybridge, 
and Plympton to St. Budeaux, and so by a ferry into Cornwall. 

The traces of Roman occupation in Devon are scanty. Isca 
was the final western outpost of its civilization, and the remains 
within the city walls are comparatively unimportant ; its pave- 



68 The Devonian Year Book, 19 14 

ments are of a very simple design, although remains of the 
period are scattered over the area enclosed by the walls. Out- 
side, only the ruins of two villas have been discovered — one at 
Holcombe, and another at Hannaditches, and these are of a 
very plain type ; there are also evidences of a small Roman 
settlement at Stonehouse. 



Saxon and Dane. 

For three centuries Imperial Rome ruled in England, but 
then the mighty empire had spent its force ; it had seen its 
vigorous youth, its robust manhood, and now with declining 
years its grasp on its outlying provinces loosened, and early in 
the fifth century the Roman eagles left Britain, to be seen 
there no more. 

The cities, each a little republic in itself, self-governing, but 
linked together by the superior fiscal, judicial, and military 
organization of the Romans, were now left to rule themselves 
and guard their own territory. 

In the year 477 the dreaded Saxons swooped down on the 
shores of Sussex, Ella and his three sons landing near Selsea. 
Inch by inch, and foot by foot, the Britons fought for their 
native land ; but slowly yet surely they were defeated and 
driven westward. At Silchester the city was destroyed by fire 
and sword, but Exeter escaped. Its semi-independence, and 
the strong infusion of the fighting race of the Celts, seem to 
have preserved both city and county from the worst horrors of 
the invasion. The advent of the Saxons was postponed until 
it was a conquest by Christians and not by pagans. 

The Saxon settlers did not occupy the Romano-British towns, 
but lived in the open country around ; thus Saxon remains are 
not found in them. It was only when the raids of the Danes 
became frequent that the value of the old walled cities became 
apparent, and the tide of population once more flowed into 
the deserted streets. 

The approach of the Danes and Vikings spread dismay, for 
their progress was everywhere marked by death and flames. 
Numerous descents were made by the Northmen on Devon, 
and on Exeter in particular. What a terror must have fallen 
on the city when in the grey dawn a fleet of the Northmen's 
ships was seen sweeping up the Exe — the long war ships with 
the gilded dragon's head towering high at the prow, the red 
and white shields hanging over the sides, and the banks of 
oars churning the water into foam. 



The Romance of Devon 69 

Tradition tells us that at Hembury Castle the Danes were 
exterminated by the women of the district ; and wherever a 
great battle was fought, from the blood of the slaughtered 
Northmen the Danewort, so abundant in many places, sprang 
up. 

According to another tradition a battle was fought on the 
moors above Whitesand Bay, between King Arthur and the 
Danes, when Vellandruchar mill-wheel was worked with blood ; 
whilst to call a woman in that district " a red-haired Dane " is 
still a bitter insult. 

Tavistock Abbey was destroyed by the Northmen in 997, 
when they carried fire and sword from the mouth of the Tamar 
to Lydford. 

The Norman Conquest. 

On Oct. 14th, 1066, the great battle that decided the future 
of the English race was fought. The Normans won, but 
resistance to the rule of William continued ; and the most 
determined was that of Exeter, the head of the west. 

When the conqueror demanded that their chief men should 
swear allegiance to him and admit him within their walls, the 
reply was that they would not receive him as their king — they 
would pay him tribute, but they would swear no allegiance, 
neither would they admit him within the walls. William's 
answer was, it was not his custom to accept subjects on such 
conditions ; and following this answer he appeared before the 
walls with his army. 

For eighteen days did the city hold out, and yielded only 
when its walls crumbled down undermined. 

In order to maintain his hold on the county, William caused 
several castles to be built. The Saxon mount at Exeter was 
strengthened and fortified, and other castles were built ; 
Barnstaple watched over the north coast, Okehampton and 
Lydford guarded the road north of Dartmoor, and Totnes and 
Plympton that on the south. 

The Saxon thane lived in his open hall, but the Norman 
baron dwelt in his strong castle and ruled his barony with a 
firm mailed hand. The feudal system was established, and the 
defence of the nation placed on the holders of the land, each 
baron or knight being bound to furnish a certain number of 
men-at-arms to form the king's army in time of war. 

The lord's hall or manor house, from Saxon times until the 
sixteenth century, was a building of very simple pretensions. 
The general plan adopted was a central hall open to the roof, 



70 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

with a fair-sized porch ; a solar or parlour for the lord, with a 
cellar underneath at one end, and at the other the women's 
apartments ; buttery, kitchen, and dormitory, divided by rude 
wooden partitions, this part of the house being usually called 
the bower. The hall was the common sitting and dining room 
of the lord, his family, and his servants when there was no 
porch or houseplace ; it was heated by a fire burning on a 
hearth in the centre, which was without a chimney, and the 
furniture was rude and scanty. 

An excellent example still exists at Little Hempston, near 
Totnes. It is a perfect specimen of a manor house of the time 
of Richard II, practically unaltered since that period, and 
therefore of great interest. Other examples exist in farmhouses, 
much altered however, as, when the common life of the inmates 
in hall was abandoned, about the time of Queen Elizabeth, the 
hall was divided up into two floors, and a great chimney built. 

Around the manor house were grouped the cottages of the 
tenants, who held by service, and the lord mainly depended on 
them for carrying out the agricultural work on the estate. The 
land lay in great common fields, three in number ; and the 
ownership was interspersed in different strips through these 
fields. On the outskirts of the arable land, or in low-lying 
districts, were the meadows for cattle, while beyond lay the 
lord's common, left as a pasture for the tenants. 

The feudal system continued down to the reign of Charles II ; 
and this system worked efficiently and well for the good of the 
nation and the support of a sturdy race. 

The Castles. 

The pre-Conquest castles consisted of a large mound of earth, 
called a burh, defended by ditches and timber stockades, with 
wooden houses within for the defenders. The Normans built 
either a shell keep, which was of circular form, Totnes being a 
good example ; or a square tower on the existing mound, as 
Lydford, in both cases replacing the stockades by strong walls 
and deeper moats ; whilst in later times a barbican was added 
to strengthen the defences of the entrance gateway, and stone 
buildings replaced the wooden ones. 

Okehampton Castle, built by the Norman baron, Earl Baldwin 
de Red vers, the greatest lord in Devon, holding 181 manors, is 
the most picturesque and interesting of our castles. 

" Few have been more completely ' mouldered into beauty ' 
than this old stronghold. Wild and impressive as the scene 
must have been when it stood in its perfect condition, over- 



The Romance of Devon 71 

looking ' the woodland and the waste/ when the crenells of 
its walls were strong and unrifted, when the red lion of Redvers 
floated from its dungeon keep, and the steep roofs of its watch- 
towers rose up sharply against the sky, it is far more beautiful 
now. The hill on which the castle stands is covered with a 
thick undergrowth of thorn and hazel, from which rise forest 
trees of great age and size. At the highest point of the ridge, 
overlooking the whole valley, the rifted walls of the keep rise 
above the thick branches of the trees and underwood." 

The ruins are extensive. The mound is crowned by the 
square Norman keep, and the inner ward was enclosed by a strong 
wall ; on the north are the ruins of the great hall and the lord's 
apartments, kitchen, buttery, etc. ; whilst on the south are the 
chapel, guard-houses, porter's lodge, and other domestic build- 
ings. This court is entered through a strongly guarded gateway, 
and was further defended by an outer ward and barbican ; the 
whole of these works are much later than the keep, and are early 
fourteenth-century buildings. 

Mr. King* gives us a living picture of life at the Castle in the 
Norman period : " Let us imagine ourselves within the castle 
walls on some fresh spring morning, when the wood of oak and 
ash trees that lies about the castle is beginning to re-clothe 
itself, and the bright green of the young leaves is finely con- 
trasted with the rough walls of the fortress. There has been 
a rumour of disturbances on the north coast, and Baldwin is 
about to set out with his followers. There he sits on his destrier 
— below the great mound of the dungeon keep, where the line 
of heathery moors is seen here and there above the walls. He 
is armed in his haubergeon of leather, over which thin plates of 
iron are interlaced, so as to form a diamond pattern, like the 
lead work of an ancient window. On his head is a conical 
helmet of polished steel, with its nasal, a narrow point which 
comes down over the face, and affords some slight protection 
against the stroke of a sword. His hollow Norman shield is 
slung round his neck, and supported on his left arm. In his 
right hand he holds his long pointed spear, with a narrow pennon 
of sendal fastened close under the metal of the blade, display- 
ing, as it dances and flutters in the morning breeze, the grim 
red lion which the Earl has assumed as his badge, and which 
afterwards became the cognizance of the house of Redvers. 
Norman archers, with their bows of stout yew-wood and quivers 
of well-feathered arrows, are grouped here and there about the 
court. There is a squire with a grey Norway hawk on his wrist, 
ready to let fly should they find a heron as they ride along by 

* " The Forest of Dartmoor, and its Borders." 



72 The Devonian Year Book, 19 14 

the river ; and there is Hugh the forester, with a leash of 
' good grey dogs,' so that the Earl may rouse a stag if he fails 
in coming across his nobler game. Baldwin is a stern, weather- 
beaten old warrior. He is indeed a Christian knight, and has 
given many a broad acre to the black monks of Normandy ; but 
much of the rude barbarism of his pagan ancestors is still linger- 
ing about him ; and you may hear his shout of ' Thoraie ! ' * as 
he rides out under the gate of the castle, followed by his train 
of knights and archers, whose pennons flutter in the breeze, 
and whose steel helmets glitter in the sunlight, as they wind 
along the rude path between the coppice, until the whole com- 
pany finally disappears out over the hill side." 

There is a weird legend about the Castle, concerning Lady 
Howard of Fitzford, who is popularly supposed to have 
murdered her first three husbands. Every night when the 
clock strikes twelve, she is said to start from the gateway of 
Fitzford house in a coach made of bones and drawn by head- 
less horses ; before the carriage runs a black hound with one 
eye in the centre of his forehead. The spectral coach makes 
its way to Okehampton, where the hound plucks a blade of 
grass from the castle mound ; and the cortege then returns to 
Fitzford, where the grass is laid on the threshold of the gate. 
This is Lady Howard's penance, and it will last until every 
blade of grass on Okehampton Castle hill has been plucked, 
which will not be until the crack of doom, as the grass grows 
faster than' the hound can carry it off. 

"My lady's coach has nodding plumes, 
The coachman has no head. 
My lady is an ashen white, 
As one of long time dead. 

" 'Step in with me/ my lady cries, 
' Step in — the coach is wide ; 
There's room enough for you, I trow, 
And all the world beside.' " 

Another fine ruin is Berry Pomeroy Castle. The approach 
is charming, the road leading down a valley thick with ferns 
and wild flowers, and overshadowed by grand beech trees, 
which grow in great luxuriance, and the whole glen resounds 
with the song of birds. The ruins of the old fortress, built by 
Ralph de Pomeroy in the time of the Conqueror, consist of a 
fine Norman gateway, a portion of the enclosing wall, and a fine 
round tower called St. Margaret's Tower ; but the great masses 
of ruin, however, are the remains of a fair and stately mansion 
built by Sir Edward Seymour, who was granted the lands of 

* " Thor aid ! " The cry is said by Wace to have been used at Hastings. 



The Romance of Devon 73 



Sir Thomas Pomeroy, who had joined the Devonshire rebellion 
in 1549. It is said to have been injured by a thunderstorm, 
and the appearance of the walls indicates that it had been 
damaged by fire, and allowed afterwards to fall gradually into 
decay, until now it is an ivy-mantled and picturesque shell. 

Old legends still cling around the ruin. In Lady Margaret's 
Tower Ellen de Pomeroy is said to have been imprisoned by her 
sister through jealousy. Another legend tells how, "long long 
ago, one of the sons of the Pomeroys surprised his sister in an 
arbour with an enemy of the house. How or where he slew 
them is not known, but there is a winding passage just within 
the castle gate, which, after running through the thickness of 
the wall, widens out into a deep recess, and here it may be that 
the deed was done ; for on moonlit nights the silvery glimmer 
falling through a high embrasure reveals two shadowy figures, 
man and woman, parted by the width of this recess, pitifully 
struggling to reach each other across the empty space, but 
held back by some invisible power, still withholding from them, 
after all these years of death, that love which the cruelty of 
Pomeroy denied them in their life." 

There is also a tale of one of the Pomeroys, who, finding at 
the end of a long siege that his castle must be taken, called for 
his charger, mounted it in full armour, and blowing his bugle in 
token of surrender, leapt from the castle walls down to the crags 
beneath, and was dashed to pieces. 

" Yanish'd is the ancient splendour, 
And before our dreamy eye. 
Wave these mingling shapes and figures. 
Like a faded tapestry." 

The Churches. 

To many a strange sound had the wooded vales and lonely 
hills of Devon listened, during the years since the Romans first 
came. The clash and clang of battle had rent the air, they had 
echoed the cries of human sacrifices, they had heard the lowing 
of the bull that died in the temple of Mithras. And now yet 
another sound, strange and sweet and new, came to them, for 
across the moors rang the little bronze bell of the Celtic saint, 
calling on men to pray. 

The first preaching-station was at a holy cross, of which so 
many examples still exist on Dartmoor. 

"In many a green and solemn place, 
Girt by the wild hills round. 
The shadow of the holy cross 
Still sleepeth on the ground." 



74 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Next in order came the little Celtic stone church — a simple 
rectangle, one of the oldest in England being that at Perran- 
zabuloe in Cornwall. 

After the landing of Saint Augustine, Saxon churches multi- 
plied throughout the land. Wood was generally used in their 
construction, and thatch for the roof ; one such church still 
remains at Greenstead, Essex. The stone buildings of the 
Saxon style are distinguished by what is called long and short 
work at the angles, and vertical strips run up the walls, a good 
example being Sompting Church, Sussex. 

After the Conquest the Norman style of architecture was 
introduced, and continued about 125 years. It is distinguished 
by its general massive character, its semicircular arches to 
doors and windows, the latter often small, and its mouldings 
and beak heads of barbaric richness. The two great transeptal 
towers of Exeter Cathedral are the best specimens of this style 
in Devon. 

To the Norman succeeded the Early English style, which 
lasted, roughly speaking, during the thirteenth century. It 
was distinguished by great purity, with windows long and 
lancet-headed, and columns consisting of a central shaft, with 
smaller shafts, generally of marble, grouped around it ; the 
spires are exquisitely proportioned, and flying buttresses are 
introduced. The beautiful church of Ottery St. Mary, a 
miniature copy of the Cathedral, and the most interesting church 
after it in the county, is built in this style. 

The Decorated style came next, and continued during the 
fourteenth century. The windows become larger, and are divided 
by mullions, which branch into tracery, at first geometrical and 
afterwards flowing ; a profusion of ornament is used, and the 
carving of the foliage from nature is exquisite. We have now 
reached what is generally considered to be the perfection of 
English architecture. The finest example in England is Exeter 
Cathedral, which, with the exception of the Norman towers, 
was built between 1258 and 1369, and is the most beautiful 
specimen of geometrical Decorated work in any building. The 
outside is not attractive, but the interior, with its long unbroken 
roof throughout nave and choir, is one of the finest in 
England. 

The Perpendicular style followed, and prevailed about 150 
years, to the end of the reign of Henry VIII. The doors have 
a square label over them, the windows are large, the mullions 
are continued straight through into the arch, and transoms are 
inserted, breaking up the lights into panels ; the towers are 
fine and massive, but the crowning glory of this style is the 



The Romance of Devon 75 

exquisite fan vaulting. The best example we have is the church 
of the Holy Cross at Crediton, which stands close to the site of 
the Saxon Cathedral. 

The churches of Devon are mainly of this period, there having 
been a general rebuilding, but they surpass those of most other 
counties in one point, beauty of situation. " Sometimes located 
close to the old manor house, and sheltered by the same ancestral 
woods ; sometimes on high ground, and looking across a wide 
landscape of coppice, and orchard, and meadow, to the distant 
ridges of Dartmoor ; and sometimes rising in the midst of the 
long green combe, over which the lichen-tinted tower throws 
the shadow of its own antiquity." 

The woodwork which still remains in many Devonshire 
churches in spite of the terrible havoc to which it has been 
exposed, even in the last fifty years, probably excels in beauty 
and in intricacy of detail that of any other English county. 
The rood screens are especially noticeable, with their twining 
vine branches and graceful mazes of forest boughs and flowers. 
All were elaborately coloured, and the lower panels were filled 
in with painted figures of saints, many of which can still be 
traced. The chief characteristic of the churches in mediaeval 
times was colour : woodwork of screens and roof glowed with 
colour, generally gold, scarlet, and white ; mural paintings 
covered the walls, and rich painted glass filled the windows. We 
do not appreciate colour as our ancestors did, and in this northern 
land we should once more return to the custom of adding to 
the beauty of form the glory of colour. 

The Abbeys. 

Devonshire possesses few remains of its great abbeys and 
priories ; we have no ruins like Rievaulx, Tin tern, or Fountains. 
The grantees were under an obligation to pull down the churches ; 
and this was much more strictly carried out in the south than 
in the north, where affection for the old religion was stronger. 

Tavistock Abbey, with its mitred abbot, was the chief house 
in the two western counties. The great church with the shrine 
of St. Rumon was almost the equal of Exeter Cathedral ; but 
it was totally destroyed, and only a few crumbling walls now 
mark the site ; so that we can hardly imagine the Abbey in all 
its beauty, when the stately house of God and his special ministers 
rose in grace from the level meads by the River Tavy. 

It has perished. The last light on the altar went out long, 
long ago ; long ago was the last mass sung. There is scarce a 
trace left of the great Abbey. The whaup wails over a desolate 



76 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

sanctuary, and the winds from Dartmoor sweep down the gorse- 
clad hills across the site of the glorious church of St. Rumon of 
Tavistock. 

" Empty aisle, deserted chancel, tower tottering to your fall, 
Many a winter storm has beaten on the grey head of your wall. 
Many a bitter storm and tempest has your roof-tree turned away, 
Since you first were raised a temple to the Lord of night and day." 

The church of the Cistercian Abbey of Buckland was turned 
into a dwelling-house in the sixteenth century, but that of 
Buckfast, the richest Cistercian house in the west, was com- 
pletely destroyed. The Cistercians were the great farmers of 
England during the feudal period, and their abbeys were almost 
invariably planted in low well-watered situations, in accordance 
with the old saying : " Benedict loved the hilltop, and Bernard 
loved the vale." The foundations of Buckfast Abbey have in 
recent years been uncovered ; they follow the normal plan of a 
Cistercian house, such as Fountains and Beaulieu. 

On the north was the great church, and on its sunny side, 
south of the nave, was the cloister garth, with a covered alley 
all around ; the garth was never used for burials, as is some- 
times erroneously stated. On the eastern side was the chapter 
house, where all the business of the brotherhood was conducted, 
and a parlour, and passage to the infirmary, over which was 
the monks' dormitory. On the south side of the cloisters was 
the warming house, where the monks had a fire, to warm them- 
selves by in the cold winter months ; next to this was the frater 
or dining-hall, and beyond was the kitchen. The western side 
was occupied by the house of the lay brothers, who did the 
farming ; below were their dining-hall and other rooms, such as 
cellars, and above was their dormitory. East of the cloister 
was the infirman', consisting of a large hall for living and sleeping, 
a chapel, and usual offices. The infirmary was not quite the 
same thing as a modern hospital, although resembling it. The 
monks led simple lives, and so the number of sick would be 
small. The way the monks kept themselves in health was by 
being bled three or four times a year — a fourth time was con- 
sidered a luxury. After being bled they were allowed to "go 
into farmery " until they recovered their strength again. To 
the west of these buildings would be the guest houses, main 
entrance gateway, mill, and farm buildings. 

The Rivers, 

The rivers of Devon mainly owe their beauty to the varied 
scenery through which they flow. Rising in the desolate hills 



The Romance of Devon 77 

of Dartmoor or Exmoor, the first few miles of their course are 
through wild and open country in which they have cut deep 
gorges through the hills clothed in coppice woods to the summit, 
before reaching the green pastures of the lowlands, and it is in 
these gorges that the most beautiful scenery occurs. 

All have their individual characteristics — Barle and Exe, Teign 
and Dart, Avon and Erme, Tavy and Tamar, Torridge and Taw 
—and all are beautiful. 

Take the Barle. Some of the finest bits are in the gorge above 
Dulverton, where it flows between wooded hills overshadowed 
by noble trees. At this town there is a fine mediaeval bridge 
of five pointed arches, and the gorge opens slightly with green 
meadows bounding it as the river flows onward to its junction 
with the Exe. Dulverton itself, just over the border, is a little 
town shut in by the hills around, and renowned for its hospitable 
chimneys, which group well for an artistic eye. 

Crossing over the hill we find the Exe, and nestling amongst 
the hills with level meads around lie the scanty ruins of Barlinch 
Priory for Augustinian Canons, some of the windows of which 
are now in Morebath Church. Only a few crumbling and ivy- 
clad ruins remain. Crossing a small burn which runs into the 
Exe a short distance below, stands a little pack-horse bridge, 
with a ford — which preceded it — by its side ; it claims to be 
one of the prettiest bridges in England, but it is very tiny, the 
road being only just wide enough for one cart to cross. 

A little west is Brushford with its venerable oak, which claims 
to be over six hundred years old, and beyond is Molland, in 
which is a miniature tomb stated to be a heart shrine of one of 
the Courtenay family. It was the custom in mediaeval times 
for a knight dying abroad to send his heart home to be buried 
in his parish church. 

Farther down the river is Tiverton, which possesses a fine 
church, but its glory is the Greenway Chapel, built in 1517 by 
John Greenway, a rich merchant of the staple. The architecture 
is rich and covered with sculpture of Perpendicular date. 
The life of our Saviour, the flight into Egypt, and sea scenes 
with ships of the period are all portrayed in stone, whilst inscrip- 
tions praying for mercy on the souls of the founder and his wife 
are interspersed. 

The valley now gradually opens, and the Exe flows through 
rich meadows and marshland past Exeter to the sea. 

Farther west in the heart of Devon rise the granite tors and 
lonely uplands of Dartmoor, the mother of rivers — Teign and 
Dart, Erme and Avon, Tavy and Tamar, Torridge and Taw, 
all have their sources in this grand mountain track. They are 



78 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

all beautiful, and the gorges they have cut deep in the hills on 
leaving the moor contain some of the finest scenery in the county. 

The Teign at Holymill, near Chagford, is a famous beauty 
spot, and the junction of the east and west branches of the 
river is very picturesque. Fingle Bridge is approached by a 
typical Devonshire lane, once a pack-horse track and then 
widened for carts, but even now so narrow that it is only in 
certain spots that two can pass. The Teign at Drewsteignton 
has cut a deep gorge through the high land, and in summer, 
when all the hillside is ablaze with heather, it forms a picture, 
once seen, not easily forgotten. Fingle Bridge itself has a 
warmth of colour from the shades of brown and golden lichen 
crusted over its arches and time-worn buttresses ; beneath long 
trails of ivy droop in the cool shadow towards the clear dark 
water rippling underneath, a spot to linger and dream in on a 
bright summer day. 

Yet of all the moorland rivers I must claim Dart as the fairest. 

" Bold is the rush of the kingly Rhine, 
Bright is his coronet, bright is his wine ; 
Soft in the shade of his mountain zone 
Laughs the blue glance of the bounding Rhone ; 
Proudly the yellow-haired Tiber may flow, 
Singing his dirge to the dead below ; 
Which of the river gods, which may it be, 
Beautiful Dart, to be mated to thee ? " 

The hand of civilization has been laid lightly on Dartmoor, 
and except that the wolf and the red deer have vanished, the 
whole district is nearly the same as before the Norman conquest. 
Old traditions still linger here, and belief in the piskies, who 
dance in the moonlight on the greensward by the side of the 
mountain streams, is hardly extinct. The " wish hounds/' 
breathing flame, and attended by a swart master with a hunting 
pole, are said to wander in packs over the dusky wastes of 
heather and amongst the grey granite stones of the tors. 

The rivers, too, retain some trace of the reverence with which 
in Celtic times they were regarded, and this is pre-eminently the 
case with " Dart," for " the Dart " is rarely heard, never from 
a moorman. " Dart came down last night " is the way he 
describes a flood. The " cry of Dart," as the moormen name 
the murmuring sound which rises from all rivers when the edge 
of dark is creeping up the hill, is ominous, and a sure warning of 
coming evil if heard at a distance. Its waters are said to become 
tinged with blue when about to receive a victim, no very rare 
occurrence. The local rhyme runs : — 

" River of Dart, oh, river of Dart, 
Every year thou claimest a heart." 



The Romance of Devon 79 

Or, shorter and fiercer, like the roaring of the river itself : — 
" Dart, Dart 
Wants a heart." 

Mr. King, in an article on Devonshire folklore, quotes an old 
moorman as saying to his employer : " Tis wonderful bright 
now, maister, but we shall ha' a change ; I hear the broadstones 
a-crying," these being large boulders of granite in the bed of 
the river. The " cry of the river " is a sure sign of foul weather, 
however fine the sky. 

In the most gloomy and desolate part of Dartmoor lies Cran- 
mere pool, a lonely morass, from which, for a square mile around 
it, five rivers flow — Taw, Teign, Ockment, Dart, and Tavy. 
Cranmere pool has an evil reputation as a great penal settlement 
for refractory spirits, and it is said that many of the former 
inhabitants are still there, expiating their misdoings. An old 
farmer was said to be so troublesome to his survivors as to 
require seven parsons to lay him ; at last by their incantations 
he was transformed into a colt, and a servant boy was directed 
to take him to Cranmere pool. On arriving at the brink of the pool 
he was to take off the halter, and return instantly without looking 
around. Curiosity proving too powerful, he turned his head 
to see what was going on, when he beheld the colt plunge into 
the lake in the form of a ball of fire. Before doing so, however, 
he gave the lad a parting salute in the form of a kick which 
knocked out one of his eyes. 

From its source to the sea we will trace the course of Dart. 
For the first fifteen miles it flows through Dartmoor forest, but 
the word forest did not mean woodlands, for of trees there are 
practically none, and woodland it never has been ; it meant 
unenclosed lands, kept for the chase, as the deer forests of 
Scotland now are. 

One wood there is on the moor — Wistman's Wood — and 
another like it does not exist in England. A steep hillside is 
covered with boulders, amongst which grows a grove of dwarf 
oaks, mantled thick with moss ; who planted it is not known, 
but in the days before William landed at Pevensey, a perambula- 
tion of the forest refers to Wistman's Wood in terms which would 
describe it at present. 

Near Two Bridges the old British trackway crosses, though 
the old bridge which carried it over Dart has disappeared. The 
course of both East and West Dart through the moorland is 
wild and desolate ; at Dartmeet they mingle, and the course of 
the united streams is through a deep and narrow valley. The 
river reaches the borders of the Moor at the little vicarage of 
Holne, where Charles Kingsley was born and where he learnt in 



So The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

his boyhood that ardent love for Devon and Devon men that he 
showed so well in the noblest of all stories — " Westward Ho ! " 

Below Holne the river sweeps around the bold ridge of Holne 
Chase, where, " after fleeting through the moors with a long 
solitary course," it descends between steep hills covered with 
beech and oak woods. Through these woods run the far-famed 
Buckland Drives, and overhanging the river is a crag known as 
" The Lovers' Leap," of which tradition says that a pair of despair- 
ing lovers threw themselves from its top into the deep pool below. 
Farther down is Holne Bridge, the most picturesque of all those 
spanning Dart. In dry weather the stream is confined solely 
to its rocky bed and flows through the central arch, but when 
" Dart comes down," the three arches are full. The three grey 
arches mantled in ivy, the overhanging foliage, the crystal 
water, and the waterworn granite bed form a picture which, 
once seen, will linger in the memory. 

Green fields spread out before we reach Buckfast Abbey, 
of which but slight ruins remain ; modern buildings are being 
put up on the old foundations. Turner's noble drawing records, 
as no other pencil could do, the grand features of the general 
scene, backed by the grey cones of Dartmoor ; but the imagina- 
tion alone can reconstruct it in the perfection of its ancient 
splendour, when the Abbey towers rose in their stately beauty 
from the midst of their green meadows and golden cornfields — 
spots of sunshine between the darker coppice that still clusters 
over the hillsides. 

At Buckfastleigh is another mediaeval bridge, ivyclad and 
picturesque, approached by deep lanes fenced in with banks 
heavy with drooping ferns and honeysuckle, and overarched 
with trees, and in the early summer scarlet with strawberries, 
formerly so plentiful that a man might gather them sitting on 
horseback. 

" The shady lanes of Devon, in summer how they shine. 
When the foxglove shakes his purple bells beneath the wild hop's bine, 
And briony in clusters green hangs from the dog's wood's bough, 
And twines a leafy chaplet meet to deck a maiden's brow." 

Down to Totnes the river flows between rich meadows and 
wooded slopes, with tall trees reflected in the pools. Of Staverton 
ford a sad story is told. A young farmer and his bride, who 
" "'d just been married in the church, drove down in a dogcart 
to cross the river, and, as they did so, the warning cry of " Dart 
coming down " was plainly heard. " We must be quick, here 
cometh old Dart," said the bridegroom. Quick they were, but 
old Dart was quicker, and their dead bodies were taken out of 
the river the next day. 



The Romance of Devon 81 

Totnes is a quaint country town, once walled, with the shell 
keep of the ruined castle of Judhel de Totnes towering over the 
houses below. The east gate still remains, and portions of the 
walls around the castle, in which is the north gate ; a third gate 
used to stand at the south-west angle of the town beneath the 
castle. Totnes is the smallest walled town in England. In the 
footway of High Street is a renowned stone, called " The Brutus 
Stone." Tradition says Brutus of Troy landed here and gave a 
name to the place, as the local rhyme asserts : — 

" Here I stand, and here I rest, 
And this place shall be called Totnes." 

Below the town the river becomes tidal, and is renowned for the 
charm and variety of the scenery. 

The bend at Sharpham, with its overhanging woods, is 
renowned for its beauty ; here is one of the finest rookeries in 
England, and the herons from its heronry abound on the river's 
bank. Below Sharpham the Dart widens, and at Galmpton 
Reach it expands into a spacious bay, whilst farther on is 
Dittisham, famous for its plum orchards. 

On the left are the woods of Greenway, where tradition states 
Sir Walter Ralegh once resided, and that here it was that his 
servant entering the room when his master was indulging in 
the first pipe smoked in England, was so amazed at the sight 
that he threw the whole tankard of ale over him, thinking he 
was on fire. Greenway also was the home of those two noble 
men, Humphrey and Adrian Gilbert, whose names are household 
words to all who love the traditions of England. 

Here in the middle of the river stands the Anchor stone, a 
rock bare at low but covered deeply at high water, which was 
a most useful public institution in the men of Dartmouth's 
opinion in ancient times ; they were cruel days, for here scolding 
wives were conveyed and landed at low water : an hour on the 
rock with a rising tide usually sufficed to subdue the most 
termagant, and if not the tide would effectually settle the 
matter. 

Shortly below the harbour opens out, and Dartmouth comes 
in sight, shut in by its lofty hills. "It is not walled — the 
mountains are its walls," said the Spanish spy. Prince's 
description, written two hundred years ago, still applies : " The 
town is situated on the side of a very steep hill which runneth 
from east to west a considerable length of near a mile, whereby 
the houses, as you pass on the water, seem pensil, and to hang 
in rows like galley-pots in an apothecary's shop ; for so high and 
steep is it, that you go from the lower to the upper part thereof, 

6 



82 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

and from the top requires no less — in some places many more — 
than a hundred steps." Dartmouth is one of the little western 
ports that built up England's naval fame, and especially in 
Elizabeth's reign played its part well. Its merchants were 
famous in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and Chaucer's 
shipman with his " barge y-clepyed the Maudelayne " is described 
as hailing from this port ; and still a waft from the spacious 
times of Queen Elizabeth seems to linger around it. 

Opposite is Kingswear, and between the towns lies the land- 
locked harbour. What scenes have been witnessed here ! Let 
us recall one more than eight hundred years ago. Richard 
Cceur de Lion collected in this deep cliffed harbour the fleet in 
which he sailed for Palestine ; its departure must have been a 
sight of exceeding beauty. The harbour covered with a crowd 
of galleys, their beaks gay with paintings, the glittering shields 
of the warriors ranged along the sides. The long streamers 
trailing from the trucks, with the red crosses of St. George — 
then the national standard of England — showing bright against 
the gleaming sails, whilst countless pennons streamed from the 
lances. The galleys urged forward slowly with the tide, over 
the purple water boiling with the multitude of the oars of the 
rowers, whilst the sound of trumpets and clarions filled the air, 
as the great fleet slowly swept out through the " Jaws of Dart." 

I have endeavoured in this paper to give some slight sketch 
of the life of our ancestors in Devon in the olden times, believing 
in the fellowship which for all generations of men runs through 
all times ; and we ourselves are a link in this golden chain, 
which reaches from the dawn to the end. We wish to see this 
life in its light and shade, and to reproduce before our eyes 
these old times, with their busy, active past. 

" This linking of the present to the past is full of great and 
important practical results. Upon them in a great measure 
depends that strong bond of local patriotism which makes a 
nation differ from a tribe ; and hence it is that in great and 
noble nations this claim of the present on the past has ever been 
most zealously advanced. Every man in this our land feels 
that he is born a Briton — that all the early deeds of our fathers' 
greatness are his birth inheritance ; even though he knows not 
all the separate parts of the story, its spell is on him, its spirit 
stirs within him. And this sense of high national descent is of 
the utmost practical importance. It excites all to venture upon 
noble deeds : at Marathon and Thermopylae, at Agincourt and 
Trafalgar, it acts alike. ' Thy country expects it- of thee/ is its 
secret whisper. ' Thou art the child of brave men, thou art 



The Romance of Devon 83 



one of a people who have never feared, never yielded, who have 
planted the foot and said : Kill me if thou canst, but be a slave 
I will not.' Out of the misty veil of years dimly visible, there 
look forth on such an one, angel faces beaming approbation 
and inspiring strength — come what danger there may be, he is 
a match for it." 

The morning beat of the English drums encircles the World 
with a continuous roll of music, and wherever they sound there 
are Devonians found doing their duty to their King and their 
Country, building up our Empire, but their thoughts ever turn 
to home in loving remembrance, and this is the golden link that 
binds our Empire together. 

" Far and far our homes are set 

Round the seven seas, 
Woe to us if we forget — 

We that hold by these ; 
Unto each his mother beach, 

Bird, and flower, and strand ; 
Children of the seven seas, 

O hear and understand." 



Devon, our Home. 

The Switzer may boast of his mountain home, 

The German his Fatherland ; 
The Southron may dream of his sapphire sea 
That breaks on the golden sand : 

But for us the fairest of spots upon earth 
Is Devon, dear Devon, the land of our birth. 
Though long may we wander and far may we roam, 
The dear old West Country is ever our home. 

Tis there that the red deer run wild on the hills, 
And the speckled trout sport in the stream ; 

'Tis there that the salmon come in from the sea, 
'Tis the land of the cider and cream. 

And two sweeter things you may look for in vain — 

Than a Devonshire lass and a Devonshire lane. 

Sir F. C. Gould. 



84 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



Jan Pook's Midnight Adventure.* 

Jan Pook wuz a post-bwoy, the vokes where he stapped 

Zaid a hardier 'osebird there nivver wuz drapped. 

He ciid laugh, he cud zing, he cud zmauk, he cud tell, 

An' wativver he diied, he always dued well. 

He wuz loved by he's maister, th' ole Samuel Cann 

O' the " White Hart '-' to Moreton, a marciful man, 

Who traited he's 'osses an' customers tue, 

An' traited Jan Pook when he'd nort else to due. 

Jan Pook drauv'd a party to Purncetown wan day, 

An' returnin' there vrom on he's empty post-shay, 

To the " Saracen's Head " he piill'd up vor a wet, 

Refreshment he's zel an' he's 'osses to get. 

Jan drink'd wi' zome miners, avore, as he zaid, 

The likker he drink'd 'ad got into he's 'aid. 

Wen he started agean to he's 'ome to return, 

Wat arterwards 'appen'd yii'll vurry ziine larn. 

The likker 'ad warm'd en to that there degree 

That he vall'd vast asleep, an' he's 'osses, d'e zee, 

Not veelin' the whip, stapp'd an' grazed 'pon the rawd, 

But 'ow long they bide there nobody knaw'd. 

Jan draim'd 'bout the pixies an' other strange voke, 

Wen the miners corned up all alive vor a joke ; 

They onharness'd he's 'osses, an' drauv'd mun away, 

Leavin' Jan vast asleep 'pin tap the post-shay. 

Wen the zin in the east wuz beginnin' to rise, 

Jan Pook, 'alf awake, started rubbin' he's eyes. 

" Who be I ? Where be I ? " zaid Jan in a maze ; 

" Yur's a drunkin ole zin-uv-a-gun 'pon a shays. 

Eef I be Jan Pook, I mid zay to my cost 

A pair o' post-'osses vor sartin I've lost. 

Eef I ban't Jan Pook, 'tez a dam lucky day, 

Vor I'm popp'd eef I 'an't been an' vound a post-shay." 

Moral. 

Don't drink wi' no miners, now mind wat I zaid, 
Don't nivver pull up to no " Saracen's Head." 
Don't take no more drink vor the rest o' your days, 
An' yu won't lost no 'osses, nor vind no post-shays. 

* This was written by Dr. Puddicombe, of Moretonhampstead, in the 
early part of last century, and was obtained by Mr. Chas. H. Laycock 
from a native of that town. 






Devonians in London 85 

Devonians in London. 

By R. PEARSE CHOPE, B.A. 

{A Lecture delivered at St. Bride Institute, 
February yth, 1913.*) 

It is of special interest to members of the London Devonian 
Association to consider the past " Worthies of Devon '■ who 
have lived in London, and who would, if the Association had 
existed in their days, have been eligible for membership of it. 
In order to attain eminence in most professions — law, painting, 
medicine, politics, literature— it is necessary for a man to live 
the whole or a considerable portion of his life in the metropolis, 
and so we shall find that our London Devonians include the 
cream of these " Worthies," whom Prince introduces as " such 
an illustrious troop of heroes, as no other country in the kingdom, 
no other kingdom (in so small a tract) in Europe, in all respects 
is able to match, much less excel." 

Not only have a very large number of distinguished Devonians 
lived and died in London, but it is rather astonishing to find that 
many who would be regarded by everybody as typical Devonians 
were actually born in London, such as the elder Sir Thomas 
Acland, the first Earl of Iddesleigh, the " good " Earl of Devon, 
Lord Chief Justice Coleridge, W. M. Praed, and others. And 
then there are many Devonians of the second generation, that is, 
the sons of Devonian parents, though born in London, such as 
Turner the painter (who, however, claimed to be a native of 
Barnstaple), John Keats, and Deans Milman and Merivale. 
In addition to these, a few cockneys have the right to be included 
in our list of Devonians, through long residence in our county, 
among whom may be mentioned Herrick, who was born in 
Cheapside, Mrs. Bray of Tavistock, and Dr. Oliver, the historian 
of Exeter, who were both born in Newington, and Thomas Luny, 
the marine painter. However, to quote Prince again, " This 
province is not so beggarly in this kind, as to need deck herself, 
with the jay in the fable, with the borrowed plumes of other 
birds : she can drop several of her feathers, and yet her native 
train, like that of Juno's bird, will remain matchless and un- 
parallel'd." 

* This lecture was illustrated with numerous lantern slides of portraits, 
views, etc. 



! 



86 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

The first of these renowned London Devonians to whom"* I 
wish to call attention, is Walter de Stapeldon, Bishop of Exeter, 
and Lord High Treasurer of England in the reign of Edward II, 
and the founder of Exeter College, Oxford, that " most fruitful 
seminary of virtue and learning " which has enabled Devon to 
take the same high rank in scholarship as she undoubtedly has 
in other professions. A learned preacher, though none of our 
country, was yet pleased to give this high character of it : "If 
there be any privileges of places among the learned, Devon is 
that place, which excels all others, in answering best the wishes 
of the university, in a happy production of most illustrious 
wits." Stapeldon was born at Annery, near Bideford, and he 
built " a very fair house without Temple-Bar," for the use of 
himself and his successors. Its site is now covered by Essex 
Street and Devereux Court, opposite St. Clement Danes Church, 
of which the Bishops of Exeter were patrons. Stow calls it 
" first amongst other buildings memorable for greatness on the 
river of Thames." When Queen Isabella landed from France 
to chase the Spensers from the side of her husband, the weak 
King fled from London, thinking to take refuge on Lundy Island, 
and Stapeldon was left in charge of the city. The populace 
rose in arms against him, and fell upon him as he was riding 
from Fleet Street towards a hostel which he also possessed in 
Old Dean's Yard (now Warwick Lane). Seeing the menacing 
attitude of the crowd, the Bishop fled for sanctuary to St. Paul's, 
but, before he could reach the north door, he was torn off his 
horse, dragged to Cheapside, and there beheaded. The mob 
then surged towards Fleet Street, and, after plundering Exeter 
Inn, burnt it to the ground. The Bishop's corpse was buried 
under a heap of rubbish hard by his own gateway, having been 
refused burial in St. Clement Danes Church, but it was after- 
wards removed to Exeter Cathedral, where his handsome tomb 
can still be seen, having " his figure, lying at length, very lively 
cut in stone." 

From this time until the Reformation there is little to record, 
but we then come across an interesting character in the person 
of John Cardmaker, alias Taylor, who was a native of Exeter 
and became Vicar of St. Bride's, Fleet Street, Lecturer at St. 
Paul's, and Prebendary and Chancellor of Wells, and ultimately 
suffered the death of a martyr at Smithfield. Cardmaker had 
been a friar, sworn to celibacy, but soon after the dissolution 
of the religious houses he came forward as one of the most active 
propagandists of the new scheme of things, and married a widow, 
by whom he had a daughter. When the tide of reaction came, 
he was put on trial for heresy and condemned to be burnt alive. 






Devonians in London 87 

At the place of execution, " his prayers being ended, he 'rose up, 
put off his garments to his shirt, went with bold courage to the 
stake, and kiss'd it sweetly ; and so gave himself up to be bound 
to the stake, most gladly. The people seeing this, cry'd out for 
joy, with a great shout, saying, God be praised : the Lord 
strengthen thee, Cardmaker, the Lord Jesus receive thy spirit." 

Another champion of the Protestant cause was the famous 
John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, and apologist of the Church of 
England. He was born at Berryn arbor, adjoining Combmartin, 
the birthplace of his adversary, Dr. Thomas Harding. His 
town house — Salisbury House — " had pre-eminence among the 
bishops' inns within the City liberties by reason of its extensive 
buildings, its large area of ground, and its water frontage. The 
site is now covered by St. Bride's Passage, Salisbury Square, 
and adjoining streets. Early in Elizabeth's reign it passed 
from the possession of Jewel to Sir Richard Sackville, father of 
the first Earl of Dorset." Jewel, like Stapeldon, did much 
to encourage education, and he built a library for Salisbury 
Cathedral. 

' One of his proteges was Richard Hooker, a native of Exeter, 
author of that masterpiece of English prose, " The Laws of 
Ecclesiastical Polity." For six years he was Master of the 
Temple, but was much harassed by the doctrines of the Reader 
— one Travers — insomuch that " the pulpit spake pure Canter- 
bury in the morning and Geneva in the afternoon." He was a 
very simple little man, with none of the graces of oratory, so that 
Fuller said of him : " Such was the depth of his learning, that 
his pen was a better bucket than his tongue to draw it out." He 
pleaded to be relieved of the tumult of that place, for he was a 
peaceful man, and , God and nature did not intend him for 
contentions, but for study and quietness. 

Worthy successors of Bishop Stapeldon in the cause of educa- 
tion were Peter Blundell of Tiverton, the founder of Blundell's 
School, and Sir Thomas Bodley of Exeter, the founder of the 
Bodleian Library. Blundell was a very poor lad who went 
errands for the carriers and looked after their horses, and, by 
perseverance and thrift, saved sufficient money to buy a kersey ; 
this one of the carriers took to London for him, gratis, and made 
him " the advantage of the return." He at length got kerseys 
enough to load a horse, and went up to London with it himself, 
and his trade developed so much that " he came at last to a vast 
and large estate," so that he was able not only to found the 
famous school in his native place but also to give substantial 
donations to Christ's, Bartholomew's, and St. Thomas's Hospitals 
in London. He lived in the parish of St. Michael Royal, or 



88 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

St. Michael Paternoster, and was buried in that church in College 
Hill, near Cannon Street Station. 

Sir Thomas Bodley spent a large part of his life abroad on 
diplomatic business, but on his retirement he decided, as he 
says, to set up his staff at the library-door in Oxon, " being 
thoroughly persuaded I could not busy myself to better purpose 
than by reducing that place (which then in every part lay 
ruinated and waste) to the public use of students." He, however, 
lived in London, in the parish of St. Bartholomew the Less, and 
died there in 1612, though he was buried at Merton College, 
Oxford, where there is a handsome monument to his memory 
by a fellow Devonian, Nicholas Stone. 

These last three — Hooker, Blundell, and Bodley — may be 
regarded as typical " men of peace " among the Devonians in 
London in the glorious days of Queen Bess, but the next group 
may be regarded as typical " men of war," or, at anv rate, " men 
of action." Drake, Ralegh, Gilbert, and Hawkins all had houses 
in London, but the unfortunate Ralegh is the only one who was 
closely identified with life at the Court, although Queen Elizabeth 
is reported to have said that the " Devonians were all born 
courtiers, with a becoming confidence." Drake had a fine house, 
called the Erber, in Dowgate, the site of which is now covered by 
Cannon Street Station, including the Committee Room of the 
London Devonian Association ; Gilbert's house was in Red 
Cross Street in the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate ; and Hawkins 
apparently lived in Mincing Lane. 

Both Drake and Ralegh were members of the Inner Temple, 
and Ralegh is connected with many localities — Mile End, 
Islington, and elsewhere — but the best known of his residences 
is Durham House in the Strand, which had belonged to the see 
of Durham but was bestowed on Ralegh by the Queen. The 
site is now occupied by Adelphi Terrace and the buildings between 
that and the Strand. Aubrey says, " I well remember his study, 
which was a little turret that looked into and over the Thames, 
and had the prospect which is as pleasant perhaps as any in the 
world." On the death of Elizabeth, he had to restore the house 
to the Bishopric of Durham, and soon afterwards he was 
committed, on a charge of high treason, to the Tower, where, 
with but a short interval for his abortive voyage to Guiana, he 
spent the remainder of his life. 

He had previously been imprisoned in the Tower for a short 
period by Queen Elizabeth, and was then placed in the upper 
floor of the Brick Tower, in the easy custody of a fellow Devonian, 
George Carew, afterwards President of Munster and Earl of 
Totnes, but then Lieutenant-General of the Ordinance. He 



Devonians in London 89 

now had apartments in the upper storey of the Bloody Tower, 
where his wife and son, with their personal attendants, also 
lived. Here he wrote his " History of the World," and here he 
received visits from the distinguished men of the day, including 
Prince Henry, who said, " No man but my father would keep 
such a bird in a cage." He was allowed to use an outhouse in 
the garden at the rear as a still-room and laboratory, and the 
passage leading to the terrace is still known as " Ralegh's Walk." 
On his return from his unfortunate voyage to Guiana, he was 
at first quartered in the Lieutenant's own house, but he was 
removed first to the Wardrobe Tower, and then to a little upper 
room in the Brick Tower, from which, wrote his keeper, " though 
it seemeth nearer Heaven, yet there is no means of escape but 
into Hell." The night before his execution he was confined 
in the Gate-house of the old monastery of St. Peter, Westminster, 
a small two-storey'd building standing at the western entrance 
to Tothill Street, and on the morrow he suffered death in 
Old Palace Yard, in front of the Parliament-house. As he 
laid his head on the block, somebody objected to the position, 
and he answered, '* What matter how the head lie, so the heart 
be right ? " The head Lady Ralegh caused to be embalmed, 
and she kept it with her in a red leather bag as long as she lived, 
but his body was buried in St. Margaret's Church, where in 1845 
a brass plate was put up to his memory, and in 1882 a window 
at the west end was presented by American citizens. 

Our county, as Fuller quaintly expresses it, " seems innated 
with a genius to study law," and I could easily devote the whole 
space at my disposal to a consideration of her famous judges 
and lawyers, but I am relieved from this task by the publication 
in the Devonian Year Book for 1913 of the excellent review of 
them given by Lord St. Cyres in his presidential address to the 
Devonshire Association. I will content myself with a few 
supplementary comments. 

To the little group of North Devon men mentioned by him — 
Bracton, Littleton, and Fortescue — I would add Sir John 
Dodderidge of Barnstaple, who, according to Westcote, " held 
the scales of justice with so steady a hand, that neither love nor 
lucre, fear nor flattery, could make it shake or yield the weight 
of a grain." He was known as " the sleepy judge," because he 
would sit on the bench with his eyes shut — a characteristic of 
another famous Devonian judge of more recent times. His 
monument in Exeter Cathedral bears this epitaph : — 
" Learning adieu, for Dodderidge is gone 
To fix his earthly to an heavenly throne. 
Rich urn of learned dust ! scarce can be found 
.More worth inshrin'd, within six foot of ground." 



go The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

There was also another Elizabethan judge, Sir William Peryam 
of Exeter, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, distinguished for 
his zeal, integrity, and learning, and especially for his support 
of the reformed religion against all adversaries, "whether they 
came from Rome or Geneva." Another Exeter man, Richard 
Martin, was Recorder of London, and celebrated as a wit ; he 
was buried in the Temple Church, where there is an elaborate 
monument to his memory. 

The younger Sir John Glanville of Tavistock was one of " the 
biggest stars of the law," and was Speaker of the Short Parliament 
of 1640. " His elder brother, Francis, a profligate and a spend- 
thrift, had been cut off with the proverbial shilling by his father, 
and when the will was read it had such an effect upon the son's 
mind that he retired from society and became a changed man. 
One day Sir John, seeing the alteration in his brother's mode of 
life, invited him to dine at his house, and placing a dish before 
him, requested him to take oft the cover and help himself to the 
contents. To the surprise of all present, it was found to contain 
the title deeds of the family estate of Kilworthy, with a formal 
conveyance from the Speaker to his elder brother." 

Two other judges of Stuart times, both of them Chief Justices 
of the Common Pleas, were Sir Henry Pollexfen of Sherford, 
" an honest and learned, but perplexed lawyer," who had defended 
the Seven Bishops ; and Sir George Treby of Plympton, whose 

" Steady temper, condescending mind, 
Indulgent to distress, to merit kind, 
Knowledge sublime, sharp judgment, piety, 
From pride, from censure, from moroseness free " — ■ 

with other excellent qualities, were lauded to the skies by the poet 
laureate, Tate, joint author of Tate and Brady's Psalms in metre. 
Both Pollexfen and Treby died in London, the former in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields and the latter at Kensington Gravel-pits, now Notting 
Hill. Pollexfen was buried at Woodbury in Devon, but Treby, 
like so many other Devonians, was buried in the Temple Church. 
A few years junior to Lord Chancellor King was William 
Fortescue, Master of the Rolls, and a friend of Pope and Gay. 
He was born at Buckland Filleigh, and his friendship with Gay 
began when they were boys together at the Barnstaple Grammar 
School. In Trivia, which contains a graphic description of 
London as it was two hundred years ago, Gay asks him to 
accompany him in his walk — 

" Come, Fortescue, sincere, experienc'd friend, 
Thy briefs, thy deeds, and ev'n thy fees suspend ; 
Come, let us leave the Temple's silent walls. 
Me business to my distant lodging calls ; 
Through the long Strand together let us stray ; 
With thee conversing, I forget the way." 



Devonians in London 91 

He was buried in the Rolls Chapel in Chancery Lane. 

Of the others mentioned by Lord St. Cyres, I need only say 
that Sir Vicary Gibbs lived in Bolton House, Russell Square, 
and that Sir William Follett was buried in the Temple Church 
and has a statue to his memory in Westminster Abbey. Sir John 
Taylor Coleridge lived at the date of his marriage, in 1818, at 
7, Hadlow Street, now covered by the British Museum, and it 
was here that the future Lord Chief Justice was born. After 
moving successively to 65, Torrington Square and 4, Montague 
Place, the elder Coleridges were joined in 1846 at 26, Park 
Crescent by their son and daughter-in-law, and the two families 
occupied the same house until 1858, when the father retired to 
Ottery and the son moved first to 6, Southwick Crescent, Hyde 
Park, and afterwards to 1, Sussex Square. 

When we turn to artists we are met with a still greater embarras 
de richesse — so much so that we might be inclined to dispute 
Fuller's dictum, and say that our county seems innated with a 
genius to study art rather than law, though perhaps we might 
with still more justification accept Prince's verdict, that " such 
is the genius of Devon, it seems equally propense and inclinable 
unto all." It is no doubt due to the loveliness of her scenery 
and the charms of her daughters that out of Devon have come 
both the greatest landscape-painter and the greatest portrait- 
painter that England has ever produced. The list of Devonian 
artists is indeed remarkable. " Just look at 'em," Miss Willcocks 
makes one of her characters say in her powerful novel, " A Man 
of Genius," " the great Sir Joshua from Plympton, as great in 
portraiture as Turner in landscape ; Sam Prout, who dreamt 
dreams and saw visions in stone, and who loved the very timbers 
and tiles he drew ; Calvert, the earth lover and dreamer of the 
golden age, from Appledore ; Thomas Hudson, Sir Joshua's 
master ; old Nicholas Hilliard, limner to Elizabeth and James, 
of whom Dr. Donne says : — 

" ' A hand or eye 
By Hilliard drawn, is worth a history 
By a worse painter made ' — 

Cousins, the prince of engravers, from Exeter ; Richard Cosway, 
master of miniature, from Tiverton ; Haydon, Eastlake, and 
Northcote, dreamers of history, from Plymouth ; James Gandy, 
whom Sir Joshua found not inferior to the Venetians in colouring, 
and William his son, not far below him, whose names are men- 
tioned in Gandy Street, Exeter. But the greatest of them all 
called himself a Devon man, for didn't Turner say to Cyrus 



92 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



Redding, ' They may put me down among the Devon artists, 
for I was born in Devon ' ? " 

The first of these, Nicholas Hilliard, the son of an Exeter 
goldsmith, died in St. Martin-in-the-Fields and was buried in 
the parish church. Contemporary with him was John Shute 
of Cullompton, the first English writer on architecture, who was 
buried in the old church on the site of St. Edmund's, Lombard 
Street ; and a generation later was Nicholas Stone of Woodbury, 
who built the Banqueting House at Whitehall, and designed 
and executed many fine tombs in Westminster Abbey and else- 
where, including the tomb of Thomas Sutton at Charterhouse 
and the strange figure of Dr. Donne in St. Paul's, represented 
in his winding-sheet. He also was buried in the church of 
St. Martin-in-the-Fields. 

The elder Gandy was a pupil of Vandyck, and he and his son 
may be regarded as the first great English painters, but they had 
little or no connection with London. The honour of being the 
first London Devonian artist of repute must be given to Thomas 
Hudson, who was born in Devon in 1701, probably at Bideford. 
He lived in Great Queen Street, and was the master not only of 
Sir Joshua himself, but also for a short time of Richard Cosway. 
Contemporary with him was Francis Hayman of Exeter, a scene 
painter at Drury Lane and Vauxhall Gardens, and one of the 
first members of the Royal Academy, who died at 43, Dean 
Street, Soho, and was buried in the parish church. 

Sir Joshua was born at Plympton in 1723, and when he first 
came to London as a young man he lived at 104, St. Martin's 
Lane, after which he removed to Great Newport Street, where 
he resided for eight or nine .years, but for the last thirty-two 
years of his life he lived at 47, Leicester Square, which is now 
occupied by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, auctioneers. Here 
duchesses and marchionesses, ladies and fair daughters of the 
aristocracy sat to the monarch of the world of art, to be im- 
mortalized by his brush, and here Burke and Foote, Goldsmith 
and Johnson, Garrick and Boswell, and most of the celebrated 
men of the time were in the habit of assembling, and of dining 
almost every week at the hospitable board of the great portrait- 
painter, the first and greatest President of the Royal Academy. 
The first exhibitions of the Academy were held at Somerset 
House, and it was here that Sir Joshua's body rested in state 
in 1792, before its removal to St. Paul's, where it was buried in 
the crypt. 

" Here Reynolds is laid, and to tell you my mind, 
He has not left a wiser or better behind ; 
His pencil was striking, resistless, and grand ; 
His manners were gentle, complying, and bland." 



Devonians in London 93 

Around him are buried his disciples and followers, but the 
most remarkable grave is that of Turner, whose dying request 
was that he might be buried as near as possible to Sir Joshua. 
Turner, as we have seen, claimed to be a Devonian, born at 
Barnstaple, but his biographers maintain that he was born in 
Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, where his father, a native of 
South Molton, was in business as a barber. His house was 
48, Queen Anne Street, but he died obscurely and under a 
feigned name in a lodging (119, Cheyne Walk) overlooking the 
river at Chelsea. His paintings and drawings he bequeathed 
to the nation. 

Another great benefactor to the National Gallery was the 
Rev. William Holwell Carr, of Exeter, who in 1826 bequeathed 
to the nation the whole of his collection, about thirty in number, 
and all of a high class. 

Following Reynolds we have his pupil and biographer, James 
Northcote, the son of a watchmaker at Plymouth, Richard 
Cosway, the miniaturist, from Tiverton, and Ozias Humphrey, 
another miniaturist, from Honiton. Each is associated with 
several different houses in London. Northcote first served a 
five years' apprenticeship with Sir Joshua, and, after living in 
lodgings in Old Bond Street and a house in Clifford Street, he 
established himself at 39, Argyll Street, whence he afterwards 
removed to 8, Argyll Place. He was noted as a brilliant talker, 
in spite of his strong Devonshire accent, and many of his conver- 
sations have been recorded by Hazlitt. He was extremely 
penurious, and allowed his house to remain in a shockingly 
dirty and untidy condition, like Turner. His fellow-townsman, 
Haydon, thus describes his first visit to him : "I w r as shown 
first into a dirty gallery, then upstairs into a dirtier painting- 
room, and there, under a high window with the light shining 
full on his bald, grey head, stood a diminutive, wizened figure 
in an old blue striped dressing-gown, his spectacles pushed up 
on his forehead. Looking keenly at me with his little shining 
eyes, he opened the letter, read it, and in the broadest Devon 
dialect said, ' Zo, you mayne tu bee a peinter, doo 'ee ? What 
zort of peinter ? ' ' Historical painter, sir ! ' ' Heestoricaul 
peinter ! Why, ye'll starve with a bundle of straw under yeer 
head.' " Northcote died in his eighth-fifth year, and he left 
£1000 to be paid to Chantrey for a monument to himself, which 
stands in the Church of St. Marylebone. The altar-piece of 
Chelsea Old Church is Northcote's " Entombment of Christ." 

A great contrast to Northcote was Cosway, who was somewhat 
of a dandy and had his house magnificently furnished. He 
practised his art with immense success, and fashionable people 



94 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

were in the habit of making his studio a morning lounge. He 
resided successively in Orchard Street, Portman Square, at 
4, Berkeley Street, Berkeley Square, in Schomberg House, Pall 
Mall (afterwards occupied by the War Office), and in Stratford 
Place, Oxford Street. Here his first house was the one facing 
Oxford Street at the left-hand side, outside which was, and is, 
the figure of a lion. This provoked Peter Pindar, the Devonian 
satirist, to write : — 

" When a man to a fair brings a lion, 
'Tis usual a monkey the sign-pole to tie on ! 
But here the old custom reversed is seen. 
For the lion 's without and the monkey 's within." 

Cosway was so much annoyed that he left this house for 
another two doors farther up the street, and here he lived for 
thirty years. He died, however, at 31, Edgware Road, and 
according to his wish he also was buried in Marylebone Church, 
where a monument by Westmacott was erected by his widow. 

Humphrey, too, " stands in the front rank of English minia- 
turists, and his works have always been admired for their 
simplicity and refinement, correct draughtsmanship, and 
harmonious colouring." Peter Pindar, who was an excellent 
art critic, wrote to him : — 

" Let rapt Italia boast a Guido's name : 
Correggio's, Titian's art with wonder see — 
To Britain, Fortune grants a loftier Fame, 
And blends the Excellence of all in Thee." 



He resided in King Street, Covent Garden, in Rathbone Place, 
in St. James's Street, and in Thornhaugh Street, and he was 
buried in the ground behind St. James's Chapel in the Hampstead 
Road. 

The next generation produced a small group of Plymouth 
painters — Samuel Prout, the great architectural draughtsman 
and water-colour painter, Benjamin Haydon the unfortunate 
historical painter already mentioned, and Sir Charles Eastlake, 
President of the Royal Academy. Prout was first brought to 
London by Britton, the author of " Beauties of England and 
Wales," and, except when he was travelling on the continent, 
he lived for the rest of his life at various addresses in Camberwell 
and Brixton. His last house was 5, De Crespigny Terrace, 
Denmark Hill, where he was a neighbour and friend of John 
Ruskin. " All the subjects of his pictures point upwards, the 
lovely street scenes terminating in the tall tower or the divine 



Devonians in London 95 

spire. The doves hover about the highest ridges of his roofs 
and the loftiest pinnacles of his towers. He had the most 
implicit faith in the final article of the Nicene Creed — ' I believe 
in the life of the world to come,' — and his own pictures are the 
faint but beautiful symbols of that celestial city which he saw 
as through a glass, darkly." 

Haydon was a man with high ideals and great enthusiasm, 
and he set himself the difficult task of founding a British school 
of historical painting. He was endowed with great conceit, but 
his works failed to reach the standard at which he aimed, and 
his life was a series of bitter disappointments. He insisted on 
painting such large pictures that no ordinary house would hold 
them and no ordinary person could buy them. From time to 
time he exhibited them at the Egyptian Hall, but on the last 
occasion he suffered the mortification of witnessing the people 
rushing in crowds to see the dwarf, " Tom Thumb," under the 
same roof, while his own exhibition was deserted. This slight, 
added to the pressure of debt, was more than poor Haydon could 
stand, and in consequence he took his life in his own studio in 
Burwood Place, in front of one of his historical pictures. He 
was buried in Paddington Burial Ground, near the grave of Mrs. 
Siddons, and his epitaph pathetically records that " he devoted 
42 years to the improvement of the taste of the English people 
in high art, and died broken-hearted from pecuniary distress." 
It must certainly be placed to his credit that he was the first 
to direct the attention of the public to the superlative merit of 
the Elgin marbles. 

In complete contrast to Haydon was Sir Charles Eastlake, 
who was first installed in Haydon's old lodgings at 3, Broad 
Street, Carnaby Market, but lived from his marriage until his 
death at 7, Fitzroy Square. " Elegance of composition, breadth 
and sweetness of colour, and refinement of expression are the 
chief characteristics of his pictures. His life was one of singular 
purity, loftiness of aim, and unremitting industry, entailing 
deservedly a high reputation as a painter, a writer, and a public 
servant." 

Born a few years later than Eastlake was that strange genius, 
Edward Calvert, who lived at 17, Russell Street, North Brixton, 
and at 14, Park Place, Paddington, died at Hackney, and was 
buried in Abney Park Cemetery. He was greatly influenced 
by Blake, and many woodcuts and plates of singular beauty 
were privately painted by himself. 

Contemporary with him was the greatest of all mezzotint 
engravers, Samuel Cousins, who, after a few years' partnership 
with S. W. Reynolds, set up for himself at 104, Great Russell 



96 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

Street. He died in 1887 at his house, 24, Camden Square. 

I have next to call attention to three remarkable females — 
" the amazing duchess," Elizabeth Chudleigh ; the religious 
fanatic, Joanna Southcott ; and the beautiful actress, Maria 
Foote. Elizabeth Chudleigh was the daughter of Colonel 
Chudleigh, Governor of Chelsea Hospital, but she was probably 
born in Devon. When maid of honour to the Princess of Wales 
she was privately married to the Hon. Augustus John Hervey,. 
a lieutenant in the navy, afterwards Earl of Bristol. Her 
husband left her immediately after the ceremony, and she 
became the mistress of the Duke of Kingston, when her parties 
were recognized as the best arranged and most fashionable in 
London. Unwilling to submit to a divorce, she instituted a suit 
of jactitation against her husband in the ecclesiastical court, 
and was declared to be a spinster. She was then married to the 
Duke by special licence, and resided with him in a new house she 
had built in Paradise Row, Knightsbridge, which was named 
Kingston House. After the Duke's death she was charged with 
bigamy, and tried before her peers in Westminster Hall, which 
was thronged on the occasion as if for a coronation. She was 
defended by a famous Devonian lawyer, John Dunning of 
Ashburton, but she was declared guilty and practically told not 
to do it again. By claiming the privilege of her rank, she 
escaped being burnt on the hand, but she thought it prudent to 
leave England, and the rest of her life was spent in various parts 
of the continent. 

Joanna Southcott was a woman of a different type. She was 
born at Ottery St. Mary, and lived for some years at Exeter and 
elsewhere as a domestic servant before she came to London. 
At the age of forty-two she assumed the role of prophetess, and 
began to write a series of illiterate communications, which were 
at first sealed up year by year and placed in a box in the custody 
of one of her friends. Later they were published in 65 " books " 
or pamphlets. She also commenced " sealing " the people, 
giving a sealed certificate to those who professed a belief in her 
doctrines, and in 1807 the number of the sealed was alleged to 
be " near 14,000." She lived first at High House, Paddington, 
and later at 38, Manchester Street, whence she proclaimed, in 
the 65th year of her age, that she was about to give birth to the 
promised Shiloh. Several medical men admitted her pregnancy, 
and some of her followers made her costly presents, among which 
were a Bible, which cost £40, a superb cot, £200, and a silver 
caudle cup with her portrait engraved upon it. But the promised 
birth did not take place. Joanna died on Dec. 27th, 1814, and 
was buried in the ground of St. John's Wood Chapel, where is a 



Devonians in London 97 

monument to her memory bearing the following inscription : — 

" While through all thy wondrous days, 
Heaven and earth enraptured gazed ; 
While vain sages think they know 
Secrets thou alone canst show ; 
Time alone will tell the hour 
Thou'lt appear to greater power." 

It is said that in her lifetime she had more followers than John 
Wesley had in his, and there are still a number of believers in 
her divine mission. 

The third of this little group is Maria Foote, the lovely actress 
who became Countess of Harrington. She was the daughter of 
the proprietor and manager of the Plymouth Theatre, who after- 
wards took a small inn in Exeter and became bankrupt. She 
was perhaps never a great actress, but she always dressed taste- 
fully, looked charming, and was a universal favourite. She 
promised marriage to a young man of fortune who, from the 
colour of his coat, was commonly known as " Pea-green " 
Hayne, but, though all preparations were made for the wedding, 
the bridegroom did not turn up. Maria brought an action for 
breach of promise, demanding £20,000 damages, and was actually 
accorded £3000. At her benefit at Covent Garden Theatre the 
house was crowded almost to suffocation, and the receipts 
amounted to £900. A few years later she was married to the 
eccentric Charles Stanhope, Earl of Harrington, and quitted the 
stage for ever. 

Passing now to the men of action and of politics in Stuart 
times, the first on my list is George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, 
the leading figure in the Restoration of Charles II. He was born 
at Landcross, or at Potheridge, North Devon, and is connected 
with many places in London. He married at St. George's, 
Southwark, the notorious Ann Clarges, the daughter of a farrier 
in the Strand, who, to commemorate the event, erected a may- 
pole near his forge at the north end of St. Mary-le-Strand Church. 
At his death he was given a public funeral, and his body lay in 
state for three months at Somerset House before it was conveyed 
to Westminster Abbey for interment. His waxwork effigy, 
still preserved in the Abbey, was laid upon the coffin. The 
duchess died within a few days of her husband, and was buried 
by his side in the north aisle of Henry VII's Chapel. In the 
south aisle is an elaborate momument to Monk and his son 
Christopher, and the latter's widow. In St. Edmund's Chapel 
is the tomb of Monk's " most beloved brother," Nicholas, provost 
of Eton and bishop of Hereford. The waxwork effigies were 
formerly much visited, and after the show it was customary* to 

7 



98 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

pass round the " cap of General Monk" for contributions. There 
is a reference to this in the " Ingoldsby Legends " : — 
" I thought on Naseby, Marston Moor, and Worcester's ' crowning fight,' 
When on mine ear a sound there fell — it chilled me with affright, 
As thus in low, unearthly tones, I heard a voice begin — 
' This here's the cap of Giniral Monk ! Sir, please put summut in.' " 

It is Christopher, the second Duke, who has left his name on 
the map of London in Albemarle Street ; he had purchased 
Clarendon House from the great Lord Clarendon, but, not being 
able to retain it, sold it again to Sir Thomas Bond, who pulled 
it down and built Albemarle Street and Bond Street on its site. 

Associated with Monk in the Restoration was his kinsman, 
Sir William Morice, a native of Exeter, who became Secretary 
of State. He acquired a fine library, and, strange to say, wrote 
books on the Lord's Supper. Prince tells us that, " although he 
kept a domestick chaplain in his family, yet (when present) 
he was always his own chaplain at his table, notwithstanding 
several divines were there : What his particular motive was 
thereunto, whether that he thought himself fittest to be priest 
and prophet, as well as king in his own house ; or else upon some 
other inducement, I am not able to determine." 

He was closely followed by Thomas Clifford, first Baron 
Clifford of Chudleigh, the " C" of the famous " Cabal," and 
ultimately Lord High Treasurer. Pepys speaks of him as " a 
very fine gentleman, and much set by at court for his activity 
in going to sea (against the Dutch), and stoutness everywhere, 
and stirring up and down." 

Twenty years after the birth of Clifford there was born at 
Ashe in Musbury, near Axminster, the still more famous John 
Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, the greatest soldier that England 
has ever produced, as Drake was her greatest sailor. He was 
educated at St. Paul's School, and, as the handsome Colonel 
Churchill, lived for some years in Jermyn Street, but his sub- 
sequent life forms part of the nation's history. 

We must now turn to the men of letters, and in this depart- 
ment I am bound to admit that Devon cannot show so many 
brilliant names as in the previous categories. After Hooker there 
is a great gap until we come to Tom D'Urfey of Exeter, the author 
of " Pills to Purge Melancholy," which were eagerly swallowed by 
Charles II and his court, but are now unknown. He was buried 
in St. James's Church, Piccadilly, on the outside of the tower of 
which, towards Jermyn Street, is a tablet to his memory, erected 
by Steele, who also wrote an epitaph containing these lines : — 
" His tale was pleasant and his song was sweet, 
His heart was cheerful — but his thirst was great." 



Devonians in London 99 



Following D'Urfey we have a poet laureate, Nicholas Rowe, 
who, though not born in Devon, was the son of John Rowe of 
Lamerton, serjeant-at-law. He was buried in the Poets' Corner, 
Westminster Abbey, where an elaborate monument also com- 
memorates his only daughter, and has an epitaph by Pope, 
alluding to the widow in these lines : — 

" To thee so mourn'd in death, so loved in life. 
The childless parent and the widow'd wife, 
With tears inscribes this monumental stone, 
That holds thine ashes, and expects her own." 

But, to the poet's great annoyance, after the stone was put up, 
the widow married again. 

By the side of this is a monument to John Gay of Barnstaple, 
whose life and work were fully dealt with by Mr. W. H. K. Wright 
in the Devonian Year Book for 1913. This also has an epitaph 
by Pope, commencing : — 



" Of manners gentle, of affections mild, 
In wit a man, simplicity a child," 

and Gay's own strange couplet — 

" Life is a jest and all things show it ; 
I thought so once, and now I know it." 

He started life in London as a silk-mercer's apprentice in the 
Strand ; he was an inmate of the house of the Duchess of 
Monmouth ; he had lodgings at one time in Whitehall ; he lived 
for a time in retirement at Hampstead ; and he finally became a 
member of the family of the Duke of Queensberry in Queensberry 
House, which stood on the north side of Burlington Gardens. He 
died here in 1732, and his body was first taken to Exeter Change 
(on the site of the Lyceum Theatre) and thence to the Abbey. 
" Nursed in Queensberry 's ducal halls, he was lapped in cotton, 
and had his plate of chicken, and his saucer of cream, and frisked, 
and barked, and wheezed, and grew fat, and so ended." 

A third name in this little group is Eustace Budgell of Exeter, 
a cousin of Addison and a contributor to the Spectator. He 
resided at various times in Arundell Street, Strand, and in Cold- 
bath Square. He eventually ruined himself by the South Sea 
Bubble and litigation, and he was suspected of having obtained 
by fraud a legacy of £2000 from Matthew Tindal, the deist, 
a fellow Devonian. The will was set aside, and the disgrace 
seems to have turned Budgell's brain. He took a boat one 
May-day at Somerset Stairs, having first filled his pockets with 
stones, and, while the boat was shooting London Bridge, he 
jumped out and was drowned. 



ioo The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Later in the century we have another well-known political 
writer, Dr. John Shebbeare, a native of Bideford. In 1758 he 
was fined, imprisoned, and pilloried at Charing Cross for political 
libel. Owing to his friendship with the under-sheriff, he was 
allowed to stand upright between the upper and lower boards 
of the pillory, while a chairman held an umbrella over his head, 
and at the end of an hour he retired amidst the cheers of the 
crowd. At the beginning of George Ill's reign he was pensioned 
at the same time as Dr. Johnson, which occasioned the pun that 
the King had " bestowed his favours on a he-bear and a she- 
bear," but Shebbeare remained 

" The same abusive, base, abandoned thing, 
When pilloried or pensioned by a king." 

He died in Eaton Street, Pimlico. 

An author of a similar type was the eccentric and venomous 
satirist, JohnWolcot, better known as "Peter Pindar," a native 
of Dodbrooke. He was a writer of wonderfully vigorous and 
humorous verse, some of which is still remembered, and he was 
a good art critic, but " the fluency of his pen was equalled by its 
grossness and obscene vulgarity." Much of his satire was 
lavished on the King, and, when asked by a lady whether he was 
not a most " disloyal subject," he replied, " I have not thought 
about that, madam, but I know the King has been a good 
' subject ' for me." Peter frequently changed his place of 
residence, living at various times in Southampton Row, in 
Tavistock Row, in Chapel Street, Portland Place, in Delaney 
Place, Camden Town, in Tottenham Court Road, and finally at 
Montgomery Cottage, Somers Town, the site of which is now 
occupied by Euston Square. When he was dying, he expressed 
a wish " to lie as near as possible to old Hudibras Butler," and 
his wish was gratified, for he was buried near him in St. Paul's, 
Co vent Garden. 

Another satirist, but a man of a very different character, was 
William Gifford, the son of a glazier at Ashburton. He was 
apprenticed to a shoemaker, but was eventually sent to Oxford 
by the generosity of the local doctor, named Cookesley. He 
became editor of the Anti- Jacobin, and in this he attacked 
"Peter Pindar" in a virulent " Epistle," commencing with these 
lines : — 

." Lo, here the reptile ! who from some dark cell. 
Where all his veins in the native poison swell, 
Crawls forth a slimy toad, and spits and spews 
The crude abortions of his loathsome muse 
On all that genius, all that worth holds dear — 
Unsullied rank, and piety sincere." 



Devonians in London 101 

This roused Wolcot to fury, and he sought out and found the 
rival satirist in the publisher's shop, 169, Piccadilly, but in the 
fray he received still further castigation from Gifford, who 
" remained in triumphant possession of the field of action, and 
of the assailant's cane." But he could also write verse of a 
different style, for example : — 

" I wish I was where Anna lies, 

For 1 am sick of lingering here. 
And every hour affliction cries, 

' Go, and partake her humble bier.' 
I wish I could ! For when she died 
I lost my all ; and life has proved, 
Since that sad hour, a dreary void, 
A waste, unloving and unloved." 

He became the first editor of the Quarterly Review, in which 
he was succeeded for a short time by Sir John Taylor Coleridge. 
For the first fifteen years of its existence, Gifford lived in James 
Street, Westminster, and here he died in 1826. He was buried 
in the south transept of Westminster Abbey, and by his side 
was afterwards buried his friend and schoolfellow, Dean Ireland, 
the son of an Ashburton butcher and the founder of the Ireland 
classical scholarships at Oxford. When the Houses of Parliament 
were burnt down in 1834, the records under his charge were in 
danger of being involved in the conflagration, but he firmly 
refused to have anything moved without permission from the 
First Lord of the Treasury ! 

We now come to the greatest name in our list of Devonian 
men of letters — Samuel Taylor Coleridge of Ottery St. Mary — 
" greatest," not because of what he actually accomplished, 
though " The Ancient Mariner " will hold its place as long as 
English literature lasts, but " greatest " because of his intellect- 
ual power and his influence on men of his time. He was in the 
first rank not only as a poet, but also as a critic and as a philoso- 
pher. His life was much connected with London. Educated 
at Christ's Hospital, where he had Charles Lamb as a fellow 
pupil, " the inspired charity boy " afterwards used to meet his 
old friends at the " Cat and Salutation," in Newgate Street. 
After living in various parts of London — in King Street, Covent 
Garden, in Bridge Street, Westminster, and in Norfolk Street, 
Strand — he went to live in the house of his friend and biographer, 
John Gillman, at The Grove, Highgate, where he remained until 
his death. De Quincey described his as " the largest and most 
spacious intellect, the subtlest and most comprehensive that had 
existed among men," but, unfortunately, like de Quincey him- 
self, he degenerated into an opium-eater and a mere purposeless 
theorizer. A story told of him by Gillman illustrates his power 



102 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

of concentration or his absentmindedness : Going down the 
Strand in one of his day-dreams, thrusting out his hands before 
him as in the act of swimming, his hand came in contact with a 
gentleman's pocket, and, on being accused of attempted theft, 
he explained that he thought he was swimming the Hellespont ! 
He was buried in the yard of the old chapel in Highgate, and his 
tomb is now to be seen in the crypt of the chapel of the new 
Grammar School erected on its site. In the new church of St. 
Michaelis a tablet with an elaborate inscription, erected by Gillman. 

Contemporary with Coleridge, though much younger, were 
four other literary Devonians in London of very different types, 
namely : (1) The distinguished linguist and traveller, Sir John 
Bowring of Exeter, who was for some years editor of the West- 
minster Review ; (2) The inspired poet, John Keats, the son of 
a livery-stableman of the Swan and Hoop, 28, Finsbury Pave- 
ment, who was said to be a native of Plymouth, though the exact 
place of his origin has not been ascertained ; (3) The famous 
writer of light society verse, W. M. Praed, who was born at 35, 
John Street, Bedford Row, though he belonged to a Teignmouth 
family ; and (4) The author of the Pictorial Bible, Dr. John 
Kitto, who was the son of a mason in Plymouth. Owing to a 
fall, Kitto became stone deaf at an early age. He was entirely 
self-educated, and, through his master's tyranny, he was twice 
driven into the workhouse. He was sent on a mission to Bagdad 
by the Church Missionary Society, and on his return he settled 
in Camden Town, and worked for the Society for the Diffusion 
of Useful Knowledge. 

Later in the century we have Charles Kingsley, who lived as 
a youth with his parents in Chelsea, and used to walk to and 
from King's College daily, and in later life became a Canon of 
Westminster ; and R. D. Blackmore, the author of " Lorna 
Doone," who lived for many years at Teddington, alternating 
novel-writing with market-gardening. 

Among the men of science, the first to be mentioned is Sir 
Simon Baskerville, " the rich," a native of Exeter, physician to 
James I and Charles I, who was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. 
He was a great friend to the clergy and the inferior loyal gentry, 
insomuch that " he never took a fee of an orthodox minister 
under a dean, nor of • any suffering cavalier in the cause of 
Charles I under a gentleman of an hundred a year, but with 
physick to their bodies generally gave relief to their necessities." 

Towards the end of the century we find two famous engineers, 
Thomas Savery, of Modbury, and Thomas Newcomen, of Dart- 
mouth, the inventors of the steam engine. The former died in 






Devonians in London 103 

St. Margaret's, Westminster, and the latter in St. Mary Magda- 
len's in the City, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 

The next generation introduces another inventor, Thomas 
Mudge, of Exeter, who improved marine chronometers and 
became the king's watchmaker. He succeeded the famous 
George Graham as watchmaker at 67, Fleet Street, and was 
buried in St. Dunstan's Church. 

Next we have a group of three doctors, namely, James Parsons, 
of Barnstaple, physician and antiquary, who lived and died in 
Red Lion Square ; Sir George Baker, of Modbury, King's physi- 
cian, who discovered the cause of Devonshire colic, and was 
buried in St. James's Church, Piccadilly ; and Sir Francis 
Milman, of East Ogwell, also King's physician, but perhaps 
better known as the father of Dean Milman, of St. Paul's, author 
of the " History of the Jews " and many other works. 

Contemporary with the elder Milman were James Rennell, of 
Chudleigh, a famous geographer, who was buried in Westminster 
Abbey ; and George Blagdon Westcott, one of Nelson's captains, 
who was killed in the battle of the Nile, and was accorded a 
public monument in St. Paul's, in which he is represented in a 
state of nudity, sinking into the arms of Victory and upsetting 
her by his fall. 

Contemporary with the younger Milman were Dean Buckland, 
of Axminster, perhaps more celebrated as the father of English 
palaeontology than as Dean of Westminster ; Charles Babbage, 
of Teignmouth, the inventor of a wonderful calculating-machine, 
who died at 1, Dorset Street, Manchester Square ; Thomas 
Wakley, of Membury, coroner for West Middlesex and founder 
of the Lancet, who lived at 35, Bedford Square, and was buried 
at Kensal Green ; and James Meadows Rendel, of Okehampton, 
a famous engineer, who died at 10, Kensington Palace Gardens. 

Early in the nineteenth century was born George Parker 
Bidder, another famous engineer, the son of a mason at Moreton- 
hampstead, who was exhibited when very young as a " calculat- 
ing phenomenon," and in later life constructed the Victoria Docks. 
Contemporary with him were George Bentham, the botanist, 
who was born at Stoke, Devonport, and worked at Kew Gardens ; 
W. B. Carpenter, of Exeter, a famous naturalist, who became 
professor of physiology and forensic medicine in London ; and 
George Budd, of North Tawton, one of a distinguished family of 
doctors, and professor of medicine in King's College. Of a later 
generation was W. K. Clifford, of Exeter, a brilliant mathe- 
matician and metaphysician, who was professor of applied 
mathematics at University College, and was buried in Highgate 
Cemetery. 



104 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

I have said nothing about two Devonian Lord Mayors, Sir 
Abraham Reynardson of Plymouth, and Sir Matthew Wood of 
Tiverton, though the latter is worthy of mention as the first 
recipient of a title from Queen Victoria after her accession ; 
but I cannot pass over Sir Francis Baring, of Larkbear, near 
Exeter, " the first merchant in Europe " and founder of the 
great financial house of Baring Brothers & Co. He was the 
ancestor of the Earls of Northbrook and Cromer, and of Barons 
Ashburton and Revelstoke. In connection with the business of 
banking, mention should be made of Thomas Rippon of Tiverton, 
chief cashier of the Bank of England, who " during over fifty 
years' service took but one holiday, which he abridged to three 
days." 

Another Devonian worthy who is difficult to classify is Samuel 
Phelps, of Devonport, the actor, who set himself to produce all 
Shakespeare's plays, and during his sixteen years' tenancy of 
Sadler's Wells Theatre actually did present thirty of them. 
These thirty occupied about 4000 nights, Hamlet alone running 
for 400. Truly a marvellous record ! 

I cannot conclude without naming one of the most distinguished 
of all Devon's sons, Frederick Temple, bishop successively of 
Exeter and London, and finally Archbishop of Canterbury. He 
was not the first Devonian to occupy that exalted position, for 
we can claim Baldwin the Crusader, who obtained the site for 
Lambeth Palace, and William Courtenay, both natives of Exeter, 
though it is not so certain that Stephen Langton, who is included 
in Prince's list, was also from the same city. But Temple will 
not suffer by comparison with any of his distinguished pre- 
decessors. " Great as was the work which he was able to 
accomplish owing to his unusual vigour of mind and body, the 
man was greater even than his work. He had a rugged force 
of character and a simplicity which distinguished him from his 
most able contemporaries. As a speaker he carried weight by 
his evident sincerity as well as by his vigorous language." 

In this hasty survey of the " Worthies of Devon," I have 
endeavoured, in the words of Prince, to " present to your view, 
as in a mirror, your glorious ancestors ; to be as well a pattern, 
as an encouragement, unto your growing virtue. Having so 
fair a copy of glory and immortality laid before you, and that 
by your own countrymen and progenitors too, should you tread 
short of their steps herein, your supine neglect would be without 
apology. Inscribe your names into the register of eternity ; 
and you thereby raise trophies to your memory, which shall 
out-cast the mausolaean monument." 



1 


Pi ' 


H 






r *S- ? .rill' 






Okehampton Castle 105 



Okehampton Castle. 

By Dr. EDWARD H. YOUNG. 

I. THE KEEP. 

Not the least amongst the attractions of Okehampton are the 
ruins of the old Norman castle to the west of the town. These 
ruins are considered to be the most extensive in the county, 
and are of further interest in that, except for the tender hand of 
time, the remains are those of the formidable castle which was 
dismantled by order of Henry VIII, unaltered and unrestored. 
To the present owner, Mr. Sydney Simmons, Oketonians in 
particular, and all lovers and students of history and architecture 
in general, owe a debt of gratitude for his recent explorations. 
" Out of the earth must the secrets of the earth be dug" — 

and already the spade has shown that the castle was more 
extensive than it was previously thought to be, and a better 
idea can now be obtained of what it was like in the days of its 
pride and strength. 

As regards the written history of the castle, very little appears 
to be known. Writers were few in the old days, and were more 
concerned in dealing with men than with " things." 

The first mention of Okehampton Castle is in the Domesday 
Book (1086), where a few words in Latin record that " Baldwin 
the sheriff holds of the king Ochementone, and there stands a 
castle." We know that Baldwin was a distant relation of 
William the Conqueror. From Baldwin the castle passed to 
his son, and then to his daughter, and by her to the Redvers 
family. Then it came into the possession of the Courtenays, 
the future Earls of Devon, in whose hands it remained until the 
time of Henry VIII, when the then Earl was charged with 
conspiracy, found guilty, executed on Tower Hill, and his castle 
dismantled in the year 1539. 

William of Worcester, who visited the castle in 1478, refers 
to it as " famous " ; but no other early references to it have 
been found. Even local tradition affords us little help. Old 
inhabitants used to talk of an underground passage, but its 
existence is unlikely ; and of course the castle boasted its 
ghost story,* but either Lady Howard has completed her penance, 
or school " learning " has so dimmed our eyes that we can no 
longer visualize her ladyship* 

* See page 72. 



106 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Scanty though the history of the castle may be, our know- 
ledge of the times during which it stood enables us to fill in 
many details without calling a too vivid imagination to our aid. 
In the first place, we know that it was built by foreign conquerors 
in the midst of a hostile though conquered people, and we can 
imagine that the Saxons of Okehampton looked with no friendly 
eyes on the builders of the castle — that castle which was intended 
to keep them in subjection. In place of the old tribal system 
under which the Anglo-Saxons lived, the Normans introduced 
the feudal system, by which the borough became an important 
source of income to the baron in the castle, being in many cases 
(probably in Okehampton) actually founded by him for the 
purpose. In exchange for his protection of the borough, the 
baron demanded a fixed rent, and he could compel the inhabi- 
tants to grind their corn at his mill, to bake their bread in his 
oven, and to pay tolls and rents for their markets. In later 
times the burgesses bargained for the privileges of the baron, 
and gradually obtained them. 

Under the regime of the Courtenays, additions were made to 
the castle, and, judging from the few historical facts known, 
their rule over the neighbourhood was probably beneficent. 
Almost to a man they were proved capable in the assemblies of 
the nation, they were brave soldiers and sailors, loyal to the 
throne, and instances of their kindness to the people are 
numerous. During the Wars of the Roses they espoused the 
Lancastrian cause, and three successive Earls perished on the 
battlefield, or on the scaffold, in defence of that cause. Even 
the last of the Courtenay owners of the castle stood high in the 
favour of King Henry VIII, and was named by that monarch 
" heir apparent " to the throne. Fortune turned her back on 
him, as it did on several of the friends of the many-wived King. 
On the outbreak of a rebellion in the North, the King ordered 
Courtenay to suppress it — which he did, taking with him " a 
jolly company of western men, well and completely appointed." 
It was thought that his power, in so quickly raising men, aroused 
the King's jealousy ; at any rate, a few indiscreet words caused 
Courtenay to be led to the block and his castle to be dismantled. 

However much we may lament the paucity of our information, 
we may be quite sure that Okehampton Castle had no mean 
history, for its owners were no mean men. It rose with the 
introduction of feudalism into England, and its keep was the 
outward and visible sign of that feudalism. It outlasted feudal- 
ism, for, when the castle fell, feudalism had long ceased to be a 
progressive force in the country — rts great work was done. In 
place of the old blood bond of the tribe, feudalism substituted 



Okehampton Castle 107 



the individual responsibility of the man to his lord, and the lord 
to his man. In an age when mutual distrust was the worst evil 
of society, it laid stress on individual loyalty and personal 
honour ; but it was liable to abuse, depending as it did on the 
character of the person in power. The castle ruins remain to 
tell us of a period of discipline and education through which the 
English people passed, when, in spite of much oppression and 
sometimes cruelty, seeds of many noble and useful things were 
sown, from which we have gained the enduring fruit. 

Something more of the history of the castle may be learnt 
from the revelations of comparative archaeology — that science 
which enables us to form some idea of the story of a building by 
comparing its workmanship and materials with buildings of 
known dates. In order to get a clear idea of the Norman castle 
in general, it is desirable to know a little of the fortresses in 
England before the Norman Conquest. Judging from the 
remains, the old British people were great workers in earthen 
fortifications, with the following characteristics :— 

1. Their fortresses were almost always erected on high land ; 
either a promontory was taken with natural defences on two 
sides, and on the third side a bank of earth formed with a hollow 
ditch or fosse in front of it, or a complete ring of earthen bank 
and fosse was formed, advantage being taken of the contour of 
the hill. 

2. The part enclosed was very extensive, reaching an area of 
some acres. 

3. Unless of known later introduction, there is no coincidence 
of any particular strong part in the enclosure corresponding to 
the later keep. 

4. The earthworks were clearly intended for the defence of a 
community rather than an individual, as may be seen, for 
example, at Halstock Camp. 

The Romans, when they arrived, also made fortifications. 
The chief Roman stations, such as Exeter, were walled in with 
solid masonry, but the temporary stations, used by the soldiers 
on march, had the usual earthen bank and fosse. They differed, 
however, from the old British fortress in being more regularly 
four-sided, with rounded-off angles, and in being much smaller. 
Their position was almost invariably on the course of one of 
their military roads — in fact, the road generally ran through the 
fortress. 



108 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

The next invaders, the Anglo-Saxons, in the early days of 
their onslaught did not erect fortresses. It is not until the time 
of our good West-Saxon King, Alfred the Great, that we hear of 
any being made, and then it was against the Danes. In order 
to defend the towns, he caused what were called u burhs " to 
be erected. These burhs were simply breastworks of earth, 
surmounted by a wooden palisade, or logs of wood, with the 
usual fosse or ditch in front, and they surrounded the town or, 
at any rate, protected its weakest aspects. Still later, the Anglo- 
Saxons restored the defects in the masonry of the old Roman 
cities, such as Exeter, but we have no information that they 
built any original masonry walls to their towns, and certainly 
they built no masonry castles. 

The piratical Danes formed earthworks for their winter 
camps during their raids. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle men- 
tions over twenty of these, some of which are still extant. They 
were of large size (for after the onslaught the Danes brought 
their wives and children with them), generally rectangular, and 
nearly always placed on the side of a navigable river. 

It will thus be seen that, before Norman times, all fortifica- 
tions were intended for the safety of the community, and were 
not erected solely for the benefit of the individual. 

By the twelfth century, however, there were to be found all 
over England, Wales,' the Lowlands of Scotland, and the Irish 
Pale (that portion of Ireland subdued by the Normans), mounds 
of earth from 10 to 100 feet high, and from 80 to 240 feet in 
diameter, each mound being surrounded by a fosse or dry ditch. 
Such mounds are abundant in Normandy, but are not found 
in the lands whence came the Anglo-Saxon tribes, nor in those 
parts of Scotland and Ireland which the Normans did not pene- 
trate. They bespeak a people who were mighty workers in earth, 
which the Anglo-Saxons and Danes were not. Erected close to 
the principal towns or important villages, they were clearly 
intended to overawe the neighbourhood, and from their size 
they were suited for only a few individuals. These mounds 
were undoubtedly the work of the Normans, and they are known 
by the name of " mottes," from an old French word meaning a 
clod of earth. 

The " motte " consisted of a mound of earth flattened at the 
top, generally circular in form, sometimes oval, rarely square. 
Round the edge of this flat platform was a bank of earth sur- 
rounded by a wooden palisade, and all round the mound was the 
dry ditch or fosse. On the flattened top of the mound was 
erected a house of wood (known as a " bretasche ") for the 
residence of the lord and his family. The retainers lived in 



Okehampton Castle 109 



wooden huts in an outer enclosure (called the " ballium " or 
" bailey "), which was also provided with an earthen embank- 
ment having a stockade of wood on the top of it. 

The whole arrangement was called by the Normans a " castel," 
and this form of " castel " was certainly erected in England for 
from two to three hundred years after the Norman Conquest. 
Excellent examples may be seen locally, namely : (1) In Winkleigh 
village is a beautifully preserved motte, known as Croft Castle — 
it is 110 feet in diameter at the base and 20 feet high, the ballium 
round the top of the motte is 6 feet broad and 12 feet above 
the flat top, and the ditch is still perfect ; (2) A second example 
exists at Burley Woods in Bridestowe parish — here also the 
motte and fosse are perfect, and measure about 180 feet in 
all, and the position of the base court or ballium is also well 
preserved. 

What the outward appearance of these motte castles was we 
learn from the descriptions given by contemporary writers, 
aided, fortunately for us, by the representations on the Bayeux 
tapestry, where we actually see pictures of them. The fair 
embroiderers doubtless allowed imagination to enter into their 
work just as our modern artist does ; but, as the representations 
of the castles in Normandy and that of Hastings all agree in 
certain particulars, we may reasonably take those common 
features for fact. All show the wooden stockade around the 
motte, enclosing a wooden house. In all there is a ditch round 
the motte, spanned by a wooden bridge. All show that the 
decorations of the house were not neglected. In the picture 
of the building of the motte at Hastings, the workmen are 
shown with their spades piling the earth to form the motte. 

Now, it is these wooden castles on a motte which the Normans 
built on their first arrival in England. Later on, when time and 
leisure permitted, the baron who possessed the means substituted 
a masonry keep for the wooden bretasche, but his retainers still 
lived in wooden erections in the bailey. Still later on, as the 
country became more settled, the baron and his wife found the 
accommodation in the keep cramped, cold, and comfortless, and 
then he started building in the enclosure more commodious 
accommodation for his family and upper servants. He also 
substituted a wall of masonry around the enclosure of the 
vallum. His men-at-arms, however, were still lodged in w r ooden 
erections. His stone keep was then used as a residence only in 
emergency, and often served as a gaol for his prisoners — our 
word " dungeon " is derived from donjon, the old name for the 
keep. If the baron was poor, he had to remain satisfied, or dis- 
satisfied, with his wooden bretasche, and there is no doubt that 



no The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

many of the mottes of the lesser barons never had any masonry 
structure at all upon them. 

Stone keeps began to replace the wooden ones some few years 
after the Conqueror, but their erection did not become at all 
common until the reign of Henry I and his immediate successors. 
The Normans built two kinds of keeps, namely, the shell keep 
and the rectangular, these being built contemporaneously, the 
form doubtless depending on local needs. 

The ' shell keeps were originally more numerous than the 
rectangular, but they were weaker, and consequently have suc- 
cumbed more readily. They were formed of a circular or oval 
ring of masonry built on the motte, and, as the name implies, 
open to the sky, and inside this hollow masonry shell were 
wooden erections for residence. 

The rectangular keep is the type to which that of Okehampton 
belongs. The remains of some five hundred of this class still 
exist in England in a more or less fair state of preservation. In 
size they varied from 25 to 100 feet in side measurement, and 
from 40 to 100 feet in height. No original roof remains, but it 
is most probable that in the early times the roofs were of wood 
and later of lead. They were always concealed by the battle- 
mented walls of the keep. 

The entrance was generally on the first floor, from ten to twenty 
feet above the level of the ground. Usually the external steps 
were of wood, often a mere ladder which could be pulled up after 
the occupiers had entered. The basement or ground floor was 
invariably poorly lighted by plain loopholes, with a view to 
security, and it was used for stores. 

The upper storeys were lighted by windows of much larger 
size. In the larger keeps the first floor was used as the residence 
of the men-at-arms, the second floor for the living-room or great 
hall of the baron, and the top floor for sleeping apartments ; but 
where the keep was smaller, as at Okehampton, the accommoda- 
tion was much more restricted. Most keeps, as at Lydford and 
Okehampton, were divided off into two parts by a cross wall, 
thus giving two main rooms for each floor. These main rooms 
were generally subdivided by wooden partitions. 

In some keeps there is no evidence left of staircases, so that 
they must have been of wood, perhaps little more than ladders. 
In most, however, a staircase existed in an angle turret. The 
stone steps were winding, but spacious and easy when compared 
with the corresponding stairs in church towers. The remains 
of the turret staircase still exist in Okehampton keep. In other 
cases, as at Lydford, there was a straight staircase in the thick- 
ness of the wall ; and at Launceston there is a winding staircase 



no 





Okehampton Castle in 



in the wall of the circular keep. Above the basement the thick 
walls of many keeps are honeycombed with passages, galleries, 
and mural chambers ; and in most instances there was either a 
chapel or a small oratory inside the keep. 

Few keeps show any evidence of kitchens, so it is presumed 
that cooking was carried on in a wooden erection outside the 
keep during times of peace ; but, during a siege, probably the 
open fireplace in the baron's hall was used. In most keeps 
there was a well from which water could be obtained. 

For its defence, the keep depended chiefly on its solid strength, 
and in its early days almost entirely. Later on, when the leaden 
roof had replaced the wooden one, engines of warfare were 
placed on it, and the upper windows were arranged so that the 
crossbow could be used. Temporary wooden platforms project- 
ing from the roof were also utilized for dropping stones, molten 
lead, etc., upon the attackers. 

Having thus briefly described the general construction of a 
Norman rectangular keep, let us examine more in detail that of 
Okehampton. 

Okehampton Keep is placed on a high mound, partly artificial 
and partly natural, flattened on the top, with steep sides on the 
north, south, and west, but a gradual incline on the east in the 
direction of the main residential buildings. It is probable that 
a moat and wooden bridge formerly existed on this aspect, but 
no trace remains. 

The keep is rectangular in places, with the longer sides running 
east and west. The walls vary slightly in thickness from 61 to 
7 feet. The lower part of the walls contains a large proportion 
of water-worn stones, evidently obtained from the river below, 
while the upper part consists chiefly of the local slate. 

The entrance is by a low pointed doorway in the north-east 
corner, and, immediately as you enter this, on the right is 
another archway leading to a spiral staircase by which the 
upper chambers and the roof were reached. Two or three of the 
lower steps are still well preserved, and traces of others are 
visible nearly to the top. On entering the keep it will be noticed 
that there is a second archway on the inner facing of the wall. 
The openings for the sliding wooden beam by which the outer 
door was barred, are still to be seen. 

The interior of the keep is seen to be divided into two parts by 
a transverse wall running north and south. The wall has a 
doorway in its northern portion, but this is not in such good 
condition as the doorways previously noted. The western cham- 
bers are in the best preservation, those on the east having large 
breaks in the walls, particularly on the north and south, so that 



ii2 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

their exact formation cannot be judged, although sufficient 
remains to enable us to say that most probably the two eastern 
chambers were very similar to the western. The floor was 
carried on joists, the openings for which are well seen in the 
western part. In the lower chambers the windows are very 
small, but deeply splayed ; one on the southern wall of the inner 
chamber has marks of iron bars. There was no fireplace in the 
basement chambers, but there is a well-preserved one in the 
western upper chamber, and most probably there was one in the 
eastern. In each of the upper rooms is a mural chamber. 

Let us now inquire a little further into the probable history of 
the Castle. 

When William had conquered England, he divided up the 
land into various estates, which he gave to his Norman followers. 
To his relative Baldwin de Brionis were given lands in Devon and 
the shrievalty of the County. In order to prevent his barons 
from obtaining too great power, the Conqueror gave them 
separate manors in different parts of the country, so that Baldwin 
the Sheriff, who resided at Exeter, also held the Barony of Oke- 
hampton. History tells us that the Exeter people in 1076 turned 
Baldwin out of Exeter for a period, and it is possible that he then 
retreated to Okehampton and started to erect his " Castel " 
there. However that may be, Domesday states definitely that 
in 1086 Baldwin had a castle at Okehampton. We will try to 
picture the castle as it existed at that time. A spur of high 
ground running east and west just above the West Okement 
River was selected as the site. This was near the town and near 
a river, both of advantage to the new comer. Having chosen 
the site of the castle, the next thing was to provide for its defence. 
On the north and south sides, nature had done the work by 
providing steep declivities. The base of the spur on the west 
has, we know, been cut through deeply, but, as that must have 
been a work of time and of leisure, it is most probable that 
Baldwin was satisfied with a bank and ditch in that direction as 
well as on the east side, next the town. On the highest point of 
this enclosure he caused a motte to be formed, and on the flat- 
tened top of this motte his bretasche was placed, in which he and 
his family resided. Although the sides of the motte were very 
steep, around the edges there was in all probability a wooden 
palisade, and there was a wooden bridge over the moat for an 
entrance. The retainers lived in wooden huts or shelters in the 
large enclosure where now the residential part of the castle is 
placed. If trees were on the site at the time of building the 
castle, they were cut down for making the bretasche. They 
were not only of use as building material, but were a disadvan- 



Okehampton Castle ir 



tage if left standing, as they would afford cover to an attacking 
force. 

The late Mr. R. N. Worth (no mean authority) believed that 
at the time of Domesday Book Baldwin had already built a 
stone keep, and that portions of the existing keep are the remains 
of his work. Other authorities, however, put the date of the 
keep as long after the time of Baldwin. After going carefully 
into the evidence on both sides, so far as an amateur is able, I 
must say that in my opinion the keep was not built until rather 
more than a hundred years after Baldwin, namely, early in the 
thirteenth century, during the period when the Redvers family 
were the owners. It is certain that the keep is the oldest por- 
tion of the existing ruins, and that the owners resided in the keep 
until the time of the first Earl Courtenay in 1272, when a growing 
desire for luxury and a feeling of greater security as the country 
became more settled and peaceful led to the desertion of the 
keep as a place of residence and the erection of more commodious 
buildings in the bailey. There is little doubt that both the 
northern and the southern blocks of buildings in Okehampton 
Castle were erected during the time of the first Earl Courtenay 
or his immediate successor, although there is evidence of 
structural alterations of a later date. 

For a few years after the family settled in their more com- 
modious and pleasant quarters, the keep was doubtless kept in 
repair, so that in an emergency it would afford a last refuge. 
The continuing peace of the country, however, caused less and 
less attention to be given to the keeps. Some fell gradually 
into ruin, others were used as gaols, and so on. To what purpose 
Okehampton Keep was put from the time it ceased to be a resi- 
dence until it was dismantled, history sayeth not. 



ii4 The Devonian Year Book, 19 14 



Some Recent Devonshire Literature.* 

Compiled by H. TAPLEY-SOPER, City Librarian, Exeter. 

Burke, Thomas. " Charm of the West Country : an Anthology." 

(Arrowsmith, 2/6 net.) 
Chick, Elijah. "Then and Now, 1811 to 1912." Historical 

Review of the Mint Methodist Sunday School, Exeter. 

(Drayton, Exeter, 1/-.) 1912. 
Coleridge, Stephen. " Memories." (Lane, 7/6.) 
Coleridge, Stephen. " Songs to Desideria, and Other Poems." 

(Lane, 3/6.) 1907. 
Cummings, B. F. "Life of Colonel George Montagu." (British 

Museum Trustees.) 
Drake, Maurice. "W0 2 ." (Methuen, 6/-.) 
Exeter Illustrated. (Official Information Bureau, Exeter, 6d.) 
Exeter University College Field Club and Natural History 

Society Proceedings. (The Society, 1/-.) 
Gurney, Dorothy Frances. "Poems." (George Newnes, 5/-.) 
Hocking, Silas. " Spirit of the West." (Cassell, 3/6.) 
Iddesleigh, Earl of. " Comedy of Acrostics." (Eland, Exeter, 

1/6 net.) 
Knight, W. " Coleridge and Wordsworth in the West Country." 

(Elkin Matthews, 7/6.) 
Loth, J. " Contributions a l'Etude des Romans de la Table 

Ronde." (H. Champion, Paris.) 
Lyster, C. B. " Exeter City Wall as it was Originally Built. 

A Revision of the Premisses from a Military Standpoint." 

(J. G. Commin, Exeter, 2/-.) 
Major, A. F. " Early Wars of Wessex : Studies from England's 

School of Arms in the West." (Cambridge University Press, 

10/6 net.) 
Parry, H. Lloyd. " Founding of Exeter School." (Chatto & 

Windus, 5/-.) 
Philpotts, Eden. " Widecombe Fair." (Murray, 6/-.) 
Philpotts, Eden. " Old Time before Them." (Murray, 6/-.) 
Prideaux, Edith K. " Sutcombe Church and its Builders." 

(Commin, Exeter, 2/6.) 
Rose-Troup, Frances. " Western Rebellion, 1549." (Smith, 

Elder, 14/- net.) 
Sawkins, Mrs. Langfield. " Lady Bertha of Romrow." 

(Griffiths, 6/- ) 



Some Recent Devonian Literature. 115 

Soper, H. Tapley-. " Devonshire Past and Present." (Bern- 
rose & Sons, 6d.) 
Soper, H. Tapley-, and Elijah Chick. " Register of Baptisms, 

Marriages and Burials of the Parish of Branscombe." (Issued 

to Subscribers only.) 
Spark, Fred. R. " Memories of My Life." (Spark & Sons, 

Leeds, 5/-.) 
Trevena, J. " No Place Like Home." (Constable, 6/- ) 
Uglow, Sam. " Down tu the Varm." (Gregory, Tiverton, 

1/- net.) 
Walrond, The Hon. Charlotte. " The Walrond Papers." 

(Humphreys, London. Issued privately.) 
Whetham, Catherine Durning and Margaret. " Manor Book of 

Ottery St. Mary." 1913. (Longmans, Green & Co., 7/6 

net.) 
Willcocks, M. P. "The Power Behind." (Hutchinson, 6/-.) 



To the Gentle Reader, 



Three kinds of companions, men, women, and books, 
Were enough, said the elderly sage, for his ends. 
And the women we deem that he chose for their looks, 
And the men for their cellars : the books were his friends 
" Man delights me not," often, " nor women," but books 
Are the best of good comrades in loneliest nooks. 

Andrew Lang. 



*Publishers are invited to send to the compiler of this list, copies of new 
books for notice in future issues of the Year Book. 



n6 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



Affiliated Societies . 

(For 191 4 Fixtures, see p. 142.) 

BARUMITES IN LONDON. 
Founded 1893. 

President : Chas. E. Cann. 

Hon. Secretary : F. Gabriel, Roborough, 17, Park Avenue South, Crouch 

End, N. 
Object : To promote social gatherings and good-fellowship. 
Qualification : Connection with Barnstaple or its neighbourhood. Limited 

to men. 
Subscription : is. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner in London. 

The Barumites in London celebrated their coming-of-age dinner at 
the Holborn Restaurant, on Saturday, 15th March, 1913, under the 
happiest auspices, the company including some 200 ladies and gentlemen, 
this being the first occasion on which the fair sex had attended. The 
chair was occupied by the President, Sir F. C. Gould. The outstanding 
feature of the evening was the presentation to the Society, on behalf of 
the Corporation of Barnstaple, of a replica of the old Steeple Cup, one 
of the finest pieces of plate in the borough treasury. The original was 
presented to the borough by Richard Doddridge, who was mayor in 
1589, and the replica has been made by Mr. F. J. Partridge, a native of 
Barnstaple, who designed and executed the magnificent civic chain now- 
worn by the mayor on state occasions. The presentation was made by 
the mayor (Mr. F. A. Jewell), who asked the Society to accept from 
himself an illuminated address bearing the congratulations of the Corpora- 
tion to the Society on the attainment of its majority ; this also was 
the work of a Barumite, Mr. H. J. Chapman. An artistic souvenir was 
presented to those who attended the dinner, by Mr. Sydney Harper, 
author of a popular history of Barnstaple. 

THE EXETER CLUB. 
(London and District Branch.) 
Founded 1880. 
President : J.J. Murphy, Esq. 
Vice-President : J.J. Harris, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : N. Cole. 
Asst. Secretary : H. P. Kelly. 
Press Correspondent : J. R. Thomas. 

Hon. Secretary : H. D. Powe, 13, Ellerby St., Fulham, S.W. 
Objects : To promote friendly and social intercourse ; to maintain the 
status of the Exeter Training College for schoolmasters, and to give 
opportunities for inter-communication for mutual assistance. 
Qualification : Training at St. Luke's College, Exeter. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 






Affiliated Societies 117 



Meetings : Monthly, in addition to annual dinner and Bohemian concert. 
In connection with this Club are the Old Exonians' Cricket Club, 
with the same Hon. Secretary, and the Exonian Lodge, No. 3415, the 
Hon. Secretary of which is F. J. Thomson, 31, Angell Road, Brixton, 
S.W. 

The year 191 3 has been a most successful one, the number of members 
being steadily maintained. " The Exonian Lodge " (No. 3415) continues 
to make excellent progress, and its membership is rapidly increasing. 
The Lodge meets at the Criterion Restaurant, Piccadilly Circus, W., on 
the second Saturday in October, December, February, and March. 

The various social gatherings have been very successful, the whist 
drives proving specially popular. 

The annual Bohemian Concert was held at Anderton's Hotel, Fleet 
Street, E.C., Mr. N. Cole (Hon. Treasurer of the club) presiding. A capital 
programme was thoroughly appreciated by a large gathering of Exonians 
and friends. Messrs. G. E. Skinner and A. E. Growtage acted as Hon. 
Musical Directors, whilst the general arrangements were in the hands of 
the Hon. Secretary. 

The Annual Dinner was held at the Criterion Restaurant, and was a 
most successful function. The guests included the Rev. R. H. Couchman, 
M.A. (Principal of St. Luke's College, Exeter), Mr. J. W. H. Isaac (Hon. 
Sec. of Parent Club), and Mr. G. Williams (President of the Carmarthen 
Club). 

The Old Exonian Cricket Club has experienced the most successful 
of all seasons, having been unbeaten. Many fine victories were secured, 
and the outings were greatly enjoyed by players and friends. The Com- 
mittee offer their sincere thanks to their President (Major J.J. Murphy, 
V.D.) for the able manner in which he discharged — for the second time — 
the duties of his office. 

The successful working of the club is largely due to the tactful and 
capable manner in which the ever popular Hon. Secretary (Mr. H. D. 
Powe) carries out his duties. The Committee are pleased to have this 
opportunity of testifying to his zeal and energy, and of giving him their 
very heartiest thanks. 

The sincere thanks of the Committee are offered to Mr. N. Cole (Hon. 
Treasurer), Mr. H. P. Kelly (Asst. Secretary), Mr. J. R. Thomas (Press 
Correspondent), and Messrs. J. E. Tresize and A. E. Pragnell (Anditors); 
also to all those artistes who have so kindly assisted at the various 
functions. 



THE OLD EXONIAN CLUB. 

(London Section.) 

Founded 1904. 

President : Mr. Justice Bucknill. 

Vice-President : J. H. Fisher, Esq., F.R.C.S. 

Hon. Secretary : A. Goff, 2, Royal Exchange Avenue, E.C. 

Objects : To renew acquaintance between Old Exonians living in London 

and to arrange dinners and other entertainments. 
Qualification : Education at the Exeter School. 
Subscription : 3s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner in London, and other gatherings from time to 
time. 
The School Magazine (free to members) is issued each term. 



n8 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

THE OLD OTTREGIANS SOCIETY. 

(" Ottregians in London.") 

Founded 1898. 

President : The Right Hon. The Lord Coleridge. 

Vice-Presidents : The Right Hon. Sir John H. Kennaway, Bart., C.B. ; 

The Hon. Stephen Coleridge ; The Hon. Gilbert Coleridge ; 

The Hon. Geoffrey Duke Coleridge. 
Chairman : Tom Clarke. 
V ice-Chairman : T. Carnell. 
Assistant Secretary : J. R. Digby. 
Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : Sidney H. Godfrey, " Homeville," Merton 

Avenue, Chiswick, W. 
Objects : To renew old acquaintance ; to strengthen the bond of friendship ; 

to give advice and assistance to friendless Ottregians ; to discuss home 

topics, and to publish home news. 
Qualification : Natives of the postal district of Ottery St. Mary, and persons 

who have lived for any length of time in the town. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum ; ladies, is. 6d. 
Meetings : Once in eight weeks at the Ottregian Room, The Cabin, Strand, 

W.C., and once a year at Kew Gardens, an annual concert at St. 

Clement Danes Parish Hall, and a special train on Whit-Mondays 

to Ottery St. Mary. 
A Benevolent Fund. 
A quarterly journal (free to members), containing news of Ottery 

St. Mary, and of Ottery people all over the world. 

The year 191 3 has shown the Society to be as flourishing as ever. 
There has been a large influx of new members, and the finances, as usual, 
show a balance on the right side. 

After a very exciting contest the officers were elected by voting papers, 
as mentioned above. 

At the close of last year the Annual Meeting was held at the Society's 
room at the Cabin in the Strand, and was presided over by the Rt. Hon. 
The Lord Coleridge. At this gathering great enthusiasm is always 
manifested. The " Ottery Song " was sung by Lord Coleridge, and the 
refrain heartily joined in by the large company. 

The Annual Concert was held at St. Bride Institute, in January, when 
the Hon. Gilbert Coleridge presided over a crowded gathering. It was 
the best concert ever given by the Society, and the artistes were practically 
all Ottregians or Devonians. The Hon. Gilbert Coleridge sang two songs. 

A Whist Drive was held at St. Bride Institute in March, and a very 
enjoyable evening was spent. 

Two special trains were run to Ottery St. Mary on Whit Monday — 
" Ottery Day." The trains were crowded, and nearly a thousand natives 
visited their old home. The Ottery band met the trains, and a welcome 
was given by the townsfolk. A large gathering assembled at the Luncheon 
held at the London Hotel, presided over by Lord Coleridge, and the 
principal tradesmen of the town were present. 

The Annual Summer Gathering was, as usual, held in Kew Gardens in 
July, and was voted a very great success. 

The Benevolent Fund of the Society has been used to great advantage 
during the year, and, as we go to press, a concert and social evening is 
being held on its behalf. 

The Journal of the Society, which publishes all the important news 
of Ottery St. Mary and particulars of the doings of Ottregians all over 






Affiliated Societies 119 



the world, has been much in demand. Every member is supplied with 
a copy gratis, and each publication has shown increased sales. Some 
of the issues have contained as many as twenty-six quarto pages. 

It is with deep regret that the Society records the death of its special 
representative in Australia, Mr. F. Tom Berry. 

The Society looks after affairs of the old town of Ottery St. Mary, 
and at the present moment has in hand the raising of a memorial to 
the late Mr. Thomas John Carnell, who was for nearly 30 years Organist 
and Choirmaster at the old Collegiate Church. 

" There is a place, dear native place ! 
Amid the meadows fair, 
Between the hills, beside the stream, 
Where blows the soft light air." 

" Flore at Ottregia." 



THREE TOWNS ASSOCIATION 

(Plymouth, Stonehouse, and Devonport) in London. 

Founded 1897. 

President : W. H. Pawley, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : Waldorf Astor, Esq., M.P. ; A. Shirley Benn, Esq., 
M.P. ; Sir Clement Kinloch-Cooke, M.P. ; Sir John Jackson, 
M.P. ; J. A. Hawke, Esq., K.C. (Recorder of Plymouth) ; H. E. 
Duke, Esq., K.C, M.P. (Recorder of Devonport) ; Dr. Blake 
Odgers, K.C. ; The Mayor of Plymouth ; the Mayor of Devon- 
port ; Chairman of Stonehouse U.D.C. ; Sir Charles Radford, 
J.P. ; G. H. Radford, Esq., M.P. ; H. H. Vivian, Esq., J. P. ; 
A. E. Spender, Esq., J.P. ; P. H. Pridham Wippell, Esq., J.P. ; 
W. J. McCormack, Esq., J.P. ; Rev. A. J. Waldron ; W. Fowell, 
Esq. ; Frank I. Lyons, Esq. ; W. T. Madge, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : W. M. Birch am. 

Hon. Recreation Secretary : F. C. Warren. 

Hon. General Secretary : F. C. Gurry, 93, Peterborough Road, Fulham, 
S.W. 

Object : The promotion of social and intellectual intercourse among 
the members and associates. 

Qualification : Connection with the Three Towns by birth or residence. 

Subscription : Gentlemen 3s. 6d. per annum, ladies is. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner, children's party, dances, smokers, whist 
drives, Bohemian concerts, summer outing. 
The meetings during the last season have, on the whole, been very 

successful and well attended. Whist Drives continue to be popular, 

and the Dance in March was so successful that we have arranged for two 

dances during the ensuing season. 

Last season's innovation, a Smoking Concert to which ladies were 

invited, was so highly appreciated that it has been arranged to hold two 

Smokers on similar lines this season. 

The Children's Party and Annual Dinner were both very enjoyable 

functions. 

Our Benevolent Fund has dealt with several cases of distress during the 

past twelve months, and Mr. C. H. Warren, Hon. Sec. of the Fund, is 

again devoting his invaluable services to the good cause this year. Our 

headquarters are still at St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C., and 

we anticipate another successful season's work for 1913-1914. 



120 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

THE TIVERTONIAN ASSOCIATION. 
Founded 1909. 

President : Hon. W. Lionel C. Walrond, M.P. 

Vice-Presidents : Sir George Kekewich, K.C.B., Sir Robert Newman, 
Bart., D.L., J. P., Colonel E. T. Clifford, V.D., Ian M. Heathcoat 
Amory, Esq., J. P., Rev. . W. P. Besley, M.A., Rev. S. J. Childs- 
Clarke, M.A., G. E. Cockram, Esq., John Coles, Esq., J. P., J. A. 
Eccles, Esq., F. Chubb-Finch, Esq., Thos. H. Ford, Esq,, J. P., 
E. V. Huxtable, Esq., The Mayor of Tiverton (A. T. Gregory, 
Esq.), R. Morgan, Esq., H. Mudford, Esq., J. P., G. H. Radford, 
Esq., M.P., Allan Ramsay, Esq., Rev. O. R. M. Roxby, Granville 
Smith, Esq., E. J. Snell, Esq., John Thorne, Esq., J. P., W. 
Thorne, Esq., J. P., Harold Travers, Esq., F. G. Wright, Esq., 

Chairman : F. Snell. 

Vice-Chairman : F. A. Perry. 

Hon. Treasurer and Assistant Secretary : E. T. Clarke. 

Hon. Secretary : W. Passmore, ioi, Elspeth Road, Clapham Common, 
S.W. 

Objects : To promote friendly intercourse amongst Tivertonians ; to assist 
those in need ; and to advise and influence young men starting on a 
commercial or professional career. 

Qualification : Persons connected with the Tiverton Parliamentary 
Division by birth, descent, marriage, or former residence. 

Subscription : Ordinary Members (Ladies or Gentlemen), 2s. per annum ; 
Hon. Members — Gentlemen, 10s., Ladies, 5s. 

Meetings : Concerts, whist drives, dances, and annual dinner during the 
winter months. 
The Association has been affiliated to St. Bride Institute. Membership 
over 400. 

The Tivertonian Association was founded in February, 1909, with 11 
members, and has now more than 450 on its roll— probably the largest 
membership of any town association in the metropolis. It is affiliated 
to St. Bride Institute, and holds the greater number of its functions at 
headquarters. A Concert (free to members) opened the season on October 
12th, 1912, and was fairly well attended, G. E. Cockram, Esq., occupying 
the chair. 

The Annual Dinner at the Holborn Restaurant was held on October 24th, 
and was of exceptional interest and importance, inasmuch as it was 
made the occasion of a municipal outing by the Mayor and Town Council 
of Tiverton, who journeyed up by special train, accompanied by a number 
of townsmen and ladies from Tiverton, to the number, of over fifty, the 
total number present being about 300. The President (the Hon. Lionel 
Walrond, M.P.) occupied the chair, and was supported by a good array 
of Vice-Presidents. As a compliment to the Mayor (A. T. Gregory. Esq.), 
a special table was arranged for His Worship's former pupils and appren- 
tices, who attended to the number of nearly twenty, some of them specially 
coming from places so far away as Wrexham, Newport (Mon.), Reading, 
etc. 

Successful Whist Drives were held on November 9th and Jan. 22nd, 
and well-attended Dances on December 7th and February 13th. A 
Grand Concert took place on March 6th, under the Chairmanship of E. J. 
Snell, Esq., and the Annual Meeting was held on May 1st, at St. Bride 
Institute. 



Affiliated Societies 121 



Each Whitsuntide the Association, in conjunction with Mr. Restall, 
runs a week-end excursion to Tiverton, which is well supported by Tiver- 
tonians, who embrace the opportunity of joining in a re-union " at home." 
The party left Paddington at midnight on Saturday, May 10th, and Tiverton 
was reached early on Sunday morning. On Monday a luncheon was 
held at the Half Moon Hotel, presided over by His Worship the Mayor, 
and the party received an enthusiastic send-off from the station by a 
large concourse of friends, Tiverton being left about 4.30 p.m., and 
Paddington reached in time to allow members to reach their homes in 
various parts of London in good time. 

The Association has a Benevolent Fund for the relief of Tivertonians 
in London who may need temporary assistance, the Fund being supported 
by voluntary contributions of members and friends. 

WEST BUCKLAND SCHOOL OLD BOYS' ASSOCIATION. 
(London Branch.) 
Founded 1899. 
President : Harold H. Hilton, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : Prof. W. S. Abell, M.I.N.A. ; Dr. J. H. Blight. 
Chairman : Prof. T. A. Hearson, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.N.A., F.C.I.P.A. 
Hon. Secretary : F. H. Shelley, 15, Bishopsgate, E.C. " 
Objects : To keep Old Boys in touch with the School and with each other ; 
to promote gatherings among Old Boys for pleasure and sport ; and 
to further the interests of the School generally. 
Qualification : Education at W T est Buckland School. 
Subscription : Life membership, half a guinea. 

Meetings : Annual dinner in London, and other social gatherings during 
the winter months. 
The School Magazine (2s. per annum) is issued each term, containing 
news of Old Boys all over the world. 

The London branch of this Association carried out successfully its 
usual winter programme. 

The informal Smoking Concert held on November 21st, at Sweasey's 
Restaurant, was specially noteworthy, because the chair was occupied by 
Mr. Henry Tyte, the only remaining survivor of the three boys with 
whom the school started. 

The Annual Dinner was held on January 10th, at the Restaurant 
Frascati. The President of the Association, the Rev. T. Stone, M.A., 
was in the chair on this occasion, and a goodly number of Old Boys and 
their friends had foregathered. Perhaps the most interesting incident 
of an interesting evening was the presentation made to Mr. Michael B. 
Snell, J. P., of a handsome silver inkstand, in commemoration of his 
generosity to the Old School and his continuous interest in its welfare. 
The evening was in every way a most successful one. 

The " Ladies " Concert was held at the Furnivall Hall, on Thursday, 
March 13th, under the chairmanship of Mr. T. R. Potbury, M.A., and a 
very excellent programme was rendered by Old Boys and their friends. 
It is not out of place here to make some acknowledgment of the assistance 
so kindly and so frequently given by these friends of W 7 est Buckland 
School, as well as to those Old Boys who make themselves responsible 
for the musical programme. Of the meeting of Old Boys at West Buck- 
land in July, the present chronicler cannot write from personal experience, 
but the meeting was successful both from a cricket and a social point of 
view. 



122 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

SOCIETY OF DEVONIANS IN BRISTOL. 
Founded 1891. 
President : F. E. R. Davey, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : A. Dodge. 

Hon. Secretary : H. Garland, 4, Redland Hill, Redland, Bristol. 
Objects : To promote friendly intercourse amongst Devonians in Bristol 

by social gatherings, and to assist benevolent or charitable objects. 

with a special regard to those in which Devonians are interested. 
Qualification : Natives and others connected with Devon. 
Subscription : 5s. per annum ; ladies, 2s. 6d. 
Meetings : Annual dinner, and concerts, etc., from time to time. 

The Society possesses a Presidential Badge, each Past-President con- 
tributing a link for a chain. 

The Society of Devonians in Bristol was established in 1891, and each 
year the President is a Devonian of some reputation in the city of adoption. 
The chief gathering during the year is the Annual Dinner, and the Society 
has been peculiarly fortunate in being supported at these gatherings by 
prominent men of Devon. These events are of such a character as to be 
remembered with pleasure. At the last Annual Dinner the " Chief 
Guest " was the Mayor of Exeter (H. W. Michelmore, Esq.), and his 
bright breezy speech on the varied attractions of the good old county 
made those present feel that although exiled from the homeland, they 
were happy in being so near as to enjoy the pleasures so graphically 
referred to by the Mayor of Exeter. The report of the Society for 19 13 
showed the number of members had been maintained. Recently the 
rules have been altered to admit lady members, and a good number have 
joined the Society. The Benevolent Fund has enabled the Society during 
the year to grant relief in forty-six cases, and there is now a balance in 
hand of about ^50. The Society recently presented a donation of five 
guineas to the endowment of the Royal Albert Memorial College at Exeter. 
The Rev. A. N. Blatchford, B.A. (who was the second president of the 
Society in 1892), gave an excellent address at one of the social gatherings 
recently on " The Spirit of Devon," and expressed a hope that a 
remembrance of the characteristics he had so graphically described would 
help all to serve the best interests of the beloved old city of Bristol where, 
he said, they were thankful to have found a brotherly welcome, an honest 
livelihood, and a happy home. The President for the present year is a 
native of Exeter, and is Vice-Chairman of the Guardians of the Poor of 
the City and County of Bristol, 

CARDIFF DEVONSHIRE SOCIETY. 
Founded 1906. 
President : W. R. Hooper, Esq. 
Vice-Presidents : Hon. Stephen Coleridge, Sir Harry T. Eve, General 

Kekewich, Rt. Hon. George Lambert, M.P., Sir Robert Newman, 

Bart., J as. Radley, Esq. 
Chairman : Sir Wm. Crossman. 
Hon. Treasurer : A. Akenhead. 

Hon. Secretary : E. W. Benjamin, 99, St. Mary Street, Cardiff. 
Objects : To bring Devonians in Cardiff more closely together, to foster the 

traditions of the County, and to raise a fund to afford temporary relief 

to necessitous and deserving Devonians. 
Qualification : Birth or descent. 
Subscription : 5s. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner. 



Affiliated Societies ii\ 



LEICESTER AND SOUTH MIDLANDS DEVON AND CORNWALL 
ASSOCIATION. 
Founded 1900. 

President : E. G. Tardrew, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : H. Burdett, Esq., C. J. Hopkins, Esq., F. C. Pulsford, 
Esq., J. Titley, sen., Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : W. A. Clarke. 

Joint Hon. Secretaries : F. W. Honey and J. Titley, jun., 26, Lower 
Hastings Street, Leicester. 

Objects : To promote social intercourse between Devonians and Cornish- 
men resident in the district, and the study and cultivation of the 
folklore of the two counties. 

Qualification : Birth, parentage, or residence for 20 years in Devon or 
Cornwall. 

Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner. 

DEVONIANS IN LIVERPOOL AND DISTRICT. 
Founded 1895. 
President : 
Vice-Presidents : H. Cuming, Esq., G. R. Searle, Esq.,H. Smith, Esq., 

E. F. Stanley, Esq., Capt. A. B. Toms, J. R. Watkins, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : J. Furze. 
Hon. Secretary : G. A. Brooking, 26, Rosedale Avenue, Gt. Crosby, 

Liverpool. 
Object : Social intercourse. 

Qualification : Birth, parentage on either side, residence, or marriage. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner and supper, social gatherings, whist drives, 
children's parties, etc. 

The Society was founded eighteen years ago, and, taken altogether, 
has experienced a successful time. Ebbs and flows have been met with 
in varied forms, but the membership roll to-day numbers over 200. Much 
spade work has been accomplished by past Hon. Secretaries, including 
Messrs. A. Honey, J. Furze, J. R. Watkins, S. Roberts, F. G. Smith, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Bullen. 

During 19 13 the following functions were held : four Smoking Socials, 
one Dinner, one Supper, one Whist Drive, and one Children's Party ; all 
of which were carried through successfully. 

The Society is in a strong and sound financial position, and, although 
the highest number of members ever on the books — -320, recorded in 
1896 — is not likely to be exceeded for a year or so, the present Secretary 
is not without hope of, as the Americans say, " beating the band." 

THE PORTSMOUTH DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 1906. 

President : Lieut. H. E. Lidiard. 

Vice-President : P. C. Hodder, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : E. G. Stephens. 

Entertainment Sec. : J. F. Smith. 

Hon. Secretary : H. C. Hine, "Clinton," Kensington Road, North End, 
Portsmouth. 

Objects : To bring together Devonians residing in Portsmouth and district ; 
to form a common County bond of friendship ; to promote gatherings 
for pleasure and sport ; and to assist, as far as possible, those in need. 



124 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Qualification : Birth, parentage, ten years' residence, or marriage ; lady 

members the same qualification. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner, whist drives, dances, concerts, summer outings, 

etc. 

The President's chain bears the arms of Devon and Portsmouth. 

The nucleus of the chain was the gift of J. Carpenter, Esq. (Tiverton), 

an Ex-President, and a link is added by the President of each year, 

bearing his name. 
The Society continues to make steady progress with a membership of 
160. Previously it has been the custom to hold the Annual Dinner early 
in the year, but as the Society's year now commences with April instead 
of January, this important function has been relegated to the month of 
November. The Smoking Concert on October 4th was probably the most 
enjoyable and successful of its kind, ever held by the Society. The 
summer outings to Warsash, Carisbrooke Castle, and Goodwood were 
well patronized, and were most successful. Had the weather been more 
propitious just before the day fixed for the Goodwood trip, a greater 
number would have undertaken the long drive. After all, the day proved 
to be fine, and the privilege so kindly given by the Duke of Richmond 
and Gordon of seeing over the house and grounds more than repaid those 
of our members and friends who risked the weather and made the journey. 
Since the formation of the Devonian Society many other kindred 
societies have sprung into existence in Portsmouth, with the result that 
there is now a keen, yet friendly, rivalry between them. The annual 
Boat Race, the Cricket League, and the Whist Tournament, are entered 
into most enthusiastically by the various societies, there being a trophy 
for each competition. Our immediate Past-President, P. G. D. Winter, 
Esq., generally takes a leading part in inter-Society affairs, but the 
Devonians have not yet had the pleasure of occupying the premier position 
in either competition. The annual Boat Race took place on July 12th, 
and the crowds which invaded Portchester, off which the race concluded, 
testified to the great interest taken in the event. For nearly the whole 
length of the course the Devon boat led, and victory seemed certain 
until suddenly the stroke oarsman, who rowed in spite of a 
previous illness, collapsed, with the result that Devon finished second. 
During the summer months much interest was taken in the inter-Society 
Cricket League, which entered on its first season. Our team finished 
third, but had the talent which was unearthed later been discovered 
earlier in the season, barring " the glorious uncertainty " of cricket. 
Devon would probably have headed the League. After doing so well 
towards the end of the season, better things are expected from the Devon 
team next year. As in previous years, during the winter months the 
Whist Tournament will be regularly carried on for the possession of the 
inter-Society cup. Last season Devon finished fifth ; but what the 
result will be at the conclusion of the tournament just commenced it is 
uite impossible to foreshadow, as Dame Fortune plays far more tricks 
with cards than she does with boat-racing or cricket. 

READING AND DISTRICT DEVON AND CORNISH ASSOCIATION. 

Founded 1895. 

President : Rev. G. F. Coleridge, R.D., M.A. 

Vice-Presidents : E. Bowden, Esq., J. Bucknell, Esq., H. Chown, 
Esq., J. Ellis, Esq., Rev. Canon W. W. Fowler, M.A., D.Sc, 
R. Hall, Esq., J. Harris, Esq., J. Morse, Esq., G. E. B. Rogers, 



Affiliated Societies 125 



Esq., J. H. Rowe, Esq., H. O. Serpell, Esq., G. Shorland, Esq., 

P. W. Teague, Esq., W. J. To ye, Esq., M.A., and Dr. J. Hopkins 

Walters. 
Chairman of Committee : Rev. Canon W. W. Fowler, M.A., D.Sc. 
Hon. Treasurer : Councillor A. I. Maker. 
Hon. Auditor : Mr. T. R. Kittow. 
Hon. Secretaries : Mr. E. S. Smith, 32, Brisbane Road, Reading ; Mr. 

F. H. Yellen, 47, Market Place, Reading. 
Objects : To maintain the interest of members in the old Counties ; to 

foster the wholesome clannish characteristics of Devonians and 

Cornishmen ; and to encourage friendly intercourse among members. 
Qualification : Birth or descent. 
Subscription : is. per annum (minimum). 
Meetings : Annual dinner, annual river trip, social gatherings, whist 

drives, dances, etc. 
The report, as presented to the Annual Meeting held at the George 
Hotel, Reading, in January, 19 13, showed that a very successful year's 
work had been accomplished, the membership and interest having largely 
increased. 

The business of the evening proved to be of far-reaching importance, 
as it was unanimously decided to become affiliated to the London Devonian 
Association, and a ballot of members was resolved upon, on the question 
of inviting ladies to the annual dinner. After the business was concluded, 
a very successful Smoking Concert was held and was thoroughly enjoyed. 
The ballot taken in February was overwhelmingly in favour of the 
ladies attending the Dinner, and the first of these functions graced by 
their presence was a great success. Alderman C. Pinkham, J. P., C.C., 
and Mrs. Pinkham, J. B. Burlace, Esq., and W. J. McCormack, Esq., J. P., 
of the London Devonian Association, were present, and the first-mentioned 
responded to the toast of " The Counties of Devon and Cornwall." 

The Whist Drives and Dances held during the year have been exceedingly 
well attended, the West-Country element being always present in strong 
force. 

The event of the year was arranged for June 25th, when the River Trip 
to Greenlands (Henley), by kind permission of Viscount Hambleden, 
took place. The attendance was a record one, taxing to the utmost the 
capacity of the large steam launch " Empress of India." In spite of 
threatening clouds, the weather kept fine, and the party reached home 
safely after a delightful day, the trip being among the most successful 
in the history of the Association. 

The Committee have worked assiduously throughout the year, and 
by their energies a greater enthusiasm has been created and many new 
members have been admitted to the Association, so that an increased 
membership is again assured for the present year. 

SWANSEA DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 1894. 

President : E. R. Serle, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : S. Daniel, Esq., J. Dyer, Esq., W. A. Ford, Esq., 
J. C. Gill, Esq., T. W. Hews, Esq., W. R. Jefford, Esq., J. Jones, 
Esq., C. H. Newcombe, Esq., C. T. Passmore, Esq., J. B. Reed, Esq. 

Chairman : H. Salter, Esq. 

Hon. Auditor : G. H. Harvey. 

Assistant Secretary : F. Lane. 

Hon. Secretary : S. T. Drew, Public Library, Swansea. 



126 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Objects : To promote fraternal feelings, social intercourse and entertain- 
ment ; to purchase books on the history of Devon, and to render 
assistance in case of need. 

Qualification : Birth or descent. 

Subscription : is. per annum. 

Meetings : Social gatherings at intervals, summer excursion in August, 
annual dinner in November. 

The Society was founded in 1894, the first president being H. A. Latimer, 
Esq., M.D., J. P. The membership in that year was 197, but since that 
time there has been a steady increase, and our membership roll to-day 
numbers something over 300. Various forms of social and educational 
meetings have been held, including lectures, concerts, teas, annual dinner 
in November, and annual excursions, generally to our native county, 
which, on a clear day, can be seen on our south-western horizon. The 
benevolent side of our Society has been maintained, and help has been 
rendered in many instances to Devonians in need of aid. We have a very 
fine and varied library of Devonian literature, available for home reading, 
and are subscribers to the Devonshire Association and other similar 
county publications. The Society has a President's chain and badge of 
office (provided by subscription), which includes the Arms of all the Devon 
townships . We ourselves issue an Annual Report, containing the names and 
addresses of our members, with the name of their birth-place, etc., but 
through the medium of this London publication we send greetings to 
Devonians in all parts of the world. 



DEVONIAN SOCIETY IN CALCUTTA. 
Founded 1901. 

President : W. H. Sparkes, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : J. Cottle, Esq., Dr. H. Pedler. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : R. P. Adams, 3, Lee Road, Calcutta. 

Objects : To promote a common County bond of friendship, and to render 

aid to Devonians in India. 
Qualification : Birth or long residence. 
Subscription : Rs. 24 per annum. 
Meetings : Annual Dinner and Ball, generally in January. Recreation 

Club on the Maidan, tennis, croquet, etc. 



THE DEVONIAN SOCIETY OF RHODESIA. 

Patrons : Sir Lewis Michell, C.V.O., R. T. Coryndon, Esq. 

President : W. Bridgman, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : Dr. J. Dyke-Acland, E. Basch, Esq., C. Corner, Esq., 

J. W. Mayne, Esq. 
Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : C. F. Osmond, P.O. Box 165, Bulawayo, 

Rhodesia. 
Objects : To encourage and promote social intercourse and good fellowship ; 

to advance the interests of Devonians in Rhodesia and to co-operate 

with kindred societies ; and to help Devonians in distress. 
Qualification : Birth, parentage, or seven years' residence. 
Subscription : 10s. 6d. per annum, or 5 guineas for life membership. 



Affiliated Societies 127 



DEVONIAN SOCIETY OF OTTAWA. 

Founded 1912. 

President : Lieut. -Col. S. Maynard Rogers. 

Vice-Presidents : Commander P. C. W. Howe, R.N., Hon. W. H. Hoyle, 

M.P., Hon. F. D. Monk, M.P., Rev. G. P. Woollcombe. 
Chairman : W. E. Hooper, Esq. 
Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : A. J. Mudge, 505, Cooper Street, Ottawa, 

Ont. 
Objects : To promote a spirit of fraternity amongst Devonians in Ottawa 

and district, by means of social intercourse ; to foster a continued 

love of the County ; and to advance and protect the interests of 

Devonians generally. 
Qualification : Birth, descent, marriage. 
Subscription : One dollar per annum. 
Meetings : The third Monday in each month at Moreland Hall, Corner 

Fourth Avenue and Bank Street. 



THE TORONTO DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 1907. 

President : C. Lee Hutchings, Esq. 
Vice-President : J. H. Hayden, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : W. White. 
Assistant Secretary : F. M'Lean. 

Hon. Secretary : W. Skelton, 101, Leslie Street, Toronto, E. 
Objects : To renew old acquaintances and to form new ones with those who 
hold a common interest ; to foster a knowledge of the traditions, litera- 
ture, folklore, etc., of Devonshire ; and to promote the spirit of 
fraternity among Devonians in Canada. 
Qualification : Birth or descent. 
Subscription : One dollar per annum. 

Meetings : The second and fourth Thursdays of each month, in the Sons 
of England Hall, Richmond Street East, the meetings to be alter- 
nately of a business and social character. 
This Society was formed in a very humble way in 1907, and steadily 
increased in popularity until in the latter part of 19 11 it fell away con- 
siderably and finally dropped out of existence altogether. At the opening 
of 191 2, the spirit of fraternity among Devonians in Toronto was revived. 
A meeting consisting of Messrs. H. Wrefer Clarke, Alfred Baker, William 
Skelton and Leonard Horswell was held in Mr. Skelton's house on January 
19th, 1912. Sufficient money was advanced to meet immediate expenses, 
and an opening meeting was held for the purpose of reorganizing the 
Society. This meeting proved a success, and plainly showed the need 
of maintaining a Society in such a large city as Toronto, where Devonians 
could meet at least once a month for social intercourse. 

Mr. Borlase was selected for the position of President, and was assisted 
by an able Executive Committee. The plan of meetings was arranged 
to take the form of alternate business and social evenings, interspersed 
with Concerts, Dances and Picnics. The Annual Outing, which has always 
been held at Niagara Falls, has been supported well, not only by Devonians 
but also by others from the Old Country. The Society's Football Team 
stands at the top of the Toronto and District League, and has proved a 
fine advertisement. The Society's meeting-place being the Sons of 
England Benefit Society's Headquarters, the idea of forming a Lodge 



128 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

was brought forward by the President and, as a result, Lodge " Devonia " 
of the Sons of England Benefit Society was inaugurated on July 15th, 
1913, and it is hoped that the Society and Lodge will prove of mutual 
benefit. 

The Society was unfortunate in losing the services of its President 
by his departure to Saskatoon, but the chair has since been filled by Mr. 
Lee Hutchings, who has the work well in hand. 

The Society still has considerable uphill work before it to get itself 
into an organization such as a Devonian Society should be in such a 
large city. However, by going about it with the spirit of determination 
that generally characterizes Devon work in all parts of the world, we 
hope to bring the Toronto Devonian Society up to the standing of the 
home societies. 

A coat badge, designed by Mr. Wrefer Clarke, was adopted by the 
Society, and is now worn by all the members. The design, a most suitable 
one, is round in shape, three castles are embossed in the centre, supported 
on a base of three maple leaves, and the words " Semper Fidelis " with 
" Toronto Devonians " form a border. The whole is executed in green 
and gold. 

VICTORIA DEVONIANS, B.C. 
Founded 1912. 
Hon. President : Hon. Edgar Dewdney. 
President : C. Bampfylde Daniell, Esq. (Exeter). 
Vice-President : R. O. Lamb, Esq. (Devonport). 
Recorder : C. Shepheard (Modbury). 
Hon. Treasurer : S. Henson (Tiverton). 

Hon. Secretary : F. J. Henson (Tiverton), P.O. Box 1208, Victoria, B.C. 
Objects : To encourage immigrants from the West of England, and to 

give them advice and assistance. 
Qualifications : Birth, descent, marriage, or residence of more than 5 

years in Devon. 

The Society has about 150 members, and is increasing rapidly. The 
Executive Committee consists of the following : A. J. Abbott (Barnstaple), 
C. Blackmore (Devonport), J. H. List, J. Lock (Barnstaple), W. G. Stone 
(Devonport), T. Alexander (Stoke Rivers), V. Cummings (Plymouth), H. 
Pike (Torquay), H. Martyn, G. Moore (Devonport). 

NEW ZEALAND DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 

Founded 1912. 

President : W. U. Timewell, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : Miss Heath, D. Teed, Esq. 

Chairman : B. Reeves, Esq. 

Committee : Mrs. Brendon, Mrs. Tozer, Messrs. Brendon, Cranch, 

W. W. Gliddon-Richardson, and Tozer. 
Hon. Treasurer : C. Newland. 
Secretary : W. Gliddon Richardson, Hobson Bay Road, Parnell, 

Auckland, N.Z. 



Devonian Societies not Affiliated 129 



Devonian Societies not Affiliated. 

(^4) At Home. 

BATH AND DISTRICT DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 

Founded 191 3. 

President : Thomas Wills, Esq. 

Vice-President : Colonel Hendley Kirkwood. 

Hon. Treasurer : A. Fairchild. 

Hon. Secretary : H. Penny, " Devonia," Charlcombe, Bath. 

Objects : The same as The London Devonian Association. 

Qualification : Residents of Bath or district who are connected with 

Devon by birth, descent, marriage, or former residence. 
Subscription : Ordinary members — gentlemen 2s., ladies is. ; life members 

— gentlemen 2 guineas, ladies 1 guinea. 
Meetings : Annual dinner, summer outing, and periodical social gatherings. 



BEXHILL AND DISTRICT WEST-COUNTRY ASSOCIATION. 

Founded 19 13. 

President : Dr. J. P. Wills. 

Vice-President : Councillor R. D. Jesty. 

Hon. Auditor : R. W. Robbins. 

Hon. Treasurer : J. Arscott. 

Asst. Hon. Secretary : F. J. French. 

Hon. Secretary : F. B. Temple. 



BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLAND DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 1891. 

President : Colonel Halse, J. P. 

Vice-Presidents : The Right Hon. Jesse Collings, M.P., J. Nelson 
Bond, Esq., J. WinsorBond, Esq., Alderman Bowden, J. Barham- 
Carslake, Esq., T. F. Culley, Esq., T. R. Farrant, Esq., H. Frost, 
Esq., Dr. A. Douglas Heath, T. W. Hussey, Esq., R. C. Morcom, 
Esq., W. Nicholls, Esq., C. Parkhouse, Esq., R. A. Pinsent, Esq., 
J. D. Prior, Esq., F. C. Rowe, Esq., A. G. Spear, Esq., H. P. 
Tapscott, Esq., W. Voysey, Esq. 

Hon. Auditor : Thaddeus Ryder, F.C.A. 

Hon. Treasurer : C. Parkhouse. 

Hon. Secretary : T. W. Hussey, 21, First Avenue, Selly Park, Birmingham. 

Objects : To maintain interest in the County, and to promote social inter- 
course among Devonians in Birmingham. 

Qualification : Natives of Devon, or connected with the County by marriage. 

Subscription : Gentlemen, 5s., Ladies, 2s. 6d. 

Meetings : Social gatherings during the winter months, annual meeting 
in January, and dinner in October. 

9 



130 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

BOURNEMOUTH AND DISTRICT WEST COUNTRY ASSOCIATION. 

Founded 191 1. 

President : Alderman H. S. McCalmont Hill, D.C.L., J. P., Mayor of 

Bournemouth. 
Vice-President : C. Pearce, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : T. O. Bartlett. 

Hon. Secretary : E. S. Rosevear, 100, Alma Road, Bournemouth. 
Qualification : Birth, parentage, or marriage. 
Object : Promotion of social intercourse. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner, outing, whist drives, social evenings, etc. 



WEST COUNTRY ASSOCIATION, EASTBOURNE. 
Founded 1905. 

President : C. Davies-Gilbert, Esq., D.L. 

Vice-Presidents: J. Adams, Esq., M.D., W. Davies, Esq., S..N. Fox, 
Esq., J. P., A. L. Franklin, Esq., C. Godfrey, Esq., H. Habgood, 
Esq., M.D., Major Harris, Rev. E. G. Hawkins, C. W. Mayo, Esq., 
J. Routly, Esq., L. C. Wintle, Esq., W. G. Willoughby, Esq., M.D. 

Chairman : Rev. E. G. Hawkins. 

Hon. Treasurer : C. W. Mayo. 

Joint Hon. Secretaries : W. Percy Glanfield and E. Akery, Albemarle 
Hotel, Eastbourne. 

Objects : The promotion of friendly intercourse and good fellowship by 
holding meetings, social gatherings, etc. 

Qualification : Birth or parentage. 

Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Concerts, games, tournaments, dinner, etc. 

Headquarters : Albemarle Hotel, Eastbourne. 



THE ASSOCIATION OF WEST COUNTRYMEN IN HAMPSHIRE 

President : A. Broomfield, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : G. Crocker, Esq., A. W. Monkhouse, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : A. Hill. 

Hon. Secretary : T. Rice, 14A, London Road, Southampton. 

Objects : To promote social intercourse, and to foster and encourage 
national sentiment, love of country, and everything pertaining to 
the honour and welfare of the three Western Counties. 

Qualification : Connected with Devon, Cornwall, or Somerset by birth, 
marriage, or adoption. 

Subscription : is. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner, and periodical social gatherings. 



HULL DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 

Founded 19 13. 

President : J. Watts, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : Dr. Appleton, J. M. Bladon, Esq., J. Davie, Esq., 

E. W. Forward, Esq., F. C. Manley, Esq., F. W. Slater, Esq., 

H. Wilson, Esq. 
Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : F. C. Wood. 



Devonian Societies not Affiliated 131 

ASSOCIATION OF WEST COUNTRYMEN IN FOLKESTONE. 

Founded 191 3. 
President : 
Vice-Presidents : T. Boundy, Esq., W. Ransford, Esq., W. H. 

Routly, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : H. Chapple. 

Hon. Secretary : C. Jefferies, 32 and 33, Bouverie Square, Folkestone. 
Objects : Outdoor sports in the summer, trips in the country, cricket 

matches, and entertainments in the winter. 
Qualification : Natives of Devon, Cornwall, and Somerset. 
Subscription : Gentlemen, 2s. 6d. ; ladies, is. 

DEVONIAN SOCIETY IN MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT. 

President : J. Skardon, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : J. E. R. Holman. 

Hon. Secretary : J. A. Bustard, 4, Mauldeth Road, Withington, Man- 
chester. 
Object : To promote social intercourse among Devonians. 
Qualification : Birth, parentage, or marriage. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : Whist drives, and an annual dinner. 

DEVON AND CORNWALL SOCIETY, NEWPORT (MON.) AND 

DISTRICT. 
Founded 1889. 

President and Chairman : G. R. Martyn, Esq., J. P. 

Hon. Treasurer : A. C. Mitchell. 

Financial Hon. Secretary : C. H. Adams. 

Assistant Secretary : P. L. Pugsley. 

Hon. Secretary : J. Cowling, 3, Annesley Road, Maindee, Newport, Mon. 

Objects : The promotion of good fellowship between West-Country men, 

and the advancement and protection of their interests generally. 

Benevolent Fund. 
Qualification : Natives of Devon or Cornwall, and their sons and grandsons. 
Subscription : is. minimum, 5s. maximum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner, whist drives and lectures in winter, and picnics 

in summer. 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE WEST COUNTRY ASSOCIATION. 

Founded 1909. 

President : J. F. Stanbury, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : (Kettering Centre) J. C. Lewin. 

Hon. Secretaries : (Northampton Centre) W. Chaffe. 

Objects : To promote and maintain social intercourse and good fellowship 

between natives of the three Counties now resident in tbe Town and 

County of Northampton. 
Qualification : Natives of Devon, Somerset, or Cornwall, and sons of 

natives. 
Subscription : 2s. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual dinner at each centre, annual outing, and other events 

during the summer months. 



132 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

REIGATE AND REDHILL AND DISTRICT DEVON AND 
CORNWALL ASSOCIATION. 
Founded 1907. 
President and Chairman : J. Trevarthen, Esq. 
Vice-Presidents : Geo. Gilbert, Esq., J. P., Henry Libby, Esq., F. G. 

Pyne, Esq., J. Saunders, Esq. 
Vice-Chairman : G. Gilbert, Esq. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : Henry Libby, Cromer, Redhill. 
Objects : Social intercourse, and the advertisement of Devon and Cornwall. 
Qualification : Natives of Devon or Cornwall. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : July and December. 

ROCHESTER, CHATHAM, GILLINGHAM AND DISTRICT DEVON 

AND CORNWALL ASSOCIATION. 

Founded 1912. 

President : The Right Hon. Lord Churston, M.V.O. 

Vice-Presidents : R. J. Parr, Esq., Deputy-Surgeon-Generax W. W. 

Pryn, Sir W. P. Treloar, Bart. 
Chairman : F. Wingent, Esq., J. P., C.C. 
Vice-Chairman : J. T. Snell, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : W. Coleman. 
Asst. Secretary : H. E. Libby. 
Hon. Secretary : W. J. Manicom. 

DEVON, CORNWALL, AND WEST COUNTRY ASSOCIATION FOR 
THE COUNTY OF SURREY. 
Founded 1908. 

President : Sir Wm. Treloar, J. P. 

Vice-Presidents : J. J. Brewer, Esq., Sir A. T. Quiller Couch, Rev. 
G. Dandridge, M.A., Hon. Arthur J. Davey, W. J. Davey, Esq., 
W. E. Horne, Esq., M.P., Rev. E. C. Kirwan, M.A., Rt. Hon. G. 
Lambert, M.P., H. F. Luttrell, Esq., M.P., G. H. Morgan, Esq., 
M.P., W. T. Pilditch, Esq., G. H. Radford, Esq., M.P., S. P. 
Rattenbury, Esq., Sir J. Ward Spear, M.P., J. St. Loe Strachey, 
Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : W. J. Davis. 

Hon. Secretary (pro tern.) : W. J. Davis, Lulworth. Guildford. 

Objects : The promotion of friendly intercourse and mutual interest 
among the members ; the provision of social and literary entertain- 
ment. 

Qualification : Natives of Devon, Cornwall, or the West Country, and 
their families. 

Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 

Meetings : Annual dinner, socials, and whist drives. 

SOCIETY OF WEST-COUNTRY MEN IN WEST KENT. 
(Tunbridge Wells, Tonbridge and District.) 
Founded 1912. 
President : F. J. Wright, Esq. 
Vice-President : Harold W. Fooks, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : W. F. Coles. 
Hon. Secretary : O. B. Geake, 48, Dudley Road, Tunbridge Wells. 



Devonian Societies not Affiliated 133 

DEVONIANS IN WESTON-SUPER-MARE. 

President : Dr. Vickery. 

Hon. Treasurer : S. Pady. 

Hon. Secretary : T. J. Kerslake, Alexandra Parade, Weston-super-Mare. 

Object : Social intercourse. 

Subscriptions : 2s. 6s. and is. 

Meetings : Annual dinner and conversazione. 

DEVONIANS IN THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 
Founded 1905. 
President and Chairman : R. Stewart Savile, Esq. 
Vice-President and Vice-Chairman : Dr. M. L. B. Coombs. 
Hon. Treasurer and Secretary : W. Ormsby Rymer, 33a, Holyrood Street 

Newport, I.W. 
Objects : Social intercourse. 

Qualification : Born in Devon or of Devonian parents. 
Subscription : 2s. 6d. per annum. 
Meetings : Annual and occasional. 

DEVONIANS AND CORNISHMEN IN WORCESTERSHIRE. 
Founded 1901. 
President : T. F. Culley, Esq. 
Hon. Secretaries : W. J. Pearce and C. D. Willis, Bcrrow's Worcester 

Journal Office, Worcester. 
Objects : To revive old friendships, and to get into touch with West 

Country men arriving in the County. 
Qualification : Birth or marriage. 
Meetings : Annual dinners. 

WEYMOUTH AND DISTRICT DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 191 2. 
President : H. A. Huxtable, Esq. 
Vice-President : Dr. F. R. Heath. 
Chairman : A. J. Digby, Esq. 

Joint Hon. Secretaries and Treasurers : T. C. Loosmore and — Andrews. 
Objects : To encourage local patriotism ; to promote Devonian interests 

and friendly intercourse among Devonians ; to foster a knowledge of 

the County, and to carry out approved schemes for the benefit of 

Devonians in the district. 
Qualification : Birth, descent, marriage, or former residence. 
Subscription : Annual — Gentlemen, 2s. 6d., Ladies, is. Life — Gentlemen, 

2 guineas, Ladies, 1 guinea. 
Meetings : Annual dinner, and frequent social gatherings. 

(B) Abroad. 

THE HONG-KONG DEVONIAN SOCIETY. 
Founded 1896. 

President : A. Shelton Hooper, Esq., J. P. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : Mowbray Stafford Northcote, Hong- 
Kong. 

Object : Social intercourse amongst Devonians. 

Qualification : Birth, parentage, marriage, or connection with Devon. 

Subscription : Two dollars per annum. 

Meetings : Annual meeting and dinner on a date during the first three 
months of the year. 



134 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

WEST OF ENGLAND ASSOCIATION OF CAPE TOWN. 
Founded 1905. 
President : Sir Lewis Michell, C.V.O. 
Vice-Presidents : Major Edwards, G. Elliott, Esq., Senator Hichens, 

C. Matthews, Esq., Rt. Hon. J. H. Merriman, H. M. Meyler, 

Esq., C. A. Organ, Esq., J. Squire, Esq., J. Wannell, Esq. 
Hon. Treasurer : T. E. King. 

Hon. Secretary : A. F. Steer, P.O. Box 1169, Cape Town. 
Meetings : Social gatherings, concerts, and lectures, and an annual dinner 

at the end of August. 

A ladies' section has been formed, with Lady Gladstone as President. 

WEST OF ENGLAND ASSOCIATION IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA. 

Founded 191 3. 

President : W. H. Heller, Esq. 

Vice-President : Dr. N. Allin. 

Recording Secretary : G. Curtis. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : E. G. Rendell, 236, Jasper Avenue, W., 
Edmonton, Alta., Canada. 

Objects : To renew old acquaintances and form new ones with common 
interests ; to perpetuate the traditions, literature, and folklore of 
the West Country ; to promote the spirit of fraternity amongst our 
countrymen abroad ; and to render assistance to West-Country men 
residing in Edmonton. 

Qualification : Birth or former residence in Devon, Somerset, Cornwall, 
or Bristol. 

DEVON, CORNWALL, AND SOMERSET SOCIETY OF MANITOBA. 

Hon. President : James Hooper, Esq. 

President : W. A. Dyer, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : F. Parsons, Esq., E. W. Paul, Esq., F. Vooght, Esq. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : W. W. Pile, 285, Bannerman Avenue, 
Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Objects : To renew old acquaintances and form new ones with common 
interests; to perpetuate the traditions, etc., and foster the study of 
Devon, Cornwall, and Somerset ; and to promote the spirit of frater- 
nity amongst our countrymen abroad. 

Qualification : Birth or former residence. 

Subscription : Two dollars per annum ; ladies exempt. 

Meetings : Monthly (first Friday), in Fairbairn Hall, corner of Main Street 
and Selkirk Avenue, Winnipeg. 

CORNWALL AND DEVON ASSOCIATION OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Patron : Dr. W. H. Crago. 

Vice-Patrons : W. Brooks, Esq., A. Goninan, Esq., H. S. Jerdan, Esq., 

A. Rickard, Esq., J. R. Rosewarne, Esq. 
President : F. J. Lukey, Esq. 
Vice-Presidents : R. Ellis, Esq., C. Jenkin, Esq., A. M. Knight, Esq., 

A. MlDDLEWEEK, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer : W. G. Jenkin.. 

Hon. Secretary : James Jenkin, St. Day, Wilberforce Avenue, Rose Bay, 
Sydney. 

Objects : The promotion of good fellowship between the two Counties, and 
social intercourse. 

Qualification : Natives of Cornwall and Devon, or such other qualification 
as shall satisfy the Committee. 

Subscription : 10s. per annum in advance, or is. per month. 

Meetings : Every fourth Wednesday at the Grand United Order Odd- 
fellows' Building, 328, Castlereagh Street, Sydney, at 8 p.m. 






Learned and Scientific Societies in Devonshire. 135 

Learned and Scientific Societies in 
Devonshire. 

(Compiled by H. Tapley-Soper, City Librarian, Exeter.) 

Architectural Society of Plymouth. E. C. Adams, Secretary, 
The Athenaeum, George Street, Plymouth. 

Bradninch Literary and Debating Society. P. Warren, Secretary, 
Bradninch. 

Dartmouth Technical and Scientific Society. S. G. Hearn, Hon. 
Secretary, 5, Victoria Terrace, Dartmouth. 

Devon and Cornwall Record Society. H. Tapley-Soper, 
F.R.Hist.S., Hon. Secretary and General Editor, Royal 
Albert Memorial University College, Museum, and Public 
Library, Exeter. 

Devon and Exeter Architectural Society (in alliance with the 
Royal Institute of British Architects). Allan R. Pinn, 
A.R.I. B. A., Hon. Secretary, 5, Bedford Circus, Exeter, and 
C. Cheverton, Hon. Secretary Three Towns Branch, 64, 
Chapel Street, Devonport. 

Devon and Exeter Law Association. T. W. Burch, Hon. 
Secretary, Palace Gate, Exeter. 

Devon and Exeter Medico-Chirurgical Society. R. V. Solly, 
M.D., Secretary, 40, West Southernhay, Exeter. 

Devon Philosophical Society. Miss L. Wheaton, Secretary, 
19, Bedford Circus, Exeter. 

Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Literature, and Art. Maxwell Adams, Hon. Secretary, c/o 
Messrs. W. Brendon & Son, Ltd., Plymouth. 

Exeter Camera Club. H. Tanner, Hon. Secretary, Barnfield 
House, Exeter. 

Exeter Chess Club. W. H. Gun dry, Hon. Secretary, Barn- 
field House, Exeter. 

Exeter Diocesan Architectural and Archaeological Society. Rev. 
S. M. Nourse, Hon. Secretary, Shute Vicarage, Kilmington, S.O. 

Exeter Law Library Society. J. Radcliffe, Hon. Secretary, 
8, The Close, Exeter. 

Exeter Literary Society. W. Rackwood Cocks, Hon. Secre- 
tary, Barnfield House, Exeter. 

Exeter Oratorio Society (Founded 1846). Gilbert H. Stephens, 
Hon. Secretary, 2, Bedford Circus, Exeter. 



136 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Exeter Pictorial Record Society. F. R. Rowley and H. Tapley- 

Soper, Hon. Secretaries, Royal Albert Memorial University 

College, Museum, and Public Library, Exeter. 
Gallia : French Literary Society. The Secretary, University 

College, Exeter. 
Germania : German Literary Society. Miss Margaret Bailey, 

Secretary, University College, Exeter. 
Incorporated Law Society (Plymouth). R. B. Johns and 

B. H. Whiteford, Joint Hon. Secretaries, 5, Princess Square, 

Plymouth. 
Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Laboratory. 

Edgar J. Allen, D.Sc, Hon. Secretary and Director of the 

Plymouth Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth. 
Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural History 

Society. Henry Penrose Prance and W. C. Wade, Hon. 

Secretaries, The Athenaeum, George Street, Plymouth. 
Plymouth Medical Society. R. Jaques, Hon. Secretary, Dr. 

A. B. Soltau, Hon. Librarian, Athenaeum Chambers, George 

Street, Plymouth. 
Plymouth Photographic Society. Charles F. Ford, Hon. 
I Secretary, The Athenaeum, George Street, Plymouth. 
Teign Naturalists' Field Club. 
Torquay Medical Society. H. K. Lacey, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 

Secretary, " Merita," Torquay. 
Torquay Natural History Society. Major E. V. Elwes, Hon. 

Secretary, Babbacombe Road, Torquay. 
University College Field Club and Natural History Society. 

Miss E. H. Aviolet, Hon. Secretary, University College, 

Exeter. 



Libraries in Devonshire 137 



Libraries in Devonshire. 

Barnstaple. 

Athenaeum Library ; 24,000 volumes (large local collection of 
books and manuscripts, including the Borough Records, 
the Oliver, Harding, and Incledon MSS., the Doddridge 
Library, and the Sharland Bequest). Thomas Wainwright, 
Secretary and Librarian. 

Bideford. 

Bideford Public Library; 6,100 volumes. E. B. L. Brayley, 
Librarian. 

Clovelly. 

Village Library ; 500 volumes. Mrs. Hamlyn, Hon. Librarian. 

Devonport. 

Free Public Library, Duke Street ; 25,278 volumes. William 
D. Rutter, Librarian. 

Exeter. 

The Royal Albert Memorial University College, Museum, and 
Public Library ; 55,000 volumes and manuscripts (large 
local collection, including the collections of the late James 
Davidson, Esq., of Axminster ; P. O. Hutchinson, Esq., of 
Sidmouth ; Edward Fisher, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., of Newton 
Abbot ; and J. Brooking-Rowe, Esq., F.S.A., of Plympton). 
H. Tapley-Soper, F.L.A., F.R.Hist.S., Librarian. 

The Devon and Exeter Institution ; 40,000 volumes. J. 
Coombes, Librarian. 

The Cathedral Library ; 30,000 volumes and many manu- 
scripts. The Rev. E. T. Foweraker, Librarian. 

The City Muniment Room, The Guildhall (collection of manu- 
script Records). H. Lloyd Parry, B.A., B.Sc, Town Clerk. 

The Exeter Law Library ; 4,000 volumes. John Radcliffe, 
Hon. Secretary. 

The Medical Library, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, 
East Southernhay. 

Moretonhampstead. 

Bowring Library ; 2,400 volumes. Rev. R. Blake, Hon. 
Librarian. 

Newton Abbot. 

Newton Abbot Public Library ; 10,000 volumes. Wm. Mad- 
dern, F.L.A., Librarian. 



138 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Plymouth. 

Plymouth Public Library ; 60,000 volumes (large local collec- 
tion). W. H. K. Wright, F.L.A., F.R.Hist.S., Librarian. 

Plymouth Proprietary and Cottonian Library ; 30,000 
to 40,000 volumes. J. L. C. Woodley, Librarian. 

Plymouth Institution and Natural History Society ; 6,000 
volumes. C. W. Bracken, B.A., F.E.S., Hon. Librarian. 

St. Giles-in-the-Wood, Torrington. 

St. Giles' Library ; 300 volumes. S. J. Daniels, Hon. Libra- 
rian. 

Swimbridge. 

Village Library ; 750 to 800 volumes. W. Shelley, Librarian. 

Tavistock. 

Tavistock Library, Abbey Buildings ; 15,000 volumes. John 
Quick, Librarian. 

Torquay. 

Torquay Public Library ; 12,000 volumes. Joseph Jones, 
F.L.A., Librarian. 

Totnes. 

South Devon Library, 12, High Street ; 4,000 volumes. 
Samuel Veasey, Librarian. 

Yealmpton, Plymouth. 

Yealmpton Institute Library ; 450 volumes. 



Rules of the London Devonian Association 139 

Rules of the London Devonian 
Association. 

1. Name. — The name of the Society shall be "The London 

Devonian Association." 

2. Objects. — The objects of the Society shall be : — 

(a) To encourage the spirit of local patriotism — " that 
righteous and God-given feeling which is the root of 
all true patriotism, valour, civilization " — the spirit 
that animated the great Devonian heroes who defeated 
the Spanish Armada and laid the foundations of the 
British Empire. 

(b) To form a central organization in London to promote 
Devonian interests, and to keep Devonians throughout 
the world in communication with their fellows at 
home and abroad. 

(c) To promote friendly intercourse amongst De- 
vonians residing in London and district, by means of 
meetings and social re-unions. 

(d) To foster a knowledge of the History, Folklore, 
Literature, Music, Art, and Antiquities of the County. 

(e) To carry out from time to time approved schemes 
for the benefit of Devonians residing in London or 
elsewhere. 

3. Constitution. — The Society shall consist of Life and Ordinary 

Members and Associates.* 

4. Qualification. — Any person residing in London or district 

who is connected with the County of Devon by birth, 
descent, marriage, or former residence, shall be eligible 
for membership, but such person shall be nominated by a 
Member and the nomination submitted to the Committee, 
who shall at their first Meeting after receipt of the nomina- 
tion by the Hon. Secretary, decide by vote as to the accept- 
ance or otherwise of the nomination. 

5. Subscription. — The annual subscription to the Society shall 

be 5/- for gentlemen, and 2/6 for ladies and those under 
21 years of age. Members of other recognized Devonian 

■ All Devonians (whether by birth, descent, marriage, or residence) not at present 
residing in London or district are eligible as Associates. The subscription is 2/6 per 
annum, or two guineas for life, and each Associate receives a copy of the Year Book. 



140 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Associations in London shall be admitted as Members on 
the nomination of their representatives on the Committee 
at an annual subscription of 2/6. The subscription for 
Life Membership shall be two guineas for gentlemen and 
one guinea for ladies. Subscriptions will be payable on 
election and each subsequent 30th September. The 
name of any Member whose subscription is in arrear for 
six months may be removed from the list of Members at 
the discretion of the Committee. 

6. Officers. — The Officers of the Society shall be a President, 

Chairman, Hon. Secretary, and Hon. Treasurer, all of 
whom shall be elected at the Annual Meeting. 

7. Management. — The management of the Society shall be 

vested in a Committee, consisting of the President, Hon. 
Secretary, Hon. Treasurer, and fifteen other Members, 
and a representative elected by each of the other Devonian 
Associations in London, such representatives to be Members 
of the Society. 

8. Meetings of Committee. — The Committee shall meet at least 

once a quarter. Seven to form a quorum. 

9. Chairman of Committee. — The Committee at their first 

Meeting after the Annual Meeting shall elect a Chairman 
and a Deputy-Chairman from Members of the Association. 

10. Power of Committee. — The Committee shall be empowered 

to decide all matters not dealt with in these rules, subject 
to an appeal to a General Meeting. 

11. Auditors. — Two Members, who are not Members of the 
Committee, shall be elected at each Annual Meeting to 
audit the Accounts of the Society. 

12. Annual General Meeting. — The Annual General Meeting 
shall be held in the month of October, when all Officers, 
five Members of the Committee, and Auditors shall retire, 
but be eligible for re-election. The business of the Annual 
General Meeting shall be the election of Officers, five 
Committee men, and two Auditors ; presentation of 
Annual Report and Balance Sheet for the year ending 
30th September ; and any other business, due notice of 
which has been given to the Hon. Secretary, according to 
the Rules. 



Rules of the London Devonian Association 141 

13. Special General Meeting. — A Special General Meeting shall 
be summoned by the Hon. Secretary within fourteen 
days by a resolution of the Committee, or within twenty- 
one days of the receipt of a requisition signed by 30 Mem- 
bers of the Society, such requisition to state definitely the 
business to be considered. 

14. Notice of Meeting. — Seven days' notice shall be given of all 
General Meetings of the Society, the date of postmark to 
be taken as the date of circular. 

15. Alteration of Rules. — No alteration or addition to these 
Rules shall be made except at the Annual Meeting (when 
due notice of such alteration or addition must have been 
sent to the Hon. Secretary on or before 23rd September) 
or at a Special General Meeting. A copy of the proposed 
alteration or addition shall be sent to Members with notice 
of Meeting. 

The Association is affiliated to the Conference of English 
County Societies in London, whose headquarters are at Cannon 
Street Hotel, E.C. 

Oak shields, with the arms of the Association painted in proper 
colours, may be obtained from F. C. Southwood, 96, Regent 
Street, W. Price, with motto, 6s., without motto, 4s. 6d. 

Badges, with the arms in enamel and gilt, price 4s. 3d., or 
brooches, price 3s. 3d., may be obtained from W. J. Carroll, 
33, Walbrook, E.C. Gold brooches, price 25s. 

Photogravure copies of the portrait of Captain Scott, on 
paper, 20 in. by 15 in., can be obtained from Messrs. Maull & 
Fox, Ltd., 187, Piccadilly, W., price Is. each, by post (in British 
Isles) Is. 3d. 

A few copies of the Devonian Year Books for 1910, 1911, 
1912, and 1913, remain in stock. Price 2s. 6d., by post 2s. 9d, 
Application should be made to the Hon. Secretary, John W. 
Shawyer, St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 



142 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 



List of Fixtures. 

1914. 

January. 
2 F. Three Towns Association, Children's Party, St. Bride 

Institute. 
5 M. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Practice, Sussex 

Hotel, 8.0. 
12 M. London Devonian Association, Lecture by R. Pearse 
Chope, B.A., on " Devonshire Dialect and Humour," 
Anderton's Hotel, Fleet Street, 8.0. 
14 W. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Drive, 

" Mikado," 7.30 for 8.0. 
16 F. Old Exonian Club, Dinner, Holborn Restaurant. 

West Buckland School Old Boys' Association, Annual 
Dinner, Frascati's Restaurant, Oxford Street, W. 

21 W. Tivertonian Association, Whist Drive, St. Bride 

Institute, 7.30. 
Portsmouth Devonian Society, Inter-Society Whist 
Tournament, Fratton Hotel, 8.0. 

22 Th. Three Towns Association, Dance, St. Bride Institute. 

23 F. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Drive, Madden 's 

Hall, 8.0. 
29 Th. Old Ottregians' Society, Annual Concert and Social 

Evening, St. Bride Institute, 8.0. 
31 Sat. London Devonian Association, Bohemian Concert, 

Cannon Street Hotel, 8.0. 

February. 
2 M. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Practice, Sussex 

Hotel, 8.0. 
11 W. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Drive, 

" Mikado," 7.30 for 8.0. 

18 W. Three Towns Association, Whist Drive, St. Bride 

Institute. 
Portsmouth Devonian Society, Inter-Society Whist 
Tournament, Fratton Hotel, 8.0. 

19 Th. London Devonian Association, Whist Drive, 

Anderton's Hotel. 

27 F. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Drive, Madden's 

Hall, 8.0. 

28 Sat. Tivertonian Association, Dance, St. Bride Institute, 

7.30. 



List of Fixtures for 1914 



143 



March. 
2 M. 

5 Th. 

7 Sat. 



11 W. 



12 Th. 



18 W. 



21 Sat. 



27 F 



Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Practice, Sussex 

Hotel, 8.0. 
Old Ottregians' Society, Whist Drive, St. Bride 

Institute, 7.30. 
London Devonian Association, Annual Dinner, Hol- 

born Restaurant. 
Three Towns Association, Smoking Concert, " Ladies' 

Night," St. Bride Institute. 
Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Drive, 

" Mikado," 7.30 for 8.0. 
Tivertonian Association, Grand Concert, St. Bride 

Institute, 7.30. 
West Buckland School Old Boys' Association, Smoking 

Concert, 14, Tottenham Court Road, W., 8.0. 
Portsmouth Devonian Society, Inter-Society Whist 

Tournament, Fratton Hotel, 8.0. 
Barumites in London, Annual Dinner, Holborn 

Restaurant. 
Three Towns Association, Dance, St. Bride Institute. 
Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Drive, Madden's 

Hall, 8.0. 



April. 
2 Th. London Devonian Association, Whist Drive, Ander- 

ton's Hotel. 
4 Sat. Three Towns Association, Bohemian Concert, St. 

Bride Institute. 
6 M. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Whist Practice, Sussex 

Hotel, 8.0. 
15 W. Portsmouth Devonian Society, Inter-Society Whist 

Tournament, Fratton Hotel, 8.0. 
26 Sun. Old Ottregians' Society, Meeting at The Cabin, 
Strand, W.C., 4.30. 

May. 

30 Sat. Tivertonian Association, Annual Whitsuntide Excur- 
sion to Tiverton. 



June. 
1 M. 



20 
24 



Sat. 
W. 



Old Ottregians' Society, Visit to Home, special train 
leaves Waterloo at 12.5 Sunday midnight, returning 
from Ottery St. Mary at 6.0 p.m. 

London Devonian Association, River Trip. 

Devon and Cornish Association, Reading, River Trip. 



144 The Devonian Year Book, 19 14 

July. 

21 Tu. Devonshire Association, Annual Meeting commences, 

Tavistock. 
24 F. London Devonian Association, Celebration of Armada 

Day at Tavistock (Drake's birthplace). 
West Buckland School, Summer Gathering at the 

School commences. 
26 Sat. Old Ottregians' Society, Summer Gathering at Kew 

Gardens, 4.0. Tea at Pitt's Restaurant, Kew 

Green, 4.30. 

October. 

4 Sun. Old Ottregians' Society, Meeting at The Cabin, 
Strand, W.C., 4.30. 

November. 

11 W. Devon and Cornish Association, Reading, Annual 
Dinner, Caversham Bridge Hotel. 

December. 

13 Sun. Old Ottregians' Society, Annual Gathering at The 
Cabin, Strand, W.C., 4.30. 



Drake's Choice. 

In the May-tide of his summer age 
Valour enmoved the mind of vent'rous Drake 
To lay his life with winds and waves in gage, 
And bold and hard adventures t 'undertake — 
Leaving his country for his country's sake ; 
Loathing the life that cowardice doth stain, 
Preferring death if death might honour gain. 

C. Fitz-geffrey, 1596. 



List of Members and Associates 145 



List of Members and Associates. 

An asterisk (*) indicates Life Members. 
A double dagger (J) indicates Associates. 

♦Abell, T. B. (Exmouth), " Warburton," Granville* Road, North 

Finchley, N. 
} Abell, Westcott Stile (Exmouth), M.I.N. A., Professor of Naval Architec- 
ture, 49, Croxteth Road, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 
Acland, Captain J. W. (Columb-John), 25, Colville Square, W. 
Acland, Theodore Dyke (Columb-John), M.D., 19, Bryanston Square, W. 

Vice-President. 
Adams, A. A. (Werrington), C.A., Frankfield, Stanhope Road, Hornsey 

Lane, N. 
Adams, E. W. (Kingsbridge), 18 Fleet Street, E.C. 
Adams, Mrs. E. W. (Kingsbridge), 18, Fleet Street, E.C. 
X Adams, Maxwell (Wolborough), c/o Messrs. W. Brendon & Son, Ltd., 

Plymouth. 
JAdams, R. P. (Calcutta Soc). 
Amery, J. J. (Ashburton), 18, Fleet Street, E.C. 
JAmery, J. S. (Ashburton), " Druid," Ashburton, Devon. 
Andrews, Mrs. (Tiverton,) 855, Fulham Road, S.W. 

Andrews, Mrs. Lilian (Plymouth), 3, Old Cavendish Street, Oxfrrd St., W. 
Andrews, R. (Culmstock), 209, High Street, Kilburn, N.W. 
JAnning, W. (Starcross), Hatherleigh, Newport (Mon.). 
♦Ashton, S. H. (Beaford), Blaney, King William's Town, South Africa. 
Astor, W. Waldorf (Plymouth), M.P., Cliveden, Taplow. 
Axhorn, Miss E. B. (Tiverton), 116, Heath wood Gardens, Charlton, S.E. 

Bailey, E. E. (Lynton), 29, Elmfield Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Bailey, Mrs. (Lynton), 29, Elmfield Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Baker, Richard (Filleigh), Coventry Restaurant, Rupert Street, W. 

Barker, Mrs. M. Walcot (Plymouth), 150, Murchison Road, Leyton, E. 

Barker, Norman Burdwood (Plymouth), 150, Murchison Road, Leyton, 
E. 

Bastin, T. W. (Paignton), Messrs. Bastin, Merrvfield and Cracknell, Great 

Castle Street, W. 
JBates, J. H. (Calcutta Soc). 

Beckett, A. E. (Plymouth), 61, Westbury Road, Wembley. 
JBeed, T. A. (Devonport), 16, Polwarth Gardens, Hyndland, Glasgow. 

Beer, Miss D. Vernon (Bideford), 67, Lanercost Rd., Tulse Hill, S.W. 
JBeer, T. (Exeter), 17, Orrell Lane, Orrell Park, Liverpool. (Liverpool 
Assoc.) 

Bell, Miss Annie (Kingsbridge), 58, Humber Road, Blackheath, S.E. 

Bell, Morrison-, See Morrison-Bell. 

Belsey, Herbert H. (Barnstaple), 32, South Eaton Place, S.W. 

Bennett, Samuel (Devonport), 6, Hemington Avenue, Friern Barnet, N. 

Besley, Canon W. P. (Barnstaple), M.A., 9, Amen Court, St. Paul's, E.C. 
Vice-President. 

Bickerton, E. H. (Stonehouss) 7, Bushey Hill Road, Camberwell, S.E. 

Bidgood, G. S. (Tiverton), 8, Hornsey Lane Gardens, Highgate, N. 

Bidgood, Mrs., 8, Hornsey Lane Gardens, Highgate, N. 

Bidgood, R. (Tiverton), 20, Beaconsfield Road, New Southgate, N. 

Bird, Wm. (Shaldon), 170, Fordwych Rd., Cricklewood, N.W. 

TO 



146 The Devonian Year Book, 191 4 

Bishenden, Mrs. I. M. (Newton Abbot), 105, New Oxford Street, W. 
Blackmore, W. (Uffculme), 50, Aston Road, Raynes Park, S.W. 
Bond, Mrs. Douglas (Tavistock), 22, Surrey Street, Victoria Embank- 
ment, W.C. 
Bone, G. B. (Stoke Damerell), 4, Raymond Buildings, Gray's Inn, W.C. 
* Bourne, C. W. (Ilfracombe), 19, Fairlawn Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 
Bowden, A. T. (North Tawton), 76, Newgate Street, E.C. 
JBoyce, Archdeacon (Tiverton), St. Paul's Rectory, Cleveland Street, 

Sydney, N.S.W. 
JBrendon, — (Broadwood), Brighton Road, Remuera, Auckland. (New 
Zealand Assoc). 
Bridgeman, G. E. (Ugborough), 8, Lavender Sweep, Clapham Common, 

S.W. Committee. 
Bridgeman, S. J. S. (Ugborough), 14, Bowood Road, Clapham Common, 

S.W. 
Brimicombe, M. H. (Totnes), 22, Norfolk Street, Dalston, N.E. 
Brodie, C. H. (Exeter), F.R.I.B.A., 77, Park Lane, Croydon. 
Bromfield, T. (Exeter Club), 31, Ashburnham Grove, Greenwich. 
Bromham, Addison J. (Barnstaple), Westward Ho, Wimbledon Common, 
j Brooking, G. A., 17, Molyneux Road, Waterloo, Liverpool. (Liverpool 
Assoc.). 
Brown, A. S. (Sidbury), 61, Hubert Grove, Landor Road, Stockwell, S.E. 
Brown, Mrs. A. S. (Sidbury), 61, Hubert Grove, Landor Road, Stockwell, 

S.E. 
JBrown, Henry T. S. (Plymouth), 17, Newton Street, Ottawa, Canada 

(Ottawa Soc). 
% Browning, W. B., Down St. Mary, Bow, North Devon. 
JBryant, E. D. (descent), 8, Florence Street, Ottawa, Canada. (Ottawa Soc.) 
Burgoyne, Mrs. S. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper 
Clapton, N.E. 
*Burlace, J. B. (Brixham), 38, Corfton Road, Ealing, W. Vice-President', 

Committee. 
*Burn, Colonel C. R. (Torquay), M.P., 48, Cadogan Place, W. 
Burrows, B. (Honiton), 67, Peterborough Road, Fulham, S.W. 
Burton, E. Cave- (Exeter), 46, Kenilworth Road, Penge, S.E. 
% Burton, H. (Newton Abbot), 144, Oxford Road, Reading. (Reading 
Assoc). 
Buse, A. G. (Shebbear), 16, Stamford Street, S.E. 

JButland, W. (Dittisham), 101, Clive Road, Fratton, Portsmouth. (Ports- 
mouth Soc). 
Byrne, K. J. J. (Kingsteignton), " The Elms," Orange Hill, Edgware, 
Middlesex. 

Campbell, R. J. P. (Exeter), 15, St. Margaret's Road, Plumstead. 
Cann, C. E. (Barnstaple), " Fairlight," Regent's Park Road, Finchley, N. 
Cann, G. H. (Northam), 35, Grosvenor Avenue, East Sheen. 
Cann, Mrs. F. H. (Northam), 35, Grosvenor Avenue, East Sheen. 
JCann, James (Bideford), 8, Elgin Park, Redland, Bristol. (Bristol Soc). 
Cann, J. O. (Brixham), 184, Euston Road, N.W. 
Cann, Miss M. (Morchard Bishop), 54, Alconbury Road, Upper Clapton, 

N.E. 
Carnell, John (Ottery St. Mary), 83, Phillimore Mews, High Street, 

Kensington. 
Carroll, C. (Torquay), 48, Manor Road, Stoke Newington, N. 
♦Carter, G. E. L. (Exmouth), B.A., I.C.S., Assistant-Collector, Tatta 

Division, Karachi, Sind, India. 



List of Members and Associates 147 

JCarter, Miss Ellen G. (Hartland), Hartland, North Devon. 
Carter, Mrs. Lilian (Exeter), 86, St. James's Road, Barnsbury, N. 
Caunter, L. G. (Exeter), Eversholt Lodge, New Barnet. 
Champion, Norman W. (Shaldon), 8, Holmewood Gardens, Brixton Hill, 

S.W. 
Champion, W. (Shaldon), 8, Holmewood Gardens, Brixton Hill, S.W. 
^Chanter, Rev. J. F., M.A. (Barnstaple), The Rectory, Parracombe, 

North Devon. 
JChapple, W. E. Pitfield, The Shrubbery, Axminster, Devon. 
Chettleburgh, Mrs. (Plympton St. Maurice), 38, Redcliffe Gardens, W. 
+Chope, H. F. (Hartland), 27, Carsick View Road, Sheffield. 
JChope, J. A. (Hartland), Rothes, Morayshire. 
JChope, Eng.-Commander W. D., R.N. (Hartland), H.M.S. Pembroke, 

Chatham. 
*Chope, R. Pearse (Hartland), B.A., Patent Office, 25, Southampton 

Buildings, W.C. Deputy-Chairman. 
JChubb, R. W. {Calcutta Soc). 

Churchward, Miss Doris (Torquay), 409, Oxford Street, W. 
Churchward, Miss M. (Torquay), 409, Oxford Street, W. 
Churston, Rt. Hon. Lord (Brixham), C.V.O., Lupton, Brixham. Vice- 
President. 
Clark, W. H. D. (Plymouth), Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, 

W.C. 
Clarke, E. (Exeter Club), 14, Claude Road, Upton Park, E. 
Clarke, H. L. (Torrington) , London & South- Western Bank, Wanstead, 

Essex. 
Clarke, John (Honiton), 45, Marloes Road, Kensington, W. 
Clarke, Miss E. E. (descent), 41, Church Road, Brixton, S.W. 
Clarke, T. (Ottery St. Mary), 41, Church Road, Brixton, S.W. 
Clifford, Colonel E. T. (Exeter), V.D., 6, Cranley Gardens, S.W. Vice- 
President; Chairman of Association. 
* Clifford of Chudleigh, Rt. Hon. Lord (Ugbrooke), Ugbrooke Park, Chud- 
leigh. Vice-President. 
Coad, R. Lawson (Ilfracombe), 27 and 28, Old Jewry, E.C. 
JCoates, Lieut. -Col. Herbert, V.D. (West Town), 7, St. Stephen's Avenue, 

Bristol. {Bristol Soc). 
Cole, N. (Salcombe), 46, Melgund Road, Highbury, N. Committee. 
Cole, Mrs. N. (Salcombe), 46, Melgund Road, Highbury, N. 
Cole, S. J. (Hartland), M.R.C.S., Hampden Residential Club, Phoenix 

Street, N.W. 
♦Coleridge, Rev. G. F., M.A., R.D. (Cadbury), The Vicarage, Crowthorne, 

Berks. {Reading Assoc). 
*Coles, John (Tiverton), J. P., 4, Kensington Park Gardens, W. 
Vice-President. 
Coles, W. Crosbie (Bideford), 23, Esmond Gardens, Bedford Park, W. 
Collings, J. A. (Plymouth), 273, Uxbridge Road, W. 
Colwill, C. (North Petherwin), Pentire, Coombe Road, Croydon. 
Commin, Miss A. L. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 
Commin, E. G. (Exeter), 94, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 
Commin, Mrs. E. G. (Exeter), 94, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 
Commin, F. J. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 
Commin, Mrs. F. J. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 
Commin, Miss M. O. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 
Commin, R. G. (Exeter), 96, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 
Congdon, A. R. (Hartland), 187a Brompton Road, S.W. 
Cook, Miss A. (Ottery St. Mary), 64, Atlantic Road, Brixton, S.W. 



148 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Coombes, C. S. (Devonport), Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, 

W.C. 
Copp, A. E. G. (Barnstaple), 21, Trinity Road, Wimbledon. 
Cork, F. (Appledore), 18, Wood Street, E.C. 
Cornish, J. F. (Tiverton), 42, Seymour Street, Euston, N.W. 
Cornwall, Sir Edwin A: (Lapford), M.P., L.C.C., 3, Whitehall Court, S.W. 
Vice - Pyb s ids fit 
*Cory, Sir Clifford J., Bart. (Bideford), M.P., 98, Mount Street, W. 

Vice-President. 
♦Cottle, J. (Calcutta Soc). 

} Couch, Mrs. A. W. (Brixham), 16, Palace Avenue, Paignton. 
JCouch, E. (Brixham), 16, Palace Avenue, Paignton. 
Couch, G. W. (Exeter), Vernon Lodge, Carshalton. 
Cox, F., 74, Lansdowne Road, Clapham Park, S.W. 
Cox, Mrs. F., 74, Lansdowne Road, Clapham Park, S.W. 
Coysh, R. H. (Dartmouth), 17, Delafield Road, Charlton, S.E. 
Craigie, D. C, 38, Wilton Place, S.W. 
JCranch, — (West Alvington), 2, Vincent Street, Auckland. (New 

Zealand Assoc). 
Cray, M. G. A. (Exeter Club), 175, Graham Road, Hackney, N.E. 
JCrocker, H. M. (Calcutta Soc). 

Crook, R. H. J. (Newton Abbot), 15, Bedford Street, Strand, W.C. 
JCrossman, H. M. (Bideford), 4, Donnington Road, Reading. (Reading 
Assoc). 
Cummings, S. Abbott (Torquay), 3, Arlington Mansions, Chiswick, W. 
*Cummings, V. J., c/o Devonian Society, Victoria, British Columbia. 
Cummings, William Hayman (Sidbury), Mus.D. (Dub.), F.S.A., Hon. 

R.A.M., Sydcote, Dulwich, S.E: Vice-President. 
Cutcliffe, J. (Dawlish), National Provincial Bank, 15, Bishopsgate, E.G. 

Dart, J. A. (Ilfracombe), 19, Waldegrave Road, Hornsey, N. 
JDavey, F. E. R. (Exeter), 13, Cranbrook Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Davey, Franklin (Devonport), " Homestead," Onslow Road, Richmond 

Hill, S.W. 
Davey, G. W. (Sampford Spiney), 16, John Street, Bedford Row, W.C. 

Committee. 
X Davis, W. J. (Brixham), 16, Hercules Street, Mile End, Portsmouth. 

(Portsmouth Assoc). 
JDe la Bere, Rev. J. (Woolfardisworthy), Woolsery Rector}*, Morchard 

Bishop, Devon. 
JDe la Bere, Rev. S. H. (Woolfardisworthy), Woolsery Rectory, Morchard 

Bishop, Devon. 
Dickson, Miss Florence (Dawlish), 22, Caroline Street, Camden Town, N.W. 
♦Distin, Alban L. G. (Paignton), 11, Melrose Terrace, Shepherd's Bush 

Road, W. 
Distin, Frank (Totnes), 22, Carter Lane, E.C. 
♦Distin, Howard (Paignton), M.B., Holtwhite House, Enfield. 
J Dodge, Albert (Teignmouth), Elmgrove Road, Cotham, Bristol. (Bristol 
Soc). 
Dodridge, A. E. (Devonport), " Moulin," Cromwell Road, Beckenham. 
tDoe, G. M. (Torrington), Enfield, Torrington, North Devon. 
tDoe, G. W. A. (Torrington), Enfield, Torrington, North Devon. 
JDolton, J. A. (Calcutta Soc). 

Dommett, W. E. (Devonport), The Elms, Milner Road, Kingston-on- 
Thames. 
Donald, J. (Devonport), 20, Sprules Road, Brockley, S.E. Committer. 



List of Members and Associates 149 

JDrake, Major W. Hedley, Bryn Willow, Polsham Park, Paignton, Devon. 
♦Drew, S. T. (Barnstaple), Public Library, Swansea. (Swansea Soc. ; 
Corresponding Associate.) 
Duke, H. E. (Plymouth), K.C., M.P., 1, Paper Buildings, Temple, E.C. 

Vice-President. 
Dunn, A. E. (Exeter), 70, Victoria Street, S.W. Vice-President. 
Dunn, F. W. (South Molton), 8, Westmount Road, Eltham, Kent. 
I Dunn, J. H. (Bideford), Crofts, Lea Park, Ilfracombe. 

Earl, T. S. (Devonport), 30. Marlow Road, East Ham. 

Eastmond, J. E. Rawle (Tiverton), 44, Charing Cross, S.W. 

Easton, H. T. (Exeter), Union of London and Smiths Bank, Lombard 
Street, E.C. Vice-President. 
♦Ebden, W. R. Hern, 43, Caledon Road, East Ham, E. 
lEdwards, L. (Calcutta Soc). 
'Edy, C. W. (Tiverton), 18, Kew Road, Richmond. 

Edy, Mrs. C. W. (Tiverton), 18, Kew Road, Richmond. 
JEdye, Lieut. -Colonel L. (Hatherleigh), Stanley Court, Stanley Street, 
Montreal, Canada. 

Ellis, Miss G. M. (descent), 1, Lena Gardens, West Kensington Park, W. 
JEllis, James (Bideford), 391, London Road, Reading. (Reading Assoc.) 
£ Ellis, Mrs. S. T. (Devonport), 11, Maiden Lane, Stamford, Lines. 

Elston, F. W. H. (Exmouth), 6, Cann Hall Road, Leytonstone, N.E. 

Elston, Miss M. (Plymouth), 6, Cann Hall Road, Leytonstone, N.E. 

Endicott, Miss Hetty (Axminster), 102, Winstanley Road, Clapham Com- 
mon, S.W. 

Eustace, A. J., 55, Gracechurch Street, E.C. 

Eustace, Mrs. (Torquay), " Syringa," Parkhurst Road, Sutton, Surrey. 

Evans, Mrs. (Plymouth), 41, Louisville Road, Balham, S.W. 
•Eveleigh, Miss Helen (Exeter), 186, St. James Court, Buckingham Gate, 
S.W. 

Everett, W. J. (Plymouth), 100, Devonshire Road, Holloway, N. 

Everett, Mrs., 100, Devonshire Road, Holloway, N. 

Exeter, The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of, The Palace, Exeter. Vice- 
President. 

Farrant, H. G. (Hemiock), J. P., 3, Paper Buildings, Temple, E.C. 
JFast, Mrs. (Plymouth), Manukan Rd., Epsom, Auckland. (New Zealand 

Assoc.) 
+ Fenn, E. H. (Plymouth), Commercial Hotel, King William's Town, South 

Africa. 
Foale, Miss A. G. (descent), 29, Aldridge Road Villas, Westbourne Park, W. 
Foale, P. (Blackawton), 29, Aldridge Road Villas, Westbourne Park, W. 
Foale, W. E. (descent), 29, Aldridge Road Villas, Westbourne Park, W. 
Forbes, Mrs. J. (Torquay), 1, Delafield Road, Old Charlton, S.E. 
Ford, Clift (Plymouth), 17, High Street, Willesden Junction, N.W. 
Ford, J. (Plymouth), 49, Nicol Road, Harlesden, N.W. 
Fortescue, Rt. Hon. Earl (Filleigh), K.C.B., A.D.C., Lord Lieutenant of 

Devon, Castle Hill, South Molton, N. Devon. Past President. 
Foster, H. Blake (Exeter), 81, Manchuria Road, S.W. 
JFowler, Rev. Canon, M.A., D.Sc. (Tavistock), The Vicarage, Earley, 

near Reading. (Reading Assoc.) 
+ Fox, Bartholomew (Sidmouth), Carberry Tower, Musselburgh, N.B. 
Fraser, Ernest (Exeter), 32, Hatton Garden, E.C. 
i Friendship, J. (Torrington), 41, Logan Road, Bishopston, Bristol. 
(Bristol Soc.) 



150 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

*Galsworthy, John, Wingstone, Manaton, Devon. Vice-President. 

Gamble, Rev. H. R. (Barnstaple), M.A., Sloane Street, S.W. Vice- 
President. 
JGarland, H. (Barnstaple), 4, Redland Hill, Bristol. {Bristol Soc.) 

Geen, H. (Okehampton), ia, Middle Temple Lane, E.C. 

Geen, Mrs. H. (Okehampton), ia. Middle Temple Lane, E.C. 

Gibson, Thos. (Appledore), 6, Moore Park Road, Fulham, S.W. 

Gill, Allen (Devonport), F.R.A.M., 5, Lincoln House, Dartmouth Park 
Hill, N.W. Vice-President. 

Gillham, H. (Burlescombe), 222, Central Market, E.C. Committee. 

Gillham, Mrs., 90, Blenheim Gardens, Cricklewood, N.W. 

Glanvill, H. Wreford- (Exeter), 35, Strawberry Hill Road, Twickenham. 

Glanville, J. Pascoe (Plymouth), 3, Danecroft Gardens, Heme Hill, S.E. 

Godfrey, Mrs. F. A. (descent), Homeville, Merton Avenue, Chiswick, W. 

Godfrey, S. H. (Ottery St. Mary), Homeville, Merton Avenue, Chiswick, W. 

Godsland, G. B. (Bovey Tracey), 16, Moor Lane, E.C. 

Goodman, W. H. (Devonport), 160, Ardgowan Road, Catford, S.E. 
JGovier, W. T. (North Molton), 26, Canterbury Road, Southsea. (Ports- 
mouth Assoc.) 

Grainger, H. (Torquay), 266, Walworth Road, S.E. 

Grant, Miss B. M. (Torrington), 42, Weymouth Street, Portland Place, W. 

Grant, Mrs. (Stoke Fleming), 2, St. Mary's Road, North Kensington, W. 

Greenhouse, Mrs. F. (descent), 115, Newington Green Road, N. 

Grigg, R. (Exmouth), 113, Victoria Road, Old Charlton, S.E. 

Grills, W. E. (Holsworthy), 524, Caledonian Road, N. 

Gulliford, W. (Exeter), 28, Danby Street, Peckham, S.E. 
JGurney, Rev. Walter B. (Bratton Clovelly), Poughill Rectory, Crediton, 
N. Devon. 

Halsbury, Rt. Hon. the^ Earl of (Parkham), 4, Ennismore Gardens, W. 

President. 
Hambly, T. H. (Newton Abbot), 65, Napier Road, West Ham, E. 
Hambly, Miss M. E. (Newton Abbot), 65, Napier Road, West Ham, E. 
Hammick, Miss Daisy (Stoke Gabriel), Clifton House, Bridge Road, 

East Molesey. 
Hancock, Miss A. M. (Barnstaple), 78, Bishop's Road, Bayswater, W. 
Hancock, H. H. M. (Barnstaple), 56, Devereux Road, Wandsworth 

Common, S.W. Committee. 
Hancock, Mrs. (Barnstaple), 56, Devereux Road, Wandsworth Common, 

S.W. 
Handford, W. (Barnstaple), " Barum," Ovalway, Gerrards Cross. 
% Harding, W. (Parracombe), Landore, Swansea. (Swansea Soc.) 
Harris, J. J. (Bideford), 144, Amesbury Avenue, Streatham Hill, S.W. 
Harris, Miss Bertha A. (Parracombe), " Ilton," 69, Amersham Road, 

New Cross, S.E. 
Harris, Mrs. Blanche (Plymouth), 96, Croxted Road, West Dulwich, S.E. 
Harris, Frank (Exeter), L.C.C. School, Orange Street, Southwark, S.E. 
Harris, Gilbert (Plymouth), C.A., 78, Wood Street, E.C. Hon. Auditor. 
♦Harvey, H. Fairfax-, Croyle, near Cullompton, Devon. 
Harvey, Miss B. (Tiverton), 855, Fulham Road, S.W. 
Hatch, J. C. (Stonehouse), 87, South Lambeth Road, S.W. 
% Hawkins, J. (Teignmouth), Summerhill Park, Bathurst, Cape Colony, 

S. Africa. 
Haynes, J. T. (Hartland), J.P., 22, Knollys Road, Streatham, S.W. 
Heard, Dr. J., 25, Woodwarde Road, Dulwich, S.E. 
JHeard, W. E. (Northam), J. P., Winchester House, Newport, Mon. 



List of Members and Associates 151 

Hearson, C. E. (Barnstaple), 5, Templar Street, Myatt's Park, S.E. 
Hearson, Prof. T. A. (Barnstaple), M.Inst. C.E., 14-15, Southampton 

Buildings, W.C. 
Hearson, Mrs. (Horrabridge), 81, Ridgemount Gardens, Gower St., W.C 
Hearson, Miss Violet C. (Barnstaple), 5, Templar St., Myatt's Park, S.E. 
Hearson, W. E. (Barnstaple), " Kippington," Sevenoaks, Kent. 
J Heath, Miss (Plymouth), " Tregantle," Woodside Road, Mount Eden, 

Auckland. (New Zealand Assoc.) 
JHellings, R. Merlin (Tiverton), 3, Nugent Street, Auckland. (New 

Zealand Assoc.) 
|Henning, Rev. J., Cockington Vicarage, Torquay. 

*Henson, S., P.O. Box 1248, Victoria, New Brunswick. (Victoria, B.C., 
Devonian Society.) 
Hesse, F. W. (Tiverton), 5, Moorgate Street, E.C. 
Hesse, Mrs. N. (Tiverton), 5, Moorgate Street, E.C. 

JHews, T. G. (Tiverton), 8, Clarendon Road, Sketty, Swansea. (Swansea 
Soc.) 
Heywood, G. W. (Bideford), 336, Holloway Road, N. 
Heywood, Mrs. Isabel (Bideford), 336, Holloway Road, N. 
Heywood, Percy (Bideford), 3, Brigstock Road, Thornton Heath. 
Hill, Edmund J. (Dartmouth), " Norhyrst," Holmwood Gardens, 

Wallington, Surrey. 
Hill, Mrs. E. G. (Dartmouth), " Norhyrst," Holmwood Gardens, Wal- 
lington, Surrey. 
Hill, H. W. (Exeter), 14, Highlever Road, North Kensington, W. 
Hill, J. A. (Holcombe Rogus), C.A., 19a, Coleman Street, E.C. Hon. 

Auditor. 
JHill, J. Ball- (Calcutta Soc.) 
JHine, H. C. (Exeter), 20, Kensington Road, North End, Portsmouth. 

(Portsmouth Soc.) 
Hobbs, Frank (Molland), 119, Upper Richmond Road, Putney. 
Hockaday, F. (Dawlish), 82, Geraldine Road, Wandsworth, S.W. 
JHodder, P. C. (Aveton Gifford), 19, Chitty Road, East Southsea. (Ports- 
mouth Soc.) 
♦Hodge, F. (Heavitree), " The Homestead," Bishop's Avenue, East Finchley. 
Holloway, Miss W. A. (Plymouth), 8, Glebe Place, Chelsea, S.W. 
+ Holman, J. Bertram (Bideford), 10, High Street, Tunbridge Wells. 
Holmes, A. H. (Parracombe), " Ilton," 69, Amersham Road, New Cross, 
S.E. 
*Hooper, A.Shelton, J. P., Hong-Kong. (President Hong-Kong Soc.) 
Hooper, Joseph (Bridestowe), 195, Widmore Road, Bromley, Kent. 
Hooper, Mrs. (Bridestowe), 195, Widmore Road, Bromley Kent,. 
Hooper, W. (Cristow), 52, Northfield Avenue, Ealing, W. 
X Hooper, W. E. (Devonport), 43, Strathcona Street, Ottawa, Canada. 

(Ottawa Soc.) 
♦Hooppell, Rev. J. L. E. (Aveton Gifford), St. Peter's Vicarage, Hoxton 
Square, N. 
Hopkins, Mr., 61, Great Ormond Street, W.C. 
Hopkins, Mrs., 61, Great Ormond Street, W.C. 
JHopper, A. E., Queen Anne's Chambers, Barnstaple, Devon. 
JHore, W. J. B. (Dawlish), Hotel Continental, Gibraltar. 
Horton, A. J. (Morleigh), 35, Cranstone Road, Brockley, S.E. 
JHoskin, John, " Armadale," Culverden Park Road, Tunbridge Wells. 
Hosking, W. Champion (Shaldon), 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 
Howie, Mrs. J. R. C. (Tiverton), 36, Pepys Road, Raynes Park, S.W. 



152 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Howland, Harman J. (Plymouth), 52, St. James's Square, Holland 
Park, W. 
♦Hughes, T. Cann (Hittisleigh), M.A., F.S.A., 78, Church Street, Lancaster. 

Vice-President. 
* Hughes, Mrs. Cann (Chulmleigh), 78, Church St., Lancaster. 
Hunter, Mrs. J. Pomeroy, 5, Shaftesbury Villas, Kensington, W. 
Hurley, J. W. (Ottery St. Mary), 80, Eardley Road, Streatham, S.W. 
Hutchings, C. F. H. (Exeter), 10, Old Devonshire Road, Balham. 
Hutchings, Miss Louie (Torquay), 205, Shirland Road, W. 

Inman, Miss Melina (Stoke Gabriel. " Sherbourne," Longley Rd., Tooting, 

S.W. 
Inman, W. (Stoke Gabriel), " Sherbourne," Longley Road, Tooting, 

S.W. Committee. 
Inman, Mrs. W. (Stoke Gabriel), " Sherbourne," Longley Road, Tooting, 

S.W. 

Jackson, Sir John (Plymouth), M.P., Pounds, near Plymouth. Vice- 
President. 
James, Richard, " Broadclyst," Rutford Road, Streatham, S.W. 
JJeffery, Frank C. (Exeter), Rockdale, West Park Drive, Westcliff-on-Sea. 
JJeffery, Mrs. M. L., " Rockdale," West Park Drive, Westcliff-on-Sea. 
JJones, J. (Plymouth), " Devonia," 301, Edge Lane, Liverpool. {Liver- 
pool Association.) 
£ Jones, John (Barnstaple), 34, George Street, Swansea. {Swansea Soc.) 
*Josland, F. (Chawleigh), " Claremont," St. John's Road, Sidcup, Kent. 

J Kekewich, A. St. John Mackintosh (Exminster), Devonshire Regiment, 
Exeter. 
Kekewich, C. Granville (Axminster), 2, Suffolk Lane, E.C. 
Kekewich, Sir G. W. (Peamore), K.C.B., D.C.L., St. Albans, Feltham, 

Middlesex. Vice-President. 
Kelly, A. (Belstone), 66. Brayburne Avenue, Clapham, S.W. 
Kelly, Mrs. E. (Northlew), 66, Brayburne Avenue, Clapham, S.W. 
JKerswell, J. C. (Plymouth), 4, Uplands Terrace, Swansea. {Swansea Soc.) 
King, C. W. (Newton Abbot). 

Kingcombe, H. F. (Yealmpton), 10, Cato Road, Clapham Road, S.W. 
JKingcome, C. {Calcutta Soc). 
Kingcome, Miss Ada (Plymouth), 12, Burwood Place, Norfolk Crescent, 

W. 
Kingcome, Miss Emily (Plymouth), 12, Burwood Place, Norfolk Crescent, 

W. 
Kinsey, F. M. (West Buckland School), Florence Villa, 16, Harrow 

View, Wealdstone. 
JKnill, H. I. (Barnstaple), 32, Rhondda Street, Swansea. {Swansea Soc.) 

Laing, Mrs. H. B., 4, Heath Hurst Road, Hampstead, N.W. 
Lake, R. C. (Plymouth), 152, Risley Avenue, Tottenham, N. 
Lambert, Right Hon. George (Spreyton), M.P., 34, Grosvenor Road, 
Westminster, S.W. Vice-President. 
^Lancaster, W. J., J. P., " Santa Margherita," Torquay. 
Lane, John (West Putford), " Bodley Head," Vigo Street, W. Vice- 
President. 
Lang, C. E. (Teignmouth), 81, Cannon Street, E.C. 
Lang, Mrs. E. L. (Teignmouth), 81, Cannon Street, E.C. 
Lang, G. E., 130, Elborough Street, Southfields, S.W. 



List of Members and Associates 153 

Lang, H. W. (Stonehouse), 7, Bayer Street, Golden Lane, E.C. 

Lang, W. H. (Ottery St. Mary), 33, Hopedale Road, Charlton, S.E. 

Larkworthy, H. S. (Kinton), 171, Hartfield Road, Wimbledon. 
*Larkworthy, J. W. (Meeth), " Bucklands," Nether Street, North Finchley. 
*Larkworthy, Mrs. J. W., " Bucklands," Nether Street, North Finchley. 

Lascelles, W. H. (Exeter), 28, Barclay Road, Croydon. 

Lawday, Miss K. (Kingsnympton), 45, Cambridge Terrace, Hyde Park, W. 

Lawrence, R. L. (Cullompton), 1 & 2, Russia Row, Milk Street, E.C. 

Lawrence, R. Reginald (Cullompton), 1 & 2, Russia Row, E.C. 
^Laycock, C. H., Cross Street, Moretonhampstead, Devon. 

Leat, J. (Exeter), B.A., Stoke Road, Slough. 

Lethbridge, C, 24, Great St. Helens, E.C. 

Lethbridge, J. (Tedburn St. Mary), 59, The Chase, Clapham Common, S.W. 

Lethbridge, Sir Roper, K.C.I.E., Exbourne Manor, Exbourne R.S.O., 
North Devon. Vice-President. 
iJLewthwaite, A. A. (Devonport), " Devonia," West Bank Road, Devon- 
shire Park, Birkenhead. {Liverpool Assoc.) 
|Lidiard, Lieut. H. E., R.N.S.M. (Stonehouse), 50, Campbell Road, 
Southsea. {Portsmouth Assoc.) 

Lock, W. G. (Instow), 5, Copthall Buildings, E.C. 

Lopes, Sir H. Y-B., Bart. (Maristow), Roborough, Devon. Vice-President. 

Lovell, H. F. (Chulmleigh), 49, Agamemnon Road, West Hailipstead, N.W. 

Lovell, J. (Ottery St. Mary), 161, Eardley Road, Streatham, S.W. 

Loveridge, F. (descent), 8, Eastmean Road, Dulwich, S.E. 

Loveridge, Mrs. C. M. (Holsworthy), 8, Eastmean Road, Dulwich, S.E. 

Loveridge, G. A., 3, Alma Square, St. John's Wood, W. 

Loveridge, Miss M. R. (descent), 8, Eastmean Road, Dulwich, S.E. 

Luxton, J. (Coleridge), 184, Essex Road, N. 
*Lyons, Frank I. (Stonehouse), 15, Old Cavendish Street, W. 

McCormack, W. J. (Plymouth), J.P., " Dunkeld," Slough, Bucks. 

Committee. 
^Maker, A. J. (Chillaton), " Chillaton," Tilehurst Rd., Reading. {Reading 

Assoc.) 
+Marles, W. J. (Crediton), 52, Oxford Street, Swansea. {Swansea Soc.) 

Masters, Miss Jessie (Yealmpton), 25, Bruton Street, Mayfair. 

Matthews, H. B. (Devonport), 14, Chesham Street, Brighton. 

Maunder, W. H. (Staverton), 7, Somerfield Road, Finsbury Park, N. 

Melluish, G. (Ottery St. Mary), 4, Little Pulteney Street, Shaftesbury 
Avenue, W. 

Metherell, C. (North Tawton), 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 

Mildmay, F. B. (Flete), M.P., Flete, Ivybridge, Devon. Vice-President. 

Mildren, A. V. (Beer), 2, Colwell Road, East Dulwich, S.E. 
JMilford, F. P. {Calcutta Soc. ; Corresponding Associate.) 

Millar, Mrs. A. J. (Burrington), 5, Denbigh Road, Bayswater, W. 

Milton, J. (Ide, near Exeter), 72, Grove Park, Denmark Hill, S.E. 

Milton, S. J. (Crediton), 139, Kensington High Street, W. 

Morey, Mrs. (Plymouth), 41, Louisville Road, Balham, S.W. 
"Morris, R. Burnet (South Molton), 24, Bramham Gardens, S.W. 

Morrison-Bell, Major A. Clive, M.P., Harpford House, Ottery St. Mary. 
Vice-President. 

Morrison-Bell, Captain E. F„ M.P., Pitt House, Chudleigh. Vice- 
President. 

Mount Edgcumbe, Rt. Hon. the Earl of, PC, G.C.V.O., V.D., Winter 
Villa, Stonehouse. Vice-President. 

Mourant, R. W. (Exeter), 104, Fore Street, E.C. 



154 Th e Devonian Year Book, 1914 

*Moyse, C. E. (Torquay), McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 

JMudge, Arthur J. (Plymouth), 505, Cooper Street, Ottawa, Canada. 

(Ottawa Soc.) 
Mutten, A. W. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper 

Clapton. N.E 
Mutten, Mrs. A. W. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, 

Upper Clapton, N.E. 
Mutten, C. R. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper Clapton, 

N.E. 
Mutten, Miss E. B. L. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, 

Upper Clapton, N.E. 
Mutten, Miss N. E. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper 

Clapton, N.E. 
Mutten, Miss W. A. (Devonport), Hillside, Mount Pleasant Lane, Upper 

Clapton, N.E. 



^Newcombe, C. H. K. (Braunton), 21, Mirador Crescent, Swansea. 
JNiner, R. K. (Torquay), 12, Palmerston Road, Southsea. (Portsmouth Soc.) 
Norrish, A. J. H. (Bideford), Kisber, Queen's Avenue, Church End, 
Finchley, N. 



Oakley, R. O. (Beer), Patent Office, Southampton Buildings, W.C. 

Oakley, Mrs. F. E. (Ottery St. Mary), 54, Sydney Road, Hornsey, N. 

Offord, W. (Exeter), 72, Church Road, Willesden, N.W. 
^Oliver, W. H. (Westleigh, Bideford), " Inglenook," Albert Road, Caver- 
sham, near Reading. (Reading Assoc.) 

Olliff, Mrs. Amy (Bideford), 12, Symons Street, Sloane Square, S.W. 
JOsmond, C. F., P.O. Box 165, Bulawayo, South Africa. 
JOwen, W. A. (Shaldon), King William's Town, South Africa. 

Owen, W. D. (Axmouth), The Poplars, Somerset Road, Brentford. 



JPallett, Alfred R. (Devonport), 627, McLaren Street, Ottawa, Canada. 

(Ottawa Soc.) 
Parkyn, H. (Okehampton) , 413, Oxford Street, W. 
*Parr, R. J. (Torquay), 40, Leicester Square, W.C. Vice-President. 
Parsons, F. R. (Plymouth), 64, Basinghall Street, E.C. 
Passmore, W. (Tiverton), 101, Elspeth Road, Clapham Common, S.W. 
Paterson, Miss Edith (Honiton), 16, Kingsgate Mansions, Red Lion 

Square. 
Paterson, Mrs. R. M. (descent), 50, Barrington Road, Brixton, S.W. 
Pawley, Mrs. (Plymouth), 98, Ramsden Road, Balham, S.W. 
Peace, J. W. Graham, 61, Dynevor Road, High Street, Stoke Newington, N. 
JPearce, J. Cyprian (Kingsbridge), " The Times of Malaya," Ipok, Perak, 

Federated Malay States. 
JPedler, Mrs. Carter-, Reeve Castle, Bow, N. Devon. 
JPedler, Dr. H. (Calcutta Soc). 
Peek, Sir Wilfrid, Bart. (Rousdon), 22, Belgrave Square, S.W. Vice- 
President. 
*Pennell, Commander H. L. L., R.N. (Awliscombe), 15, Queen Anne 
Street, Cavendish Square, W. Vice-President. 
Penny, A. J. (Ottery St. Mary), 118, Cromwell Road, Wimbledon. 
Perry, F. A. (Tiverton), 4, Kirchen Road, West Ealing, W. Committee. 
Peter, Charles (Bradninch), 9, Cedar Road, Teddington. 



List of Members and Associates 155 

Petherick, P. J. (Holsworthy) , 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 

Philp, C. R. S. (Plymouth), The Livesey Library, Old Kent Road, S.E. 

Philp, Mrs. E. L. (Plymouth), 26, Crystal Palace Road, S.E. 

Philp, D. B. (Devonport), 44, Homefield Road, Chiswick, W. 

Phillpotts, Eden (Exeter), Eltham, Torquay. Vice-President. 

Pike, Mrs., " Exonia," 37, Holmewood Gardens, Brixton Hill, S.W. 

Pike, W. A. (Exeter), 37, Holmewood Gardens, Brixton Hill, S.W. 
♦Pilditch, Philip E. (Plymouth), J.P., L.C.C., 2, Pall Mall East, S.W. 
Vice-President. 

Pillman, J. C. (Plymouth), J. P., The Cottage, Foots Cray, Kent. Vice- 
President. 

Pinkham, Alderman C. (Plympton), J. P., C.C., Linden Lodge, Winchester 
Avenue, Brondesbury, N.W. Vice-President; Chairman of Committee. 

Pinn, F. G. (Sidmouth), 764, Fulham Road, S.W. 

Pinn, Mrs. (Plympton St. Maurice), 764, Fulham Road, S.W. 
JPitchford, W. (Plymouth), 8, Cotham Gardens, Bristol. {Bristol Soc.) 

Pocock, R. W. (descent), 51, Radnor Road, Harrow, W. 
i Pollard, J. D. {Calcutta Soc.) 

Pope, W. S. (Sidmouth), 3, St. Ann's Villas, Holland Park, W. 

Popham, Mrs. L. M., 81, Elgin Crescent, W. 

Popham, W. V. M. (West Buckland School), Blomefield House, 85, 
London Wall, E.C. 
^Porter, C. J. (Barnstaple), 54, Beresford Road, Reading. {Reading 
Assoc.) 

Porter, Spicer Russell (Plymouth), Public Trustee Office, 3 & 4, Clement's 
Inn, W.C. 

Potbury, T. R. (Sidmouth), M.A., 35, Park Parade, Harlesden, N.W. 

Powe, G. W. (Cadbury), 44, Creswick Road, Acton, W. 

Powe, H. D. (Plymouth), 13, Ellerby Street, Fulham, S.W. Committee. 

Pride, A. E. (Thorverton), Woodland, Horn Lane, Woodford Green. 
JPrior, A. {Calcutta Soc.) 

Pudifin, Miss K. (Plympton), 6, Cann Hall Road, Leytonstone, N.E. 

Pullman, James, 8, Eastern Road, Wood Green, N. 

♦Quick, Francis, 78, Gillespie Road, Highbury, N. 
Quick, N. (Tavistock), 552, High Road, Tottenham, N. 

Radford, G. H. (Plymouth), M.P., Chiswick House, Ditton Hill, Surrey. 
Vice-President. 
* Radford, Mrs. (Lydford), Chiswick House, Ditton Hill, Surbiton. 
Rawle, H. (Sidmouth), 15, Corrance Road, Brixton, S.W. 
Reader, F. W. (Barnstaple), 51, Haydons Park Road, Wimbledon. 
X Reeve, B. (Stonehouse), Brighton Road, Reumera, Auckland. {New 

Zealand Assoc.) 
+Rich, W. J. (Tywardreath), " St. Fillans," St. Peter's Hill, Caversham, 
Reading. {Reading Assoc.) 
Richards, James (Lynton), 46, Ivanhoe Road, Denmark Hill, S.E. 
^Richardson, W. Gliddon-, Hobson Bay Road, Parnell, New Zealand. 

{New Zealand Assoc.) 
\ Rider, T. (Plymouth), Sandhurst, Goldsmith Avenue, Southsea. {Ports- 
mouth Soc.) 
Roberts, C. Wynne (Torquay), Dryden House, Oundle. 
Rogers, Herbert (descent), 17, Lydford Road, Willesden Green, N.W. 
♦Rogers, W. H. (Bideford), Orleigh Court, Bideford, N. Devon. 
Rose, Miss E. L. Smith- (Exeter), 39, Bark Place, Bayswater, W. 



156 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Rose, Miss R. Smith- (Exeter), Postal Order Branch, G.P.O. 

Rose, Mrs. Smith- (Broadclyst), 39, Bark Place, Bayswater, W. 

Rule, J., 42, Russell Square, W.C. 

Rule, Mrs. (Babbacombe), 42, Russell Square, W.C. 

Ryall, J. (Totnes), 38, Hanover Street, Peckham, S.E. Committee. 

St. Cyres, Rt. Hon. Viscount (Pynes), 84, Eaton Square, S.W. Vice- 
President. 
Salter, Mrs. A. J. (Axminster), 62, West Smithfield, E.C. 
tSaunders, H. {Calcutta Soc.) 
jScott, T. C, Balfour, British Columbia. 

*Seaton, Rt. Hon. Lord (Plympton), Beechwood, Plympton. Vice- 
President. 
Sellick, Miss B., 28, Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
Serjeant, Owen Russell (North Petherwin), The Link House, Stanmore, 
Middlesex. 
JSerle, E. R. (Cullompton), 158, Oxford Street, Swansea. (Swansea Soc.) 
Sharland, A. (Barnstaple), 25, Charleville Circus, West Hill, Sydenham, 

S.E. 
Sharland, A. W. (Exeter), " Edgecumbe," Ashburton Road, E. Croydon. 
Shaw, E. Harved, 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 
Shawyer, J. W. (Filleigh), 5, Hemington Avenue, Friern Barnet, N. 

Hon. Secretary. 
Shawyer, Mrs. J. W., 5, Hemington Avenue, Friern Barnet, N. 
Sheer, J. (North Petherwin), 13, King's College Road, N.W. 
Shelley, F. H. (Swimbridge), National Provincial Bank of England. 
15, Bishopsgate, E.C. 
JShort, W. H. (Plymouth), 23, Denmark Road, Reading. (Reading 
Assoc.) 
Simmons, Sydney (Okehampton), J. P., " Okehampton," Torrington 
Park, Friern Barnet, N. Vice-President. 
JSimpson, F. C, " Maypool," Churston Ferrers, R.S.O., Devon. 
Simpson, Leslie (Stonehouse), Bank House, King St., Hammersmith, W. 
JSkelton, W. (Plymouth), 101, Leslie Street, Toronto, Canada. (Toronto 

Soc). 
JSkewes, J. C. (Bere Alston), Clare Street, Bristol. (Bristol Soc.) 
Skinner, G. E. (Parracombe), 50, Cowley Road, Leyton. 
Skinner, S. M. (Bradninch), 1 Hale Gardens, West Acton. 
Slade, H. J. (Torquay), 11, Maze Road, Kew, S.W. 
Small, A. (Barnstaple), 34, Goldsmith Road, Leyton. 
JSmaridge, S. (Salcombe), 9, Dunraven Road, West Kirby, Liverpool. 

(Liverpool Assoc.) 
Smart, A. (Plymouth), 64, Basinghall St., E.C. 
Smart, E. S. (Barnstaple), 16, Moor Lane, E.C. 
Smart, W. H. (Plymouth), St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 

Committee. 
Smart, Mrs. W. H. (Plymouth), 13, Marsden Road, East Dulwich, S.E. 
Smerdon, W. (South Brent), 11, St. Stephen's Road, Ealing. 
JSmith, E. S. (Bideford), 32, Brisbane Road, Reading. (Reading Assoc.) 
Smith, Granville (Dartmouth), Master of the Supreme Court, Royal 
Courts of Justice, W.C. 
JSmith, H. (Dartmouth), 20, Judge's Drive, Liverpool. (Liverpool Assoc.) 
Smithers, A. E. (Stonehouse), 27, Kennington Park Road, S.E. 
Smithers, Mrs., 27, Kennington Park Road, S.E. 

Snell, C. Scott (Barnstaple), Gravesend House, Ridgeway, Wimbledon. 
Snell, Mrs. C. Scott (Budleigh), Gravesend House, Ridgeway, Wimbledon. 
Snell, Frank (Bampton), " Bampton," EtchinghamPark Rd., Finchley, N. 



List of Members and Associates 157 



Snell, J. (Axminster), Hanger Hill Farm, Ealing. 
*Snell, M. B. (Barnstaple), J. P., 5, Copthall Buildings, E.C. Vice-President. 
Snell, M. Bowden, junr. (Combemartin), 18, Broadwater Down, Tun- 
bridge Wells. 
Snodgrass, Archer A., 7, Charterhouse Square, E.C. 

Snow, G. H. (Barnstaple), " Rosedean," 54, South Park Road, Wimble- 
don. 
JSnow, R. (Tavistock), 21, East Mount Road, York. 
Soames, D. (Exeter), 52, Manor Road, Brockley, S.E. 
Sobey, H. W. (Plympton), 44, Wellmeadow Road, Lewisham, S.E. 
Soper, H. Tapley (Stoke Gabriel), Royal Albert Memorial Library, 

Exeter. Vice-President. 
Southwood, F. C. (Bideford), 105, Abbey Road, N.W. 
Southwood, Mrs. (descent), 105, Abbey Road, N.W. 
Southwood, Miss Dorothy (descent), 105, Abbey Road, N.W. 
Southwood, Miss Mildred (descent), 105, Abbey Road, N.W. 
JSparkes, W. H. (Calcutta Soc.) 
Spear, Arthur (Plymouth), 61, Asylum Road, S.E. 
Spear, Sir John W. (Tavistock), M.P., Tavistock. Vice-President. 
Squire, H. Brinsmead (Torrington), London, County and Westminster 

Bank, 90, Wood Street, E.C. Hon. Treasurer. 
Squire, J. Mallet (Bideford), 36, Grasmere Road, Muswell' Hill, N. 
Squire, J. P. (North Tawton), 150, Waller Road, New Cross, S.E. 
^Squires, Lieut. J., R.M.A. (Barnstaple), 15, Exeter Road, Southsea. 

(Portsmouth Assoc.) 
Stanbury, H. (Plympton), St. Matthew's School, Westminster. 
^Stanley, E. F., 15, Alexandra Road, Waterloo, Liverpool. (Liverpool 

Assoc.) 
JStapleton, G. (Calcutta Soc.) 
Statton, P. G. (Devonport), 123, Lavender Sweep, Clapham Common, 

S.W. 
Steed, A. W. (Devonport), 25, Clavering Road, Aldersbrook, Wanstead 

Park, Essex. 
Steer, Rev. W. H. Hornby (Woodleigh), M.A., 52, Avenue Road, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
Steer, J. W. (Plymouth), " Wood Lee," 45, Raleigh Road, Hornsey, N. 
JStentiford, C. D. (Ashburton), Stow Park Crescent, Newport (Mon.). 
Stevens, E. J., 44, Berkeley Road, Crouch End, N. 
JStewart, Mrs. W. L. (Calcutta Soc.) 

Strange, Oliver (Tiverton), 2a North Avenue, Kew Gardens, S.W. 
Strange, Mrs. Oliver (Tiverton), ia, North Avenue, Kew Gardens, S.W. 
^Stranger, R. E. (Holsworthy), P.O. Box 1025, Cape Town, S. Africa. 
Streat, F. J. (Ottery St. Mary), 5, Ilminster Gardens, Lavender Hill, S.W. 
Stribling, J. Rowdon (Exeter), 50, High Street, Slough, Bucks. 
Strobach, Mrs. (Exeter), 7, Aybrook Street, Manchester Square, W. 
Studley, Frank (Tiverton), " Fairhaven," Cheam Common Hill, Wor- 
cester Park, Surrey. 
Summers, J. (Ottery St. Mary), 44, Grove Hill Road, Peckham, S.E. 

Talbot, Miss Mabel A. (Hockworthy), 42, Weymouth Street, Portland 
Place, W. 

Tarring, F. W. (Harberton), F.R.I.B.A., 26, Coolhurst Road.Crouch End, N. 

Tatton, C, 145, St. Albans Avenue, Bedford Park, Chiswick, W. 

Taverner, J. L., 24, High Street, Ealing, W. 

^Taylor, A., West Buckland School, South Molton, North Devon. 
JTaylor, A. B. (Honiton), 30, Cross St., Reading. (Reading Assoc.) 



158 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Taylor, A. F. (St. Mary Church), Ingleside, Harwell, W. 

Taylor, J. H. (Northam), The Lodge, Old Deer Park, Richmond. 

Committee. 
Taylor, Mrs. C. (Bideford), The Lodge, Old Deer Park, Richmond, Surrey. 
Taylor, Joshua (Northam), 24, Maldon Road, Acton, W. 
Teague, Mrs. A. M. (Buckfastleigh), 87, High Road, Streatham, S.W. 
Thomson, F. J. S. (Exeter), 31, Angell Road, Brixton, S.W. 
Thorn, Miss I. H. (Chagford), 23, Springwell Avenue, Harlesden, N.W. 
Thorn, R. (Chagford), 23, Springwell Avenue, Harlesden, N.W. 
JTimewell, W. U. (Kingsbridge), Devonport, Auckland. [New Zealand 

Assoc.) 
JTitherley, A. (Exeter), Laurence Villa, Boston, Lines. 
Tolchard, W. D., 734, High Road, Leytonstone. 
Toley, A. (Stockland), The Grove, Hanwell. 
Toll, A. E. J. (Torquay), 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 
Tolley, H. (Exeter), 17, Oakhurst Grove, East Dulwich, S.E. 
Tonkin, Miss Ada (Newton Abbot), 5, Upper Brook Street, W. 
*Tozer, Henry (Exeter), 1, Durham House Street, Strand, W.C Vice- 
President. 
Tozer, J. R. K. (Paignton), 6, Cannon Street, E.C. 

JTozer, R. (Plymouth), Wynyard St., Auckland. (New Zealand Assoc.) 
Train, J. Wilfred (Chudleigh), Secretaries' Office, H.M. Customs and 

Excise, Lower Thames Street, E.C. 
JTregay, C. (Roche, Cornwall), 17, Donnington Road, Reading. (Reading 

Assoc.) 
Treharne, W. J. (Ilfracombe), Abbotsford, The Grove, Church End, 

Finchley, N. 
+Treliving, Norman (Okehampton), Public Library, Woodhouse Moor, 

Leeds. 
JTreneman, W. (Ermington), 12, Limedale Road, Mossley Hill, Liverpool. 
(Liverpool Assoc.) 
Trobridge, F. (Newton St. Cyres, Exeter), "St. Cyres," Dryburgh Road, 

Putney, W. 
Trobridge, Mrs. (Newton St. Cyres, Exeter), "St. Cyres," Dryburgh Road, 

Putney, W. 
Truscott, W. J., (Teignmouth), 66, King's Road, Willesden, N.W. 
Truscott, Mrs., 66, King's Road, Willesden, N.W. 
♦Tucker, Lieut. -General C. (Ashburton), Chalet St. Pierre, Biarritz. 
Tucker, E. R. (Morchard), 21, Ansdell Road, Peckham, S.E. 
Tucker, G. H. L., 83, Ham Park Road, West Ham, E. 
Tucker, Thomas (Exeter), 49, Folburg Road, Stoke Newington, N.E. 
Tuckett, C. F.. 40, Chatsworth Avenue, Merton Park. 
Turner, F. J., Ridgway House, Mill Hill, N.W. 
Turner, Mrs., Ridgway House, Mill Hill, N.W. 
Tyte, H. (Barnstaple), 121, Lansdowne Road, Seven Kings, Essex. 
Tyte, Miss A. L., 121, Lansdowne Road, Seven Kings, Essex. 
Tyte, Miss K. (Barnstaple), 7a, Morgan Mansions, Holloway Road, N. 

JUnderhill, F. (Plymouth), 7, Sutherland Road, Plymouth. 

*Upcott, Lieut.-Col. Sir Frederick Upcott (Cullompton), K.C.V.O., C.S.I., 

227, St. James Court, Buckingham Gate, S.W. Vice-President. 
*Upcott, Lady (Cullompton), 227, St. James Court, Buckingham Gate, 

S.W. 
Upham, W. Reynell- (Bicton), 13, Constantine Road, Hampstead, N.W. 

♦Veitch, Sir Harry J. (Exeter), 34, Redcliffe Gardens, South Kensington. 
Vice-President. 



List of Members and Associates 159 

Vellacott, R. H. (Lynton), 4, Meynell Road, South Hackney, N.E. 
Venn, W. H. (Whimple), M.A., St. Peter's College, Manor Road, Brockley, 

S.E. 
Vibert, F. H. (Totnes), Rock Villa, Sevenoaks. 
Vibert, Herbert (Totnes), 104, Fore Street, E.C. 

Vivian, Henry (Cornwood), 6, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. Vice-President. 
Vivian, Mrs. (Plymouth), 31, Penwortham Road, Streatham, S.W. 
Vivian, Miss Doris, (Devonport), 31, Penwortham Road, Streatham, S.W. 
JVodden, T. (Cullompton), Jaffa House, Cullompton, Devon. 

Waghorn, Mrs. A. G. (Horrabridge), 50, Westcombe Park Road, Black- 
heath, S.E. 

Walden, Mrs. A. M. (Exmouth), 8, Parson's Green Lane, Fulham, S.W. 

Waldron, Rev. A. J. (Plymouth), St. Matthew's Vicarage, Brixton, S.W. 
Vice-President. 
''Walker, F. (Drewsteignton) , 68, Coleman Street, E.C. 

Walrond, Conrad M. (Cullompton), " Braeside," St. Catherine's Lane, 
Eastcote. 

Walrond, H. W. (Cullompton), London, County and Westminster Bank, 
Knightsbridge, S.W. 

Walrond, Hon. Lionel (Bradfield), M.P., Bradfield, Cullompton. Vice- 
President. 
^Walton, C. H. (Teignmouth), 54, Union Grove, Clapham, S.W. 

Ward, Mrs. (Plymouth), 29, Pitfield Road, Hoxton, N. 

Ward, W. J. (Plymouth), 29, Pitfield Road, Hoxton, N. 
JWatkins, J. R. (Plymouth), 5, Harrington St., Liverpool. (Liverpool 
Assoc.) 

Webb, Charles (Ottery St. Mary), 138, Bedford Hill, Balham, S.W. 

Webber, W. J. N. (Plymouth), Aspen Cottage, Mitcham Junction, Surrey. 

Wellacott, W. (Morchard Bishop), 18, Arlington Road, West Ealing, W. 

Western, J. R. (Cullompton), Rosario, Holly Park Gardens, Finchley, N. 
JWheeler, C. (llfracombe), " Norlands," Lyndhurst, Hants. 

White, A. (Diptford), 3, Aberdeen Court, Aberdeen Park, N. 

White, F. H. (Teignmouth), 33, St. Mary-at-Hill, E.C. 

White, T. Jeston (Stockland), 39, Burne Street, N.W. 

White, W. A. (Exeter), Crabtree, Riverside, Fulham, S.W. 

Whitfield, J. (Bideford), 103, Altenburgh Gardens, Clapham Common, 
S.W. 

Whitley, H. Michell (Plymouth), Broadway Court, Broadway, West- 
minster, S.W. Vice-President. 
JWidlake, E. (Combe Martin), Sunny Mount, Hanham, Bristol. (Bristol 
Soc.) 

Wild, A. C. T. (Beer), Belmont House, Peckham Rye, S.E. 

Willis, F. R. Gould- (Exeter), A.R.I.B.A., 31-33, High Holborn, W.C. 

Wilton, F. W. (Hartland), " Hartland," Sandringham Road, Golder's 

Green, N.W. 
JWindeatt, E. (Totnes), " Heckwood," Totnes, S. Devon. 
X Winter, P. G. D. (Torquay), 70, Elm Grove, Southsea. (Portsmouth 
Soc. ; Corresponding Associate.) 

X Wise, H. Harris (Plymouth), Glen View, Penylan Park, Newport (Mon.). 

Witheridge, W. H. (Plymouth), 105, Dawes Road, Fulham, S.W. 

Wollocombe, J. R. (Lewdown), Stowford Cottage, Lewdown S.O., Devon. 

Woodley, E. T. B. (Ashburton), 4, Alexandra Park Road, Wood Green, N. 

J Woodward, A. R, 13, Waylen St., Reading. (Reading Assoc.) 

Wooley, W. B. (Torquay), 17, Windermere Road, Muswell Hill, N. 

Woollcombe, Rev. H. S. (Northlew), M.A. Vice-President. 



160 The Devonian Year Book, 1914 

Worth, A. J. (Devonport), London, County & Westminster Bank, Mary- 
lebone Road, W. 

Wreford, C. W. (Exeter), 55, Dyne Road, Brondesbury, N.W. 

Wreford, Mrs. C. W. (Exeter), 55, Dyne Road, Brondesbury, N.W. 

Wreford, J. (Exeter), M.B., 66, West End Lane, N.W. Vice-President. 
♦Wrenford, Rev. H. St. John E., Clannaborough Rectory, Bow, N. Devon. 

Wright, F. G. (Tiverton), 10, Old Deer Park Gardens, Richmond. 

Wright, J. L. (Tiverton), 10, Old Deer Park Gardens, Richmond. 
+ Wright, W. H. K. (Plymouth), Borough Librarian, Plymouth. Vice- 
Pvcs'idci'it 

Wright, W. J. (Bideford), 18, Wood Street, E.C. 
+Wyatt, F. B. (South Molton), South Molton, N. Devon. 

Yandle, Robert (Tiverton), 22, Carter Lane, E.C. Committee. 
JYellen, F. H. (Holcomb Rogus), 47, Market Place, Reading. (Reading 

Assoc.) 
Yeo, James (Barnstaple), Woodhurst, Warlingham, Surrey. 
Yeo, S. A. Spear (Exeter), 2, 4, and 6, St. John Street, E.C. 

Zelley, J. H. (Exeter), 31, Radipole Road, Fulham, SAY 



Members are earnestly requested to notify alterations of address, and place 
of association with Devonshire (in cases where this is omitted), to the Hon. 
Secretary, John W. Shawyer, St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 




•ice 2s. 6d. net. 



I DEVONIAN YEAR BOOK 

1915 




Photo by Heath & Bradnee 

THE RIGHT HON. EARL FORTESCUE, K.C.B. 

A.D.C. to the King; 

Lord Lieutenant of Devon ; 

(' hair/nan of the Devon County Council', 

President ani Chairman of the Devonshire Territorial Force Association ; 

lion. Colonel of the Royal North Devon If ti stars ; 

hirst President of the London Devonian Association. 



THE 



Devonian Year Book 



FOR THE YEAR 



1915 



(SIXTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION) 



JEDiteD b£ 
R. PEARSE CHOPE, B.A. 



Queen Elizabeth said Devonshire was her right hand, and the young 
children thereof like the arrows in the hand of the giant. 

Westward Ho ! 



PUBLISHED BY 
XonDon: THE LONDON DEVONIAN ASSOCIATION 

(JOHN W. SHAWYER, Hon. Sec.) 
St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO. LTD. 

miStOl : JOHN WRIGHT & SONS LTD., STONE BRIDGE 

(/or the West of England and South Wales). 



JOHN WRIGHT AND SONS LTD. 
PRINTERS, BRISTOL. 




N 2 9 1964 




-sffFm 



Contents, 



PAGE 



The London Devonian Association — Officers and Com- 
mittees - - - - - - 7 

The Year's Work - - - - - - 10 

Devonshire Patriotic Fund - - - - - 17 

The Annual Dinner - - - - - - 21 

Notes and Gleanings - - - 31 

Devonshire and the War - - 38 

" Waggon Hill " — Henry Newbolt - - - - 57 

Devonshire Dialect and Humour — R. Pearse Chope - 58 
Thomas Savery, F.R.S., Engineer and Inventor — Rhys 

Jenkins - - - - - - "75 

" Drake's Drum " — Henry Newbolt - - - 85 

The Saints of Devon, Part I. — Rev. J. F. Chanter - - 86 

Okehampton Castle : The Residential Buildings — Dr. 

Edward H. Young - - - - - no 

English Folk-music — Charles H. Laycock - - 121 

Some Recent Devonian Literature — H. Tapley-Soper - 137 

Affiliated Societies - - - - - - 139 

Devonian Societies not Affiliated - - 152 

Learned and Scientific Societies in Devonshire - - 153 

Libraries in Devonshire - - - - - *55 

Rules of the London Devonian Association - - - 157 

List of Members and Associates - 160 



Officers and Committees 



The London Devonian Association, 
Officers and Committees. 

1914-15. 



President : 

The Right Hon. the Earl of HALSBURY, P.C. 

Past Presidents : 

The Right Hon. Earl FORTESCUE, K.C.B., A.D.C., Lord-Lieutenant 

of Devon (1909-10). 
The Right Hon. Lord NORTHCOTE, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., C.B. 

(1910-11). 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Right Hon. the Earl of MOUNT EDGCUMBE, P.C, G.C.V.O., 

V.D. 
The Right Hon. the Viscount ST. CYRES. 
The Right Rev. the LORD BISHOP OF EXETER. 
The Right Hon. Lord CHURSTON, M.V.O. 

The Right Hon. Lord CLIFFORD OF CHUDLEIGH, VD, A.D.C. 
The Right Hon. Lord SEATON. 

The Hon. LIONEL WALROND, M.P. Tiverton (Bradfield). 
The Right Hon. GEORGE LAMBERT, P.C., M.P. South Molton 

(Spreyton) . 
Sir CLIFFORD J. CORY, Bart., M.P. (Bideford). 
Sir H. Y.-B. LOPES, Bart. (Roborough). 
Sir WILFRID PEEK, Bart. (Rousdon). 
Sir GEORGE W. KEKEWICH, K.C.B., D.C.L. (Peamore). 
Lady MARKHAM (Arlington). 

Sir ROPER LETHBRIDGE, K.C.I. E., M.A., D.L., J. P. (Exbourne). 
Sir JOHN JACKSON, K.C.V.O., M.P. Devonport. 
Lt.-Col. Sir FREDK. UPCOTT, K.C.V.O., C.S.I. (Cullompton) . 
Sir EDWIN A. CORNWALL, M.P. (Lapford). 
Sir JOHN W. SPEAR, M.P. Tavistock [Tavistock). 
Sir HARRY J. VEITCH (Exeter). 
Commander H. L. L. PENNELL, R.N. (Awliscombe) . 
Colonel E. T. CLIFFORD, VD (Exeter). 
Major A. C. MORRISON-BELL, M.P. Honiton (Harpford). 
Captain E. F. MORRISON-BELL, M.P. Ashburton (Chudleigh). 
T. DYKE ACLAND, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.P. (Columb-John). 
W. WALDORF ASTOR, Esq., M.P. Plymouth. 
A. SHIRLEY BENN, Esq., M.P. Plymouth. 

Rev. W. P. BESLEY, M.A. (Barnstaple), Minor Canon of St. Paul's. 
J. B. BURLACE, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S. (Brixham). 
JOHN COLES, Esq., J.P. (Tiverton). 

W. H. CUMMINGS, Esq., Mus.D. Dub., F.S.A. (Sidbury). 
H. E. DUKE, Esq., K.C., M.P. Exeter (Plymouth), Recorder of Devonport. 
A. E. DUNN, Esq. (Exeter). 
H, T. EASTON, Esq. (Exeter). 
JOHN GALSWORTHY, Esq. (Manaton). 



The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 



Vice-Presidents : — Continued. 

Rev. H. R. GAMBLE, M.A. {Barnstaple), Hon. Chaplain to the King. 

ALLEN GILL, Esq., F.R.A.M. (Devonport). 

T. CANN HUGHES, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. (HUH sleigh) . 

JOHN LANE, Esq. (West Putford). 

F. B. MILDMAY, Esq., M.P. Totnes (Flete, Ivybridge). 
R. J. PARR, Esq. (Torquay). 

Rev. RICHARD PEEK, M.A. (Rousdon). 
EDEN PHILLPOTTS, Esq. (Exeter). 
P. E. PILDITCH, Esq., J. P., L.C.C. (Kingsbridge). 
J. C. PILLMAN, Esq., J.P. (Plymouth). 
Alderman C. PINKHAM, J. P., C.C. (Plympton). 

G. H. RADFORD, Esq., LL.B., M.P. (Plymouth). 
SYDNEY SIMMONS, Esq., J.P. (Okehampton). 
MICHAEL B. SNELL, Esq., J.P. (Barnstaple). 
H. TAPLEY-SOPER, Esq. (Stoke Gabriel). 
HENRY TOZER, Esq. (Exeter). 

HENRY VIVIAN, Esq. (Cornwood). 

Rev. A. J. WALDRON (Plymouth). 

H. MICHELL WHITLEY, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. (Plymouth). 

Rev. H. S. WOOLLCOMBE, M.A. (Northlew). 

JOHN WREFORD, Esq., M.B. (Exeter). 

W. H. K. WRIGHT, Esq., F.L.A. (Plymouth. 

Chairman of the Association : 

Colonel E. T. CLIFFORD, VD (Exeter). 
Cranley Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 

Committee : 

Chairman. 

Alderman C. Pinkham, J. P., C.C. (Plympton), 
Linden Lodge, Winchester Avenue, Brondesbury, N.W. 

Deputy Chairman. 
R. Pearse Chope, B.A. (Hartland). 
Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, W.C. 

Prof. W. S. Abell, M.I.N. A. (Exmouth), 11, Wedderburn Road, Hamp- 
stead, N.W. 

Stanley J. Bowen (London Bidefordian Soc), 22, St. Paul's Churchyard, 
E.C. 

G. E. Bridgeman (Ugborough), 8, Lavender Sweep, Clapham Common, 
S.W. 

J. B. Burlace (Brixham), 38, Corfton Road, Ealing, W. 

Norman W. Champion (Sheldon), 8, Holmewood Gardens, Brixton Hill, 
S.W. 

N. Cole (Salcombe), 46, Melgund Road, Highbury, N. 

G. W. Davey (Sampford Spiney), 16, John Street, Bedford Row, W.C. 

J. Donald (Three Towns Assoc), 20, Sprules Road, Brockley, S.E. 

H. Geen (Okehampton), ia, Middle Temple Lane, E.C. 

H. Gillham (Burlescombe) , 222, Central Market, E.C. 

H. H. M. Hancock (Barumites in London), 56, Devereux Road, Wands- 
worth Common, S.W. 

W. Inman (Stoke Gabriel), Sherbourne, Longley Road, Tooting, S.W. 

W. J. McCormack, J.P. (Plymouth), Dunkeld, Slough, Bucks. 

F. A. Perry (Tiverton), 4, Kirchen Road, West Ealing. 



Officers and Committees 



John Ryall {Exeter Club), 94, Jerningham Road, New Cross, S.E. 
J. Summers (Old Ottregians Soc), 44, Grove Hill Road, Peckham, S.E. 
J. H. Taylor (Northam), The Lodge, Old Deer Park, Richmond. 
Robert Yandle (Tivertonian Assoc), 22, Carter Lane, E.C. 

Hon. Auditors. 
Gilbert Harris (Plymouth), 78, Wood Street, E.C. 
J. Arnold Hill, C.A. (Holcombe Rogus), 19a, Coleman Street, E.C. 

Hon. Treasurer. 
H. Brinsmead Squire (Torrington) , London County & Westminster 
Bank, Ltd., 90, Wood Street, E.C. 

Hon. Subscription Secretary. 
W. H. Smart {Plymouth), St. Bride Institute, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 

Hon. Secretary. 
John W. Shawyer (West Buckland School O.B.A.), 5, Hemington Avenue, 
Friern Barnet, N. 

Benevolent Fund Sub-committee : 
G. E. Bridgeman, G. W. Davey, H. H. M. Hancock, W. Inman, J. H. 
Taylor. 

Entertainment Sub-committee : 

N. Cole (Chairman), G. E. Bridgeman, J. Donald, H. H. M. Hancock, 
W. Inman, John Ryall, C. W. Wreford, W. H. Smart (Hon. 

Secretary) . 

Finance Sub-committee : 

J. B. Burlace, G. W. Davey, W. Inman, W. J. McCormack, J. Summers. 

Year Book Sub-committee : 

Prof. W. S. Abell, J. B. Burlace, H. Geen, F. A. Perry. 

Rifle Club Sub-committee : 

Lieuts. H. H. Belsey, — Pearce, and H. Pickard ; G. B. Godsland, 
R. C. Lake, C. E. Mugeridge, J. Ryall, J. W. Shawyer, H. B. 
Squire, E. R. Tucker, G. E. Bridgeman (Hon. Secretary). 

Note. — The Chairman of the Association, the Chairman of Committee, 
the Deputy Chairman, the Hon. Treasurer, the Hon. Subscription Secre- 
tary, and the Hon. Secretary are ex-officio members of the Committee 
and of all Sub-committees. 



io The Devonian Year Book, 1915 



The Year's Work. 

Members of the London Devonian Association, in common with 
members of all other County Societies in London, will hail 
with satisfaction the announcement that the Earl of Desborough 
was elected President of the Conference of English County 
Societies in London at the recent Annual Meeting. 

At the same time our Chairman, Colonel Clifford, after a 
year's service as Hon. Treasurer, was elected Chairman of the 
Conference, and our Hon. Secretary, Mr. Shawyer, was re- 
elected a member of the Executive Committee. 

The acceptance of the ofhce of President by so distinguished 
a sportsman and so typical an Englishman as Lord Desborough 
is a fitting tribute to the excellent work accomplished under 
his predecessor, Major Richard Rigg. At the Inaugural Festival 
of the Conference, held in November, 1913, when his lordship 
was one of the guests, he stated that " he believed that function 
would be the beginning of a great and useful patriotic movement. 
Those who believed in the ideals for which England has stood 
in the past, and for which he believed it would stand in the 
future — justice and individual liberty — the ideals which had 
brought civilization in their train, would combine in this move- 
ment to make England in the future what it had been in the 
past, a great benefit to the whole world. One heard a great 
deal in these days of measures of Home Rule in many quarters. 
He was not going to discuss any one of them ; but it must 
sometimes strike the English people that England at the present 
time did not have that share in the shaping of her destinies 
to which she was entitled by the number of men she contributed 
to the Army and Navy. He believed that England contributed 
ninety-five per cent of the amount needed to keep things going, 
and, he had been told, at least eleven pence out of every shilling 
to the salary of the Chancellor of the Exchequer. In view of 
these facts he though that England should seriously consider 
whether she should not have a greater voice in shaping her 
destinies in the future. He felt certain that great gathering 
would do something to catch up the threads of local and county 
patriotism and shape it into something which would be an 
instrument in the future to serve in this great cause. They 
lived in times of stress and danger, and it was time for England 
to wake up and resuscitate those great powers lying dormant 



The Year's Work n 



which had carried the whole country through times of great 
peril and danger in the past. The movement had his most 
cordial support, and he hoped he should be able to serve the 
cause in the future in ways more tangible than by speaking 
at the gatherings." 

In such words did the new President describe the mission 
of the English County Societies, and recent events have added 
weight to them. 

An equally important work lies in the Federation of our 
county men in our dominions beyond the seas and elsewhere, 
thus forging the links in the chain which shall ultimately bind 
together the whole English-speaking race. A reference to the 
lists of affiliated and corresponding societies (pp. 139-152) will 
convince the sceptical that in this direction Devonians easily 
lead the van. 

A striking instance of lost opportunity to foster the spirit 
of local patriotism was afforded me a few months ago. It was 
my privilege to be the guest of a County Society at its annual 
banquet. With pardonable zeal the officers of the battleship 
bearing the County name, and to which the County had presented 
a gift of plate, were invited as the guests of the evening. The 
toast of the guests was duly honoured, and the Captain responded. 
He told with pride of the general efficiency of the crew of the 
County cruiser, and how her men had beaten all comers and 
lifted all the cups available for competition in the China station 
for shooting and for sports. Enthusiasm had reached its limit 
when the gallant speaker felt constrained to admit that neither 
he nor his brother officers belonged to the County under whose 
name they sailed, and that his crew hailed from Devon. The 
chagrin of the great audience, especially in my immediate 
vicinity, can be better imagined than described. 

Passing allusion may also be made to the failure " of the 
powers that be " in our present national emergency to grasp 
the force of the appeal to " that righteous and God-given feeling 
which is the root of all true patriotism, valour, civilization," as 
Kingsley defined it, the spirit of which animated the great 
Devonian heroes who defeated the Spanish Armada, by with- 
holding from publication the names of those County Regiments 
who are now covering themselves with glory on the frontiers of 
France and Belgium. 

The Minister of War asks for men, and now — at the present 
moment — to inscribe their gallant deeds and stirring achieve- 
ments on their County's Roll of Honour would create a feeling 
of exaltation which would make every man at home wish to be 
a participator in such glorious deeds for such a glorious cause. 



12 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

It is to be devoutly hoped that the force of public opinion may 
soon result in the rectification of so serious an omission. 

Instances such as these accentuate the advantage of fostering 
the county society movement generally, and call for the active 
support and co-operation of all who recognize the potency of 
such a medium as a remedy for the lassitude and apathy which 
permits such lamentable waste of national force. 

Last year's Year Book contained an interesting statement 
regarding the origin and progress of the movement for a National 
Memorial in London to Sir Francis Drake. It was pointed out 
that, under the Presidency of Mr. Winston Churchill, First Lord 
of the Admiralty, a large and influential committee had been 
formed, who at their first meeting appointed an executive 
committee, with Sir Frederick Treves as Chairman and Colonel 
Clifford as Vice-Chairman. 

A sub-committee was appointed to interview the authorities 
on the question of obtaining a suitable site for the memorial. 
Proposals were made and plans were prepared by Sir George 
Frampton and Sir John Burnett, but, when negotiations were 
well advanced, the outbreak of war necessitated a postponement 
of the whole matter. All interested in the subject regard it 
only as a postponement, to be revived at the earliest suitable 
opportunity, when it is confidently anticipated the scheme will 
be brought to a satisfactory conclusion. 

The formation of the London Devonian Rifle Club has been 
an event of the year. Recognizing the desirability of affording 
members facilities for acquiring skill in the use of the rifle, 
a special Committee was formed and negotiations were entered 
into in May last with the National Reserve Rifle Association. 
As a result, arrangements were made for the use of the City of 
London Battalion National Reserve Range, near Blackfriars 
Bridge, on the Victoria Embankment. The club has become 
affiliated to the Society of Miniature Rifle Clubs, and consequently 
it will receive the " Bell Medal," " Express Medal," and the 
Society's " Lord Roberts Medal," and the " Daily Mail " and 
" Daily Telegraph " certificates for competition, in addition to 
some silver spoons which have been presented by some of our 
members. 

The Association is much indebted to Lieut. Henry Pickard, 
a native of Beaford, North Devon, for his assistance in these 
negotiations. After a distinguished career in the Royal Navy, 
during which he was Musketry Instructor to the Mediterranean 
fleet at the range of Malta, and one of the Navy Eight at Bisley 
on six occasions, Mr. Pickard was appointed by the Admiralty 
Chief Gunnery Instructor to the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, 



The Year's Work 33 



London Division. He subsequently became Lieutenant 
Musketry Instructor to the 1st Cadet Battalion, City of London 
(Lord Roberts' Boys). Taking teams of his boys to Canada to 
shoot against Canadian Cadets and against representatives 
from New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Scotland, and Ireland, 
he secured gold, silver, and bronze medals, and his team tied 
for fourth place in the grand aggregate. 

In miniature rifle shooting in ten consecutive matches he 
made 999 out of a possible 1000. In the International Match 
last June, between the United Kingdom, the United States of 
America, and Canada, he made five possibles — 500. 

Lieutenant Pickard is now Range Officer at the Blackfriars 
Range, and is ever ready to assist and advise members in the 
use of the rifle. 

The patronage extended to Miniature Rifle Clubs by the late 
Field-Marshal Lord Roberts is well known. In his last annual 
message to the Members ot the Society of Miniature Rifle Clubs, 
he wrote : " May I ask that all members will do their utmost, 
not only by their example, already set, but by arguments, to 
induce their friends and acquaintances to learn to shoot ? The 
arguments are not far to seek. It is the King's Prerogative — 
a long-standing Prerogative, now supported by Statute — to 
call upon every able-bodied man in the kingdom to take up arms 
for the defence of the country in case of need. But what avails 
it to take up arms that one cannot use ? " 

Let members of our Association apply these words to them- 
selves, and let them promote the education of the boyhood 
and the manhood of the nation in the art of rifle-shooting by 
encouraging London Devonians to join the Club and benefit 
by the unique facilities placed at their disposal. 

After the outbreak of war our Committee was considering 
the most suitable means of helping the common cause, when, 
at the instance of Earl Fortescue, the first President of the 
Association, a request was received from the Committee of the 
Devonshire Patriotic Fund to assist them in their effort to 
raise a fund for the dependents of sailors and soldiers belonging 
to the County, and to aid in the care of the sick and wounded. 
The result to date will be found elsewhere, and it is most grati- 
fying to note the material assistance given by the Affiliated 
Societies in England. It is early to expect any response from 
oversea. The subscription list is still open, and it is intended 
to organize a grand concert in London on January 30 next 
to increase further the amount to be handed over. 

The Earl of Halsbury was re-elected President, and an innova- 
tion was made during the year by the passing of a resolution 



14 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

permitting ladies to become eligible as Vice-Presidents. Subse- 
quently, Lady Markham, who has since its inception been a 
generous supporter of the Association, was accorded the distinc- 
tion of being the first lady to be honoured by election. Mr. 
A. Shirley Benh, M.P. for Plymouth, and the Rev. Richard 
Peek, M.A., Rector of St. Magnus the Martyr, City of London, 
also became Vice-Presidents. 

Bidefordians in London have formed themselves into a Society, 
and, in addition to it, we welcome the affiliation of the Montreal 
Devonian Society, and the Association of Westcountrymen in 
Folkestone. Swansea Devonians are to be congratulated on 
the celebration of the " coming of age " of their Society. Mr. 
S. T. Drew, the Borough Librarian, who founded the Society 
and has been the Hon. Secretary from the commencement, 
was elected President for the year, and the opportunity was 
taken for presenting him with a handsome testimonial in recogni- 
tion of his services. 

There has been a steady influx of new members and associ- 
ates, but some fall out, and the numbers still represent only 
a meagre proportion of Devonians in London who ought to 
support the Association and so enable it to extend its sphere of 
usefulness. 

During the year a conversazione following the Annual General 
Meeting was held, and four Whist Drives took place at 
Anderton's Hotel. A Bohemian Concert, over which Alderman 
Pinkham presided, took place at Cannon Street Hotel. There 
was a good attendance, and the musical programme provided 
by Mr. Charles Wreford was of a high order, with a strongly 
Devonian element. An account of the Annual Dinner will be 
found elsewhere. 

Thanks to the able co-operation of several lady members, 
the Children's Party given at the Holborn Hall was again an 
unqualified success. Some 120 children were present. 

Mr. Michael B. Snell, J. P., took the Chair at a lecture on 
" Devonshire Dialect and Humour " by Mr. R. Pearse Chope, 
who treated the subject in the able manner to which members 
have now become accustomed. It was generally regarded as 
the most interesting lecture Mr. Chope has yet given, and 
perhaps the most interesting yet given under the auspices of 
the Association. An abstract of it is published in this book. 

A river trip was arranged on 20th June ; about 130 mustered 
at Paddington, and, proceeding to Windsor, embarked on the 
launch " La Marguerite " for a three hours' trip on the Thames, 
high tea being afterwards served in a marquee adjoining the 
Thames Hotel at Windsor. 



The Years Work 15 



The Western Counties Dance was arranged in conjunction 
with the counties of Gloucester, Somerset, and Cornwall, but 
the Devon contingent was a small one. 

A celebration of Armada Day was anticipated in conjunction 
with the Devonshire Association, coinciding with their meeting 
at Tavistock on 24th July. Lady Eliott-Drake most kindly 
extended to members an invitation to visit Buckland Abbey, 
which was purchased by Sir Francis Drake from Sir Richard 
Grenville, and where Drake's drum finds its resting-place; but 
it was found impossible to make arrangements which would 
be likely to appeal to any considerable number of members, the 
distance from London being the main difficulty, and the project 
had reluctantly to be abandoned. Happily, however, a few 
members of the two Associations were able to visit the Abbey, 
where they had an opportunity of seeing Drake's relics and 
home, and where they were most hospitably entertained by 
Lady Eliott-Drake. 

Difficulty has always been experienced in the collection of 
subscriptions, probably on account of the smallness of the 
amount, and many members are still in arrear. The work of 
the Association cannot be carried on without funds, and the 
subscriptions constitute practically the only source of income. 
Mr. Smart has added to his already onerous work as Hon. 
Entertainment Secretary that of Hon. Subscription Secretary, 
and it is hoped that members will assist him by responding 
promptly with their subscriptions, and consequently save him 
the unnecessary work involved by repeated application. 

In view of the general feeling that entertainments are inap- 
propriate during the period of the war, with its consequent 
trials and afflictions, it has been decided to curtail the usual 
social functions of the Association. The Committee are confident 
that their decision in this respect will meet with the general 
approval of members, but exception has been made with regard 
to the Children's Party, which will be held as usual, and to a 
lecture by Mr. Chope on January 11, on " Farthest from Rail- 
ways : An Unknown Corner of Devon," at which Mr. J. C. 
Pillman, J. P., will take the Chair. 

Mr. C. R. S. Philp has retired from the General Committee 
after six years' service, during a portion of which time he 
rendered useful service as Hon. Secretary to the Entertain- 
ment Committee. Mr. H. D. Powe, Hon. Secretary to the 
Exeter Club, also retired after three years' service. These 
gentlemen are succeeded by Professor W. S. Abell, a note of 
whose distinguished career appears elsewhere, Mr. Norman W. 
Champion, and Mr. H. Geen, barrister-at-law. Mr. J. Summers 



1 6 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

returns to the Committee as the representative of the Old 
Ottregians Society, and Mr. Stanley J. Bowen has been elected 
by the London Bidefordian Society as their representative. 

The Committee considers it has reason to congratulate the 
Association upon the success it has already achieved, and looks 
forward with confidence to the coming year to extend its sphere 
of usefulness in promoting the county feeling and good works 
among Devonians all over the world. It relies largely upon 
the support and co-operation of all Devonians for the attain- 
ment of these object. 

J.W.S. 



The Best Land, 



The land that is best is the land of the west, 

By the western waters swirled, 
With the red sweet stag of wild Exmoor 
And the red heathed combes that slope to the shore, 
The purple heather of old Dartmoor 
And the silent splendour of lone Yes Tor, 
The waters' meet at the great sea's door 
Of Torridge and Taw at Appledore, 
The swift tempestuous ocean roar 
On Westward Ho, — and oh, much more ! — 

The west best land in the world. 

Geoffrey Dennis. 

(" Oxford Poetry, 1910-1913.") 



Devonshire Patriotic Fund 17 



Devonshire Patriotic Fund. 

In September last our Association was asked by Earl 
Fortescue, our first President, to issue an appeal on behalf of 
the Devonshire Patriotic Fund, of which he is Chairman. The 
following circular letter was issued, and, it is satisfactory to 
note, has already produced a generous response. The Subscrip- 
tion List is still open, and it is hoped that the amount obtained 
will be largely increased. 



Sardinia House, 

Kingsway, W.C. 

October 10th, 1914, 

Devonshire Patriotic Fund. 

Dear Sir, — 

Our Association has been invited to issue an appeal, not 
only to its own Members, but also to Devonian Societies through- 
out the world, for contributions to the Devonshire Patriotic 
Fund. 

It affords us pleasure to inform you that the Association 
has unanimously resolved to accede to the invitation, sincerely 
trusting that the appeal will meet with a gratifying response. 

The object of the Fund is to give assistance in case of need 
to the wives, families, and other dependent relatives of Sailors 
and Soldiers (Regulars and Territorials) belonging to the County, 
and to aid in the care of their sick and wounded. In addition 
to providing monetary assistance in these cases, the Fund is 
being utilized to purchase materials for the use of the numerous 
ladies' working parties which have been formed to make hospital 
garments and clothing comforts for the troops. 

It is understood that although the Prince of Wales' National 
Fund will make grants towards the relief of families of our 
Soldiers and Sailors, it will be applied in the larger proportion 
to meeting distress among the civil population consequent on 
the war. That portion of the National Fund wnich is to be 
devoted to naval and military grants is to be administered 
through the Soldiers' and Sailors' Families Association where 
branches exist, and the Committee of the Devonshire Patriotic 
Fund will act in collaboration with it for purposes of administra- 
tion, so as to avoid overlapping and duplication of grants. 



The Devonian Year Book, 1915 



In brief — the object of the County Fund is to supplement 
the National Fund. It is greatly needed, so that reasonable 
assistance may be given to OUR OWN Soldiers and Sailors. 
The County Patriotic Fund is expected to join the National 
Fund in supervising the distribution of grants. 

Were it possible to ascertain the percentage of tne population 
now serving in the Army and Navy, it is believed that if Devon 
does not actually lead the way, it is not far off the top. It was 
therefore considered that a fund raised by Devonians for 
Devonians would meet with far greater support than if contribu- 
tions were asked only for the National Relief Fund. That this 
view was sound is evidenced from the fact that the subscriptions 
already received exceed £33,000. 

The Devonshire Patriotic Fund observes that in appealing 
to the London Devonian Association to bring to the notice of 
its Members and other Devonian Societies the work which is 
being done within the County, it hoped that there might be 
some who, after meeting the other demands upon them, would 
be disposed to assist in the provision which is being made in 
their old County for the families of the men who have responded 
in the spirit of Drake and other County heroes of past days 
to the call of their Country. 

We therefore beg you to lay this communication before your 
Members and any other Devonians in your District who have 
the proud privilege of claiming Devon as their County, in the 
confident expectation that the much-needed help will be given 
to the most excellent cause. 

We are, Dear Sir, Yours faithfully, 

Halsbury (President). 

E. T. Clifford (Chairman). 

C. Pinkham (Chairman of Committee). 

Jno. W. Shawyer (Hon. Secretary). 

P.S. — Contributions, large or small, should be sent to the 
Hon. Secretary at the above address, or to Mr. H. B. Squire, 
Hon. Treasurer, London County and Westminster Bank, Wood 
Street, London, E.C. They will be formally acknowledged and 
duly published in the next Devonian Year Book. 

P.S. (2).— Plymouth (i.e., the Three Towns) is arranging its 
own Relief Fund, consequently the Borough is outside the scope 
of the County Fund, so in the case of Devonians desiring their 
contributions to benefit that Fund, they should indicate their 
wishes, and the amounts will in due course be handed over^to 
their Committee. 



Devonshire Patriotic Fund 



19 



FIRST LIST OF SUBSCRIPTION 

Rt. Hon. The Earl of Halsbury, P.C. . . 

Devonians in Liverpool and District. . 

Frank Galls worthy, Esq. 

Major L. F. Knollys, C.M.G. 

Lt.-Col. Sir Fredk. Upcott, K.C.V.O., C.S.I 

J. B. Burlace, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S. 

R. Pearse Chope, Esq. 

Colonel E. T. Clifford, VD 

George W. Davey, Esq. 

Sir John Jackson, K.C.V.O., M.P 

John Lane, Esq. 

Alex. Mortimer, Esq. 

J. D. Prior, Esq., President of Birmingham and 

Midland Devonian Society 
Sydney Simmons, Esq., J. P. 
Sir Harry J. Veitch 
Edward W. Giffard, Esq. 
Miss E. G. Carter 
Master Granville Smith, Supreme Court, R.C 

F. Hockaday, Esq. 

A. H. Holmes, Esq. 

G. Eldon Manisty, Esq. 
Lady Markham 

Alderman C. Pinkham, J. P., C.C. 
G. H. Radford, Esq., M.P. 
Arthur F. Taylor, Esq. 
Weymouth District Devonian Association 
H. Michell Whitley, Esq., M.Inst.C.E. 
Ottregians in London, per J. Summers, Esq. 
Maxwell Adams, Esq. 

Association of West Countrymen in Folkestone 
S. Bragg, Esq. 
S. A. Cumming, Esq. 
Jonathan Mann, Esq. 
R. Bennett Morris, Esq. 
H. B. Squire, Esq. 
Rev. W. H. Thornton, M.A. 
H. W. I. Walrond, Esq. 
Rev. J. Heald Ward, M.A. 
Robert Lloyd Woollcombe, Esq., M.A., LL.D. 

B. Fox, Esq., and Friends 
Mrs. A. Chettleburgh 
J. H. Taylor, Esq... 
W. Champion, Esq. 
Mrs. Champion 
H. Montagu Evans, Esq. 
H. Gillham, Esq. . . 
Gilbert Harris, Esq. 
F. C. Jeffery, Esq. 
John Kiell, Esq. 
W. J. McCormack, Esq., J.P. 
Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Smart 
A. L. Distin, Esq. . . 
Miss Helen Eveleigh 



£ 


s. 


d. 


• • 25 








10 


10 





10 


10 





. . 10 








10 








• • 5 


5 





5 


5 





5 


5 





5 


5 





5 


5 





• • 5 


5 





5 

nd 


5 





5 


5 





•• 5 


5 





5 


5 





5 








3 


3 





J. 3 


3 





2 


2 





2 


2 





2 


2 





2 


2 





2 


2 





2 


2 





2 


2 





2 


2 





2 


2 







5 







1 





ne 1 


1 







1 







1 







1 







1 







1 







1 







1 







1 







1 
































10 


6 





10 


6 





10 


6 





10 


6 





10 


6 





10 


6 





10 


6 





10 


6 





10 








10 








10 






20 



The Devonian Year Book, 1915 



I s. d. 


H. F. Lovell, Esq. 


O TO O 


G. A. Loveridge, Esq. 




O IO O 


Miss Flora A. M. Rowe 




O IO O 


R. Snow, Esq. 




O IO O 


James Baily, Esq. 




050 


J. A. Chope, Esq. 




050 


John H. Dunn, Esq. 




050 


G. B. Godsland, Esq. 




050 


R. Grigg, Esq. 




050 


W. G. Hunt, Esq. 




050 


Mrs. Morey and Mrs. Evans 




050 


Mrs. Pavitt . . >. . 




050 


James Richards, Esq. 




050 


A. Sharland, Esq. 




050 


W. H. Venn, Esq. 




050 


Miss Carter and Friends 


. . . 


030 


Miss M. Cann 




2 6 


Charles Peter, Esq. 




2 6 


E. R. Tucker, Esq. 




2 6 






£175 10 



An English Volkslied. 

[According to a German map of England, only Devonshire 
and Cornwall will remain British territory at the end of the 
war.] 



(Tune, " Widdecombe Fair.") 

Jan Bull, Jan Bull, give me thy grey coast, 
All along Channel and up the North Sea, 
For I'm planning to gobble your island on toast — 
Yorkshire Pudding, Norfolk Dumpling, Welsh Rarebit, 
Southdown Mutton Dorset Butter, Kent Hops, 

The Roast Beef of Old England and all ! 

The Roast Beef of Old England and all ! 

And what will be spared to Jan Bull of your greed ? — 

Cornwall and Devonshire's cider and cream ; 
I cannot spare more, I've too many to feed — 
There's Joachim, and Adalbert, Eitel Friedrich, 
Bethmann-Hollweg, Von Moltke, Francis Joseph, 
The Kronprinz, Meinself, Gott und all, 
The Kronprinz, Meinself, Gott und all ! 

The Globe. 



The Annual Dinner 21 



The Annual Dinner. 

London Devonians mustered in force at their annual dinner on 
Saturday, March 7, at the Holborn Restaurant, under the 
presidency of the veteran Earl of Halsbury, and the Devon 
Worthies on the Roll of Fame — on which Devon men, by the bye, 
as Earl Fortescue pointed out, monopolize a somewhat dis- 
proportionate space — came in for the usual commemorative 
homage. Colonel Clifford, in responding for the Association, made 
an announcement with regard to the proposed Drake memorial 
in London which may produce some disappointment. The most 
suitable site, it seems, which can be found cannot be utilized 
for the purpose without the unanimous vote of the House of 
Commons, and the probability of getting this in support of any 
project under the sun seems at the present moment somewhat 
remote. It is good news, however, to learn how cordially the 
various local Devonian Associations all over the world, and 
the societies connected with particular Devonian towns, have 
received the proposal to federate and hold a joint festival of 
brotherly goodwill. 

The Earl of Halsbury was supported by Lady Halsbury, the 
Earl Fortescue and Lady Fortescue, Sir Ernest and Lady 
Shackleton, Sir C. Kinloch-Cooke, M.P., Colonel E. T. Clifford, 
Mrs. Clifford, Colonel C. R. Burn, M.P., Mr. A. Shirley Benn, 
M.P., Major A. C. Morrison-Bell, M.P., Mr. J. A. Hawke, K.C. 
(Recorder of Plymouth), Engineer-Commander W. D. Chope, 
Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Mr. H. Dunn, J.P. (South Australia), 
Mr. H. T. Easton, Miss Jones, Mr. J. Lane, Mr. and Mrs. Stafford 
Morgan, Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Parr, Alderman and Mrs. Chas. 
Pinkham, Rev. R. Peek and Miss Peek, Mr. M. B. Snell, Mr. J. 
Treharne and Miss Treharne, Rev. A. J. Waldron, and Mr. H. 
Michell Whitley. Others present included : — 

Mr. Anwyl, Mr. and Mrs. W. Bayes, Mr. J. Bate, Mr. and Mrs. 
G. Bidgood, Mr. and Mrs. C. Brooks, Mr. and Mrs. E. E. Bailey, 
Mr. and Mrs. R. Baker, Mr. and Mrs. Beste, Mrs. Bailey, Mr. and 
Mrs. C. H. Brodie, Mr. Frank Butterworth, Mr. and Mrs. J. B. 
Burlace, Miss Burlace, Mr. L. B. Burlace, Mr. Browning, Mr. 
Bowen, Mr. and Mrs. Botting, Miss F. V. Courtman, Mr. R. H. 
Coysh, Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Cummings, Mr. J. Clarke, Mrs. H. B. 
Cottle, Mrs. Lilian Carter, Mr. J. O. Cann, Mr. E. R. Coles, Mr. 
Malcolm Cray, Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Cann, Colonel and Mrs. 
Cheesewright, Mr. Clare, Mrs. Cooke, Mr. and Mrs. J. Cook, Mr. 



22 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

F. E. Crump, Mr. N. Cole, Mr. and Mrs. W. Champion, Miss 
Champion, Mr. N. Champion, Miss Churchward, Mr. and Mrs. 

C. E. Cann, Mr. A. L. G. Distin, Mr. W. Dyer, Mr. and Mrs. A. E. 
Dodridge, Mr. J. A. Dixon, Mr. G. W. Davey, Miss Drever, Mr. 

G. England, Miss Helen Eveleigh, Mr. and Mrs. Eustace, Mr. and 
Mrs. G. J. Faulkner, Miss L. Flack, Mrs. J. Forbes, Mrs. Foale, 
Miss Ada Foale, Mr. B. Fox, Mr. and Mrs. J. Pascoe Glanville, 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Geen, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Goodman, Mr. and 
Mrs. Guyton, Mr. and Mrs. C. J. T. B. Grylls, Mr. and Mrs. H. H. 
M. Hancock, Miss B. A. Harris, Miss Henderson, Mr. A. H. 
Holmes, Miss Hammick, Mr. and Mrs. J. Hooper, Mr. F. Hocka- 
day, Mr. and Mrs. T. Cann Hughes, Rev. J. L. E. Hooppell, 
Mrs. Hooppell, Miss B. A. Hooppell, Mr. C. E. Hearson, Miss 
Hearson, Mr. H. J. Howland, Miss Amy Holman, Mr. E. A. Harris, 
Mr. and Mrs. G. Heywood, Mr. Arnold Hill, Mr. and Mrs. W. 
Inman, Miss Inman, Mr. and Mrs. F. C. Jeffery, Miss Jones, Mr. 
and Mrs. H. L. Jackson, Mr. and Mrs. C. T. Jarvis, Mr. and Mrs. 

F. Josland, Mr. and Mrs. Newton Jacks, Mr. and Mrs. J. Kiell, 
Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Kelly, Mr. R. L. Laurence, Mr. R. Reginald 
Laurence, Mr. and Mrs. F. Loveridge, Mr. and Mrs. Cecil J. 
Lethbridge, Miss Lawday, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Larkworthy, 
Mrs. F. A. Larkworthy, Mi. W. J. McCormack, J. P., Miss 
McCormack, Mrs. Normington, Mr. and Mrs. Olliff, Mr. W. 

D. Owen, Mr. W. Parker, Mr. W. Parkell, Mr. and Mrs. F. A. 
Perry, Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Preston, Mr. H. D. Powe, Mr. and Mrs. 

G. H. Parr, Mr. and Mrs. Pinn, Mr. James Pullman, Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert Philips, Mr. and Mrs. A. Pinkham, Mr. and Mrs. 
G. D. Powe, Mr. W. A. Pike, Mr. H. Parkyn, Mr. John Rowland, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Roberts, Miss Reeks, Mr. J. Ryall, Mr. F. J. 
Sanguine, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Short (Reading), Mr. A. F. Short, 
Mr. B. P. Short, Miss Dorothy Short, Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Squire, 
Mr. H. B. Squire, Mr. F. C. Southwood, Mr. H. W. Sobey, 
Miss Sobey, Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Smithers, Mr. and Mrs. 
Sydney Simmons, Mr. W. S. Scott, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Shawyer, 
Mr. Shurmer Sibthorp, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Smart, Mr. and Mrs. 

E. J. Snell, Mr. and Mrs. Tindley, Mr. A. F. Taylor, Mr. J. 
Henley Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. W. J. 
Truscott, Mr. J. W. Train, Mr. F. H. Vibert, Mr. and Mrs. R. H. 
Vellacott, Miss F. Williams, Mr. F. Walker, Mr. A. F. Wilson, 
Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Wreford, Mr. and Mrs. Walters. 

Devon Worthies. 
The Chairman, proposing the toast of " The immortal memory 
of Drake and other worthies of Devon," said that with reference 
to the memory of Drake, it was easy to call attention to parts of 



The Annual Dinner 23 



their history which he thought must excite in the bosom of every 
man a certain amount of pride that Devon was the place of his 
birth, but when he came to that part of the toast which spoke 
of the other worthies of Devon, the list would be so long that they 
would arrive at to-morrow morning before he had nearly con- 
cluded. (Laughter and applause.) Drake, as they all knew, 
was a Tavistock man, and he began his career to avenge some 
of his countrymen who had been treated by those who were at 
that time in command of Mexico with a cruelty and blood- 
thirstiness which did not seem yet to be extinct in that part of 
the world. (Applause.) Drake set out upon that journey, and 
for fifteen years pursued the Spanish cruelties both in the nearer 
and more distant parts of the world. People had said with some 
appearance of plausibility that his career was more like that of 
a pirate than of a hero of national war. They forgot, however, 
to consider what was the state of the world at that time, and 
what was the attempt of Spain to overcome the world. When 
Drake dedicated himself to what was in fact war with Spain, 
he never did it for himself. He shared what was the natural 
prizes of war, and it was war, but he spoke and acted for his 
Queen and his country, and did it with unselfishness and with 
continual bravery and courage, in spite of all things that could 
discourage a man. He did it successfully to the end. (Applause.) 
What Drake did in 1588 was known to all. The great attempt 
of Spain was defeated, partly by the interposition of the powers 
of Providence, partly by Lord Howard, and partly by Drake. 
(Applause.) Drake's memory would ever be cherished by his 
countrymen. All through his career he was always for his 
country, and never for himself, and what was a thing they might 
all take to heart was that he never shrank from responsibility. 
(Applause.) As Mexico had preserved its character so they had 
preserved theirs in Devon. They had among them that evening 
one of those persons who had exhibited that degree of courage 
and perseverance which, he thought, had always and ever would 
be the characteristic of the county of Devon. (Loud applause.) 

The County's Charm. 

Major Morrison-Bell, submitting " Devon, our County," said 
he had for two or three years refused the invitations of their 
Secretary to attend these annual dinners because he was not 
a Devonshire man, but Mr. Shawyer told him that he was a 
Devonshire man by adoption, and that made the way easy for 
him. Anyone who went down fresh to Devon could appreciate 
better the glorious possibilities and beauties of the county than 
could those who all their lives had lived there. " Devon, our 



24 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

county," had meant to him for the last three or four years one 
aspect which he was not going to deal with that evening. The 
Chairman had referred to the worthies of Devon. They would 
be interested to know that in the Honiton Division there lived 
a lineal descendant of the great Drake, and they had three or 
four places with which the name of Raleigh was connected ; 
in fact, they had the farm which was one of the ten or twelve 
places in which the historic pipe was put out by a glass of water. 
(Laughter.) The whole of East Devon was redolent of the 
history of England. One must be an iceberg to be indifferent 
to the charm of Devon, which was a county unique for many 
reasons among the counties of England, for it had within its 
borders every conceivable kind of scenery. The other day in 
the House of Commons some of the members were discussing 
the advantages associated with different constituencies, and an 
hon. member said to him, " Devon must be a lovely country to 
fight in " — (laughter) — and that, added Major Morrison-Bell, 
he had really found to be the case. Than Devon, too, no county 
could be more fortunate in its Lord-Lieutenant. Only the other 
day Mr. Acland, M.P., told him that the horse census was done 
more satisfactorily in Devon than in any other county in England. 
It was an unpaid task, and it was done so well because it was 
done as a personal favour to their Lord-Lieutenant. (Hear, 
hear.) 

Devon Industries. 

Earl Fortescue, responding, thanked them on behalf of the 
Devonians who stayed at home for their kind remembrance of 
the old county. The sympathy between them was not marred by 
the fact that their residences were far apart. Those who had 
left the county to seek their fortunes elsewhere asked nothing 
better than that they should make those fortunes at the expense 
of the " barbarians " and then to go " down-along " again among 
their own folk. Those of them who lived in Devon and who had 
not made their fortunes were well content from time to time to 
come up to London with a cheap excursion ticket — (laughter) — 
for such an occasion as the present, and thus they kept in touch 
one with the other, just as did the Devonian Society with the 
other societies all round the world. (Applause.) Since their 
last dinner the farmers had done pretty well, and with a mild 
favourable winter prospects were good. Farming, after all, 
was their chief industry. A great deal of it was carried on upon 
rather poor land. It was interesting to note that just now there 
was a chance of developing a new industry which would do a 
great deal for some of the poor land, for some gentlemen believed 



The Annual Dinner 25 



they had discovered a process by which they could get carbon 
and nitrogen out of peat bogs. If they succeeded they would 
have made a great addition to the wealth and prosperity of land 
which was not supposed to have any very great site value or to be 
made subject to increment duty. (Laughter.) However that 
might be, there was another old-established industry which had 
made considerable progress in Devon of late years — the industry 
of the game of golf. (Laughter.) There were few places in 
Devon now in which holiday-makers could not find facilities for 
their favourite game. He was reminded that some of them were 
even able to play golf in the neighbourhood of London, and he 
would like to add his congratulations to those which Colonel Clifford 
and Mr. Snell must have received from many other sources on 
their success in winning against all comers the champion cup 
of the County Associations. (Applause.) At these annual 
gatherings they were allowed to blow their own trumpets, and 
he could not help referring to a recent newspaper reference to 
the apple of discord which was thrown among the sculptors of 
this country by a patriotic Welshman, who desired to embellish 
his native place with the statues of ten eminent Welshmen. He 
could not help comparing that list of Welshmen — who, however 
great their local fame might be, yet their exploits would hardly 
be known to Macaulay's omniscient schoolboy — with the names 
of some of their Devon worthies ; men of worldwide fame, no 
fewer than five of whom had given names at this moment to 
ships in his Majesty's Navy. (Applause.) If in the small area 
of Devon they could show as many names worthy of fame as the 
whole of Wales, and perhaps a few more — living persons always 
excepted — they ought to make it their business to keep up their 
reputation, so that a hundred years hence their descendants 
might be able to add men of the present generation to that roll 
of honour which could not be beaten in any county in England. 
(Loud applause.) 

Science and Sentiment. 

Sir Ernest Shackleton, on rising to propose " The London 
Devonian Association," was loudly cheered. Major Morrison- 
Bell, he said, had told them that he had been asked three times 
to attend their annual dinner before he accepted. He (Sir 
Ernest) had only been asked once and he had come right off. 
(Laughter and applause.) To arm him against his ignorance, 
however, the secretary had sent him a huge volume about the 
Association. He did not require that volume, because Devon 
names and Devon deeds had so struck home to the hearts of 
every one of them that he required no handbook about them. 



26 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

(Applause.) This Association, like all similar Associations, was 
based on sentiment. Now, sentiment had always been the 
driving force in this world for every great act and every great 
thing performed in the march of progress. (Hear, hear.) They 
were joined together in a dinner because a dinner was one of the 
nicest ways of being happy ; and he expected that that day 
next year he would be looking back at that dinner and wishing 
he was with them all again. (Laughter and applause.) From 
the time that they were children they had been taught to feel 
that the work of the best men — especially Devon men — was a 
lesson and an example to them. He learnt his first Polar work 
under a Devon man, Captain Scott — (loud applause) — whose 
memory remained for ever as an example to the world ; and, 
after all, death was a very little thing, and knowledge was very 
great, and the work of Polar exploration was undertaken by men 
not only to add to the glory of their country, if possible, but 
also to advance the cause of science. (Hear, hear.) A short 
time ago he went to a scientific meeting, and it was more or less 
hinted to him that his work should be entirely scientific, and 
that sentiment should not enter into it. He could not agree 
with that view, and would be very sorry when the day came that 
sentiment was divorced from science or science from sentiment. 
If they were to carry the flag of their country across the South 
Polar continent, it was not so much the scientific side that 
people would look at ; they wanted to see this country first, 
and he hoped it would be first. (Loud applause.) In this 
white warfare in which they were about to engage they would 
have foreign competition. Therefore, before they started they 
would need every ounce of equipment, every bit of finance that 
they could possibly gain, if they were to go ahead and get first 
across the continent. He relied on the men who had been on 
previous expeditions, and two of those would be Devon men ; 
so they might suppose it would be all right. (Applause). It 
was a hard thing to get money for such an expedition, but it 
would seem that eighty years ago it was just as hard as at the pres- 
ent time. A deputation from a learned society waited on the great 
Duke of Wellington, who had control of the national finance at 
that time, and pointed out that it was desired to send an 
expedition to the North Pole. The deputation came back in 
about two hours, very much flushed, to the members of the 
society. . " What did the Duke say ? " they were asked. " Oh," 

was the reply, " the Duke said, the North Pole." (Laughter.) 

" You must not mind that," said a man who had not been 
among the unfortunate deputation. " You must not mind that, 
for he has been known to speak disrespectfully of the equator." 



The Annual Dinner 27 



(Laughter.) They had given him a very kindly reception, such 
as he might have had if he had come back after the work was 
done. But the work had yet to be done, and when they received 
him in so cordial a manner they had in their minds not him alone, 
but the work which his colleagues and himself would soon be 
embarking upon. (Hear, hear.) His name was pretty well 
known, because with the leader of an expedition lay the praise 
or blame of an enterprise, but nobody knew better than he did 
what he owed to his colleagues who would accompany him, who 
were actuated by the desire to do good honest work. In the 
last expedition very often some of the youngest men would 
come up to him and suggest something that he had not himself 
thought of, and all through they worked for the common cause, 
which was the good of their country. (Hear, hear.) Some 
people thought they were fools to go. May be they were like 
those people the poet spoke of — 

" We are the fools who could not rest 

In the dull earth we left behind, 
But burned with passion for the South 

And drank strange frenzy from its wind. 
The world where wise men live at ease 

Fades from our unregretful eyes, 
And blind across uncharted seas 

We stagger on our enterprise." 

Sir Ernest, concluding, said : " We are going out on this expedi- 
tion. I hope we will come back with good work accomplished. 
When we come back I hope I may be fortunate enough to attend 
once more a dinner of your Association. I feel sure your good 
wishes will go with us. It is a proud thing to be a Devon man." 
(Applause.) 

Progress of the Association. 

Colonel E. T. Clifford, responding, said the last great explorer 
whom they had had the honour of entertaining was the late 
Captain Scott. Sir Ernest Shackleton had hinted in the most 
delicate manner that funds would be acceptable. The Devonian 
societies far and near had been glad to help Captain Scott's 
expedition, and he had not the slightest doubt that if the 
opportunity were given them, they would be equally glad 
similarly to help Sir E. Shackleton. (Hear, hear.) He was 
glad to assure them that during the past twelve months the 
London Devonian Association had satisfactorily increased in 
membership, and that it had accomplished all that it had set out 
to do in promoting social intercourse and so forth among 
Devonians resident in London and district, and in fostering a 
knowledge of Devon history and folklore. They had done 



28 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

more than that, however. Some two years ago they decided 
to embark upon a scheme of federation for Devonians and 
Devonian Societies all over the world, to establish a festival day 
and to further a memorial in London to their great county hero, 
Drake. (Applause.) With regard to federation, he was glad 
to tell them that every Devonian Society in London had fallen 
into line for their mutual support. These included the 
Associations connected with Exeter, Ottery, Barnstaple, Tiverton, 
and last, but not east, the Three Towns — Plymouth, Devonport, 
and Stonehouse. Further, a great many Devonian Societies 
throughout England, and, indeed, all parts of the world, from 
north to south and from east to west, had linked themselves up 
with the central Association. There was only one regret, and 
that was that the organization known as " Devonians in London " 
was still outside the fold. He alluded to it as an organization, 
because it really was not an association or a society as is gener- 
ally understood. He was reminded only the other day that it 
was an organization which not only dined to exist but also 
existed to dine. (Laughter.) The London Devonian Associ- 
ation had held out to them the right hand of friendship, and 
had invited them to join them, in the belief that unity and not 
division should be their motto. The chairman of " Devonians 
in London," Sir F. C. Gould, was a man of whom Devonians 
were justly proud, and they looked to him with confidence to 
bring about that union, which would be desirable from every 
point of view. (Applause.) Last year the members celebrated 
their festival by an excursion up the river. This year they 
intended to celebrate Armada Day at Tavistock, Drake's home. 
There they would foregather with the Devonshire Association, 
when members would have an opportunity of getting into close 
touch with Drake's home and of seeing the famous drum of their 
great county hero. 

The Drake Memorial. 
With respect to the proposed memorial to Drake, he was sorry 
he had nothing very definite to state. A National Committee 
was formed to carry out this great work. That committee met 
under the presidency of Mr. Winston Churchill, and appointed 
an Executive Committee, which lost no time in doing their 
best. The first duty, of course, was to obtain a site, and that had 
up to the present been the difficulty. They had approached 
the Government on the matter, and only two or three days ago 
in the House of Commons, Mr. Yerburgh, the president of the 
Navy League, asked whether a site would be granted. The 
committee felt that the most suitable site in London was the 
large flagged vacant space at the head of the Serpentine, where 



The Annual Dinner 29 



could be put up a memorial not only to Drake, but also to the 
other great warrior navigators associated with the Armada, to 
whom Devon, England, and, indeed, the Empire, owed so much. 
(Applause.) Mr. Wedgwood Benn, however, in reply to Mr. 
Yerburgh, pointed out that he had already given a pledge to the 
House that no space should be allotted for the erection of statuary 
in the Royal parks, except with the unanimous consent of the 
House of Commons. He (Colonel Clifford) trusted that that 
consent would ultimately be obtained, so that the work of 
erecting a memorial to Drake might be undertaken without 
further delay. (Hear, hear.) Excellent work had been done for 
the Association by Mr. Shawyer, the indefatigable hon. secretary, 
and Mr. Pearse Chope, editor of "The Devonian Year Book," 
as well as by Mr. N. Cole and Mr. W. H. Smart (chairman and 
secretary of the Entertainment Committee). (Applause.) 

Mr. Shawyer announced that congratulatory telegrams had 
been received from the Devonian Societies in Reading, Liverpool, 
and Swansea. 

Tribute to Lord Halsbury. 

Colonel Burn gave the toast of " The Chairman." They felt 
it a very great honour to the society, he said, that they should 
have as their President a man of the Earl of Halsbury's standing, 
whose name was known throughout the British Empire, and 
whose one object was the welfare and well-being of the country 
of which he was such a noble representative. He combined 
the versatility and energy of youth with the experience and 
wisdom of age, and they all joined in wishing him continued 
long life, so that he might shed lustre on this 20th century as 
he had done on the past. With such men as their Chairman 
at the helm they knew that John Bull and his empire were in 
safe hands. (Applause.) 

The toast was drunk with much cordiality, and the Chairman, 
briefly replying, caused roars of laughter by saying that Colonel 
Burn had almost worked a miracle in that he had nearly made 
an old lawyer blush. 

The Rev. A. J. Waldron, the popular Vicar of Brixton, in a 
characteristic speech, proposed " The Visitors." He expressed 
the hope that some representatives of the railway companies were 
present, because he considered that, as he persuaded seven- 
eighths of the people whom he married to spend their honeymoon 
in Devon, he was entitled to a free pass. (Laughter.) They 
were all proud of their county and its history ; and the best 
they could do as exiles in London was to come to these annual 
gatherings, eat their junket, and go home and be bad after it. 
(Laughter.) 



30 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

Mr. J. A. Hawke, K.C., responding, said a great deal had been 
said that evening about the county of Devon, but knowing a 
great deal about that part of the kingdom, in his opinion not a 
word too much had been said. (Hear, hear.) If there was one 
thing more than another of which West Country people could be 
proud it was of their hospitality. Holding as he did an office 
of importance in their county, he felt that he had obtained that 
position, of which he was very proud, largely by the help that 
he had received — although a stranger in the county of Devon — 
from the men of Devon. He would like all the visitors present 
to know that if they went to Devon for a holiday or on business 
they would be received with the same unvarying generosity as 
he had had the good fortune to be received. As a Parliamen- 
tarian, he claimed the Earl of Halsbury for Cornwall, because 
Launceston was in Cornwall, and not in Devon. (Laughter and 
applause.) 

Mr. Herbert Dunn, J. P. (South Australia) also responded. 
Having mentioned his early associations with the county of 
Devon, Mr. Dunn claimed that the Australians were a loyal 
people, who would uphold the empire in every possible way, 
because the crimson tie of blood relationship was very dear to 
their hearts. The colonials, however, had one request to make 
in return. Here, in the very hub of the universe, they must not 
pull down but keep the empire united. If they did that he 
would promise that those at the outposts would rally round the 
old Union Jack, and help to keep it flying. (Applause.) 

On the conclusion of the toast list Lord Halsbury retired from 
the chair, which was occupied for the remainder of the evening 
by Colonel Clifford. During the evening an enjoyable programme 
was sustained by Miss Ethel Moore, Miss Lena Hutchings, Mr. 
Frank Webster, songs ; and Mr. Chas. Wreford, humorous 
recitations. Mr. Thomas F. Noakes was at the piano. 

The menu cards were, as on former occasions, kindly given 
by Mr. F. C. Southwood, the well-known heraldic stationer of 
Regent Street. On the front page was a neat and artistic 
design representing the Affiliated Societies in the provinces and 
abroad linked to each other and to the London Association in a 
continuous chain. This design is reproduced on the cover of 
the present Year Book. Similar designs inside the menu 
represented respectively the thirteen Boroughs of Devon, with 
the arms of Exeter at the top, and thirteen of the chief 
Worthies of Devon, headed by a portrait of Drake, the others 
being Hawkins, Davys, Gilbert, Raleigh, Hooker, Monk, 
Marlborough, Reynolds, Coleridge, Froude, Kingsley, and Scott. 



Notes and Gleanings 31 



Notes and Gleanings. 

A Public Servant Honoured. 

Our Chairman of Committee, Alderman Charles Pinkham, J. P., 
was on Friday, July 17, the recipient of a handsome testimonial, 
subscribed for by the people of Willesden, irrespective of party, 
position, or creed, as a mark of appreciation of his twenty-five 
years' public service in many capacities for the benefit of that 
district. The presentation was made by Alderman W. Regester, 
J. P., Chairman of the Middlesex County Council, Mr. Pinkham 
being Chairman of the Highways Committee of that Council. 
The testimonial took the form of a diamond and sapphire brooch 
for Mrs. Pinkham ; and a handsome silver salver and silver 
candlesticks, a cheque for £150, and an album containing an 
illuminated address and some three hundred subscribers' 
signatures, for Mr. Pinkham. The address was as follows: 
" To Charles Pinkham, Esq., Member of the Willesden Urban 
District Council, County Alderman, and Justice of the Peace. 
We ask you to accept the gifts that accompany this album 
as a slight token of our recognition of the many years of 
public service you have given in helping to make Willesden the 
premier parish of the County. As a member of the Willesden 
Local Board and Urban District Council, as a County Alderman 
and as a Justice of the Peace, you have proved yourself worthy 
of the many honours bestowed upon you. Your sound, practical 
business instincts and wise counsel have been of inestimable 
value to your colleagues in local, municipal, and county 
administration, and it is our earnest wish that you may long 
be spared to continue your good work. It gives us great pleasure 
to associate Mrs. Pinkham with this testimonial, in asking her 
to accept one of the gifts we now offer, wishing her many years 
of happiness with you in your social and public duties." 

A Distinguished Dramatist. 

From T.P.'s Weekly I extract the following interesting note 
about one of our Vice-Presidents : " John Galsworthy was born 
at Coombe, Surrey, in 1867. On his father's side the family is 
Devonian, and his mother comes of the Worcestershire family 
of Bartleet. Mr. Galsworthy was a Harrow boy, and in 1886 
went up to New College, Oxford. In 1890 he was called to the 
Bar. This legal training was inherited, for his father practised as 



32 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

a London solicitor. It is significant, too, that Justice, the play 
that established Galsworthy as a literary force in England and 
America, not only deals with the law, but has caused at least 
the beginning of an alteration in the absurdity of its rigours. 
Mr. Winston Churchill, as Home Secretary, was so far impressed 
that he made certain alterations in prison regulations. ' They're 
nahsty places — prisons,' says the play. This practical result 
must not be taken as evidence of a propagandist spirit. In 
Justice, the author dramatized the idea of a more or less blind, 
unfeeling power, which too often oppresses man. In his plays, 
Justice and the even finer Strife, Galsworthy uses the Law and 
the Capital and Labour quarrel, as the Greek dramatists used 
Fate and the Gods ; as Shakespeare used Ambition in Macbeth, 
or Youth and Old Age in Lear. That statesmen should have 
the discernment to learn from the theatre is a credit to them, 
but in no way is Galsworthy, the artist, to be classed as a writer 
of ' plays with a purpose.' With him, as with Shakespeare, 
life and the problems of life are the ' stuff ' of which dreams and 
dramas are made." 

His plays have been issued in three volumes, the first con- 
taining The Silver Box, Joy, and Strife ; the second The Eldest 
Son, The Little Dream, and Justice ; and the third The Fugitive, 
The Pigeon, and The Mob. " They are three volumes," says the 
Times reviewer, " of which any dramatist might be proud. For 
weight, sincerity, individuality, and fine craftsmanship they are 
probably unmatched in modern drama." 

A Centenarian. 

" The oldest barrister in England," Mr. William Augustus 
Gordon Hake, who died at Brighton on July 13th, 1914, at the 
age of 103, was born at St. David's Hill, Exeter, on April 5th, 
1811, being the youngest son of Mr. Thomas Bedford Hake, 
musician, and organist of Leeds Cathedral, and Augusta Maria 
Hake, youngest daughter of Captain William Augustus Gordon, 
who was on the staff of General Wolfe at the battle of Quebec, 
and saw him die. General Gordon was his first cousin, and 
Lord Brougham was his " chum " at the Bar, although three 
years his junior on the Home Circuit. He retired from the Bar 
in 1864, just fifty years ago, and acquired No. 3, Old Steine, 
Brighton, as his residence, where he lived until his death. With 
its cobbled-stone frontage and old-fashioned windows, this 
quaint old house was used by George IV. for guests whom he 
could not accommodate at the Royal Pavilion, and its old-world 
character was well maintained by Mr. Hake, candles having 
been the only means of illumination used in it. 



Notes and Gleanings 33 



A Theatrical Eccentric. 
Another Exonian of note who has died during the past year 
was William Hamilton Codrington Nation. A man of great 
wealth, lord of the manor of Rockbeare, he devoted the greater 
part of his career to staging dramas written by himself, nearly 
every one of which was a failure. He desired to be known 
chiefly as a poet and a writer of songs, and these precious lyrics 
were thrust into every play he produced without any regard 
to its action. M His productions were the wierdest things 
imaginable — a small group of deadheads with a sprinkling of 
boys among them, and Nation himself, a queer, bent, gipsy-like 
figure, with flowing hair and tattered clothes, ever on the alert 
in the prompt box." Sometimes he would be seen with his 
coat collar turned up and applauding himself vigorously with a 
big baggy umbrella which he usually carried, and with which 
he sometimes directed rehearsals. His eccentricity was said to 
have been due to a love disappointment. He was engaged to a 
beautiful Devon lass, but on the eve of the wedding she jilted 
him and eventually married somebody else. Nation had bought 
and furnished for her a splendid house in the West End. When 
the wedding was declared off, he installed a caretaker there to 
see that everything was kept as it had been prepared for the 
reception of the bride. For ten years the wedding breakfast lay 
on the table, and for many years more Nation would visit the 
house once a month, walking through it alone. His only 
recreation was " being on the seashore." True to his character 
to the last, he died without leaving a will, and his fortune of 
over £300,000 passed to his next-of-kin. 

A City Father. 

During the past year Devonians in London have sustained a 
severe loss by the death of Mr. John Henry Lile, a native and 
honorary freeman of Bideford, who, leaving the West of England 
many years ago, rose to a distinguished position in tne City of 
London, where he was greatly esteemed. In the memorial 
service held at the City Temple, the Rev. R. J. Campbell 
said : " Mr. Lile was an example of what could be accomplished 
by industry, perseverance, and high qualities of character. 
Born in a comparatively humble station in life, he raised himself 
by his own exertions to a position of influence and honour in the 
civic and religious life of the greatest city in the world. He was 
a faithful friend — not only in prosperity, but also in adversity, 
never turning his back on any one to whom he had once given 
his confidence. And as with his friends, so with his principles. 
What he believed in he was prepared to stand by, and he often 

3 



34 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

did so to his own temporary disadvantage. One could not pay 
a higher tribute than to say of him, that he was not only a good 
man, but a man of true, earnest piety." 

The Chancellor of Exeter Cathedral. 

Although not a native of Devon, Chancellor Edmonds was so 
intimately associated with our county for just one-half of his 
long life, that he may reasonably be regarded as a Devonian. 
He was the eldest son of the late Mr. Walter Edmonds, who 
lived for over ninety years in Penzance, by his wife, Ann 
Courtenay, daughter of Mr. Harvey, of Helston. Mr. Walter 
Edmonds, who was a noted local preacher among the Cornish 
Wesleyans, was related to the Bramwells, including the lady 
who went on a visit to Yorkshire and, marrying a local clergyman, 
became the mother of the Brontes. The late Chancellor was 
born on October 6, 1834, and after being a short time in business 
in London, he went out to India as a missionary, Returning 
home in 1863, he became curate of Redruth, and in 1869 was 
appointed district secretary of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. In 1874 he was preferred to the Rectory of High Bray, 
near South Molton, and in 1880 was granted the Lambeth B.D. 
degree. In 1885 he was promoted to a prebendal stall at Exeter 
Cathedral, and in 1889 he left High Bray for the Vicarage of 
St. George, Tiverton. In 1891 he was nominated to a residen- 
tiary canonry, and was selected by the Bishop for the congenial 
work of directing the younger clergy. 

He was an eager student, especially of Church history, and 
no one knew the great Cathedral of the West as familiarly as 
he. He was made Chancellor of the Church in 1900, and had 
been for some years Proctor in Convocation for the Chapter. 
" He was a striking instance of the steady advancement of a 
man without public school or university training, without 
assistance from either of the great parties in the Church, and 
without any influence except that of his personal merits and 
gifts." He died at Exeter on April 18, 1914, in his 80th year. 
He was twice married, and leaves a large family. 

Naval Architects. 

An excellent choice has been made by the General Committee 
of Lloyd's Register in appointing Professor Westcott Stile Abell 
their Chief Ship Surveyor. He was the first Professor of Naval 
Architecture at Liverpool University, and has been succeeded, 
it is interesting to note, by his brother, Thomas Bertrand Abell. 
Born at Exmouth in 1877, Professor W. S. Abell was educated 
at West Buckland School, from which he entered Keyham 



Notes and Gleanings 35 



College as an engineer student, subsequently becoming a con- 
struction student. Shortly after his final examination at 
Keyham, he met with a severe accident, resulting in the loss of his 
right hand. Returning to Exmouth with a picnic party from 
Chudleigh Rocks, on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Diamond 
Jubilee, in June, 1897, he was burning coloured lights at the 
end of the break when the contents of one of the tins exploded, 
shattering his right hand from the wrist. The Admiralty having 
giving permission for him to continue his studies at Greenwich, 
he learnt to write with his left hand before the commencement 
of the college course in September. At the end of the session 
he was first on the list, and at the final examination, in 1900, 
he gained a first-class professional certificate, having obtained 
more than 80 per cent of full marks. He then joined the Royal 
Corps of Naval Constructors, and became secretary to Sir Philip 
Watts, the Director of Naval Construction, and instructor in 
naval architecture at the Royal Naval College, from which he 
received his appointment at Liverpool. 

A Professor of Pathology. 

Among the Birthday Honours this year is that of a Knighthood, 
graciously conferred by the King upon Lieutenant-Colonel 
Leonard Rogers, CLE., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., Indian Medical 
Service. Born at Plymouth in 1867, the son of an officer in the 
Navy, he was at West Buckland School from 1879 until 1884, 
when he became Head Boy. After his medical course at St. 
Mary's Hospital, he entered the Indian Medical Service as 
Lieutenant in 1893, where he has had a distinguished career, 
having made important discoveries in the causes and treatment 
of many little-understood tropical diseases. In 1899 he became 
the first Professor of Pathology at Calcutta, and Bacteriologist 
to the Government. His discoveries in the treatment of amoebic 
dysentery and liver abscesses have been declared by Sir Malcolm 
Morris, K.C.V.O., to be some of the most valuable in the whole 
range of tropical therapeutics. He has also been lately elected 
an Honorary Member of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

Bravo ! " Highflyer." 

On Thursday, August 27, 1914, Mr. Winston Churchill 
announced in the House of Commons : " The Admiralty has just 
received intelligence that the German armed merchant cruiser, 
Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, of 14,000 tons, armed with ten guns 
of approximately 4-inch calibre, has been sunk by H.M.S. 
Highflyer off the West African coast. Our losses were one killed 
and five slightly wounded." The following message was sent 



36 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

from the Admiralty : " Bravo ! You have rendered a service 
not only to Britain, but to the peaceful commerce of the world." 
To Devonians this is particularly interesting, because the cruiser, 
which has a displacement of only 5,600 tons, is manned by a 
Devonport crew, and is commanded by a Devonshire officer, 
Captain H. T. Buller, M.V.O., son of the late Admiral Sir A. 
Buller, of Erie Hall, Plympton. Captain Buller served as 
Lieutenant and First Lieutenant of the Victoria and Albert from 
1902 to 1904, and was promoted to Commander from the Royal 
yacht on August 31, 1904. He was Commander of the R.N. 
College, Dartmouth, from January, 1908, to June, 1911, when 
he was promoted to Captain. He received the M.V.O. on 
April 12, 1911, when the Prince of Wales completed his term at 
the College. From November, 1911, to November, 1912, he 
was Flag-Captain in the Home Fleet at Portsmouth. 

The Coldstream Guards. 

u Its pedigree is far the most interesting to be found among 
all our military forces, for it is directly descended from the New 
Model Army which triumphed at Naseby, and never was beaten. 
Among the infantry of that immortal force were two battalions 
— Weldon's and Herbert's — from each of which, in 1650. five 
companies were taken to form a new regiment under Colonel 
George Monck. Their first action was that of Dunbar under the 
chief command of Cromwell himself. The forerunners of the 
soldiers who made so glorious a stand at Landrecies a few weeks 
ago first came under fire as a regiment on September 3, 1650, 
and saw the flash of the risen sun, which evoked from Oliver the 
text, " Let God arise, and let his enemies be scattered." That 
Monck' s foot was in good order we may be sure, for their colonel 
was a man of wide military knowledge and experience, and, as 
his Highland campaign can prove, not without a touch of original 
genius himself. It was no doubt a fine battalion which marched 
down from Coldstream on January 1, 1660, and was taken into 
the King's service as the Coldstream Guards on February 14, 
1661. Monck, who was a Devonshire man, continued to be 
their colonel until his death in 1670, but he left only one son, 
who died without issue ; and the task of perpetuating his name 
in the regiment has fallen to the Irish branch of his family, 
which has worthily fulfilled it. The Coldstreams have rarely 
been without a Monck for many generations ; and there is one 
with them at the front at this moment, who was recently returned 
as wounded. The West-Country tradition is, however, main- 
tained, not only by recruits from Devon, but by many Devonshire 
and Cornish families, which have long sent and still send their 



Notes and Gleanings 37 



sons to the regiment as officers/ ' — Hon. John Fortescue in The 
Times, Sept. 29, 1914. 

Old Mother Hubbard's Church. 

The following quaint appeal to children for funds for rebuilding 
the tower of Yealmpton Church has been issued by the vicar : — 

" My dear Children. — I am sure you have all heard of the 
adventures of ' Old Mother Hubbard and her Dog,' but probably 
none of you have heard where my adventures took place. Well, 
they occurred at Yealmpton, a beautiful village in South Devon. 
I was the housekeeper at the Squire's house there over a 
hundred years ago, and a lady named Sarah Catherine Martin 
wrote that nursery rhyme about me and my dog which you 
know so well. The original book in which my adventures are 
described is still in the Squire's house, and inside the book is 
the note : — 

Original Presentation copy of Mother Hubbard, written at Kitley 
by Sarah Catherine Martin and dedicated to John Pollexfen Bastard, 
M.P. (Mother Hubbard was, it is believed, the housekeeper at 
Kitley at that time.) 

" Then follows the dedication : 

To John Pollexfen Bastard, Esq., M.P. County of Devon, at whose 
suggestion and at whose house these notable sketches were designed, 
this volume is with all suitable deference dedicated by his Humble 
Servant, S. C. M. 

" Now, I am very sorry to tell you that the Tower of 
Yealmpton Church which I attended for so many years, is 
cracked and decayed. The Vicar has tried to save it, but it is 
too weak. Two architects have examined it independently, and 
agree that it must be taken down or it will fall down. To take 
down the present Tower and build another will cost £2,000, and 
towards this he has raised £1,250. We dare not ring the Church 
Bells for fear of shaking the Tower down on the ringers. 

" Now, my dear Children, will you help me to get some of this 
money to rebuild the Tower of my Church, of which I am so 
fond ? I am asking the children all over the world who have 
been amused at my ' adventures,' to send me something, however 
small, to pay off this great debt. To those children who send 
me not less than 1 /- (with name and address) , I will show my 
gratitude by sending them a picture postcard of the Church 
and Tower. Colonel Bastard, of Lyneham, Yealmpton, S. Devon, 
is the Treasurer, and any sums sent to him or the Vicar will be 
most thankfully acknowledged. 

" Yours affectionately, 

" Old Mother Hubbard" 

"(To say nothing of the Dog)." 



38 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 



Devonshire and the War. 

" The grand old men of Devonshire, 

How mighty is their name ! 
The glory of their deeds shall burn 

An everlasting flame. 
Right sturdy, stalwart sons were they, 
And won a brave renown — 
The brightest, purest gems of fame 

In England's matchless crown." 

Thus wrote Capern, Bideford's postman poet, about Devonians 
of the past, and truly we have good reason to be proud of the 
glorious part our fellow-countymen have played in the great 
battles of our country's history — from the Armada to Waggon 
Hill. When we think of their gallant deeds, do we not all share 
the poet's feelings ? — 

" My blood leaps up into my brain, 
And gallops through my heart ; 
My soul throbs with the proud desire 
To play a patriot's part." 

Devon's share in defeating the Spanish Armada is well known, 
and the name of Drake is enshrined in the hearts of Devonians 
as their greatest hero. According to Kingsley's Westward Ho ! 
it was a saying of Queen Elizabeth, that Devonshire was her 
right hand, and the young children thereof like the arrows in 
the hand of the giant. And the exploits of the Devonshire 
Regiment worthily sustain the reputation then gained by our 
county.* 

Although no details of their actions in the present terrible 
war have been officially published, the following extracts from a 
letter written by an officer in the 1st Battalion to a friend in 
England, dated Nov. 5, gives a graphic description of their 
work in the face of great odds, and will be read with great 
interest and pride : — 

" From October 10 until the 22nd," he states, " we were under tre- 
mendous shell-fire. On the night of Oct. 22 we advanced a bit and dug 
ourselves more or less in by dawn, and soon after light we saw great 
masses of German infantry emerge from woods and hedges some 1000 
yards to our front, and advance to attack us. 

" We opened fire on them and killed dozens. This was answered by 
Hie Germans with a tremendous shell-fire from their heavy guns. 

* A brief account of them will be found in the Devonian Year Book 
for 191 1. 



Devonshire and the War 39 

" The Devons were perfectly wonderful ; not a man left his trench. 
All day long the battle raged, and you never saw such an inferno. By 
night the place was a mass of fire, smoke, dead, and dying. 

" All night they attacked us. Sometimes they got right up to our 
trenches, only to be hurled back by the Devons' bayonets. 

" Dawn broke on the 24th with the same struggle still going on, and 
it continued all day and night, and all through the 25th. We never 
slept a wink, and by night we were absolutely done. 

" No humans could have done more. The men were perfectly splendid, 
and repulsed every attack with great loss to the enemy. We were relieved 
at 1 a.m. on Oct. 26, and as we marched back a mile into billets all the 
troops cheered us frantically. 

" General Smith- Dorrien sent a wire congratulating us on our splendid 
fight. We heard officially from Divisional Headquarters that there were 
1500 dead Germans in front of our trenches. The whole place was 
littered with their dead. 

" We lost four officers killed, four wounded, and 150 men killed and 
wounded. One shell pitched in my company's trench, killing and 
wounding two officers and thirty-five men." 

On another occasion the officer with two men volunteered 
for a particularly dangerous piece of work — to ascertain the 
position regarding a line of trenches. 

" We were met," says the officer, " by a hellish fire, which killed both 
of my men. One bullet tore a hole inside my thigh about four inches 
long, and as deep as a pencil. It was, however, only a graze, nothing 
serious. Another bullet went through my coat pocket. 

" It was a hot corner ; all these shots were fired not twent)' yards 
away. To go on was suicide, so I crawled back into safety, fearing 
every second would be my last, and with difficulty and in some pain I 
got back to the General, and told him the position. Reinforcements 
were sent up, and the Germans turned back. 

" On the 27th we were in another fight. This time we relieved another 
regiment, some five miles north of our last fight, and here we found the 
Germans entrenched forty yards from us. We fought here till November 
1, night and day again. The Germans made six attacks on our left on 
October 29, all of which we drove off. 

" We killed a lot here. One of the bayonet charges accounted for 
seventy dead Germans and fourteen prisoners. We lost three more 
officers killed and about 120 more men. . . . 

" Every man Germany has is out, and every man dead is a man lost 
to her army. The German losses here are perfectly gigantic, and we 
are winning all along. The splendid behaviour of the English troops 
has won everyone's admiration — even the German. 

" After our last fight," the officer concludes, " the Devons again were 
congratulated all round. They have made a tremendous name here, 
and everywhere one goes all ranks pass the word, ' Good old Devons ! ' " 

In view of these gallant deeds, it will be well for us to consider 
what share Devonshire is taking in the present crisis, and what 
proportion of its population is now serving in the Navy, Army, 
and Territorial Force. With regard to the Navy, precise figures 
are not yet available, but from the subjoined memorandum, 
which has been kindly furnished by Earl Fortescue, it will be 



40 



The Devonian Year Book, 1915 



seen that the total number of Devonians in the military units 
is approximately 15,000, for, although several officers and men 
(particularly in the Regular Battalions) are not Devonians, 
there are at least as many Devonians in other Regiments. This 
number is only 2' 14 per cent of the whole population of the 
county, and compares unfavourably with many other counties. 
Earl Fortescue's memorandum is as follows : — 

" Previous to the war the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the Devonshire 
Regiment stood at their normal peace establishment of 739 and 920 for 
home and colonial service. On departure for France they were both 
brought up by drafts and reserves to the full war strength of 1050 and 
1230. 

" The 3rd Devons on July 1 were 374 strong ; on November 1 they 
were 1994. 

" In regard to the Territorial Force, the strength on mobilization and 
on November 1 was as under : — 



Strength. 



Unit. 
Royal 1st Devon Yeomanry 
Royal North Devon Yeomanry 
Royal Field Artillery . . 

Reserve 
Royal Garrison Artillery 

Signal Company 
Royal Engineers 
4th Devons 

Reserve 
5th Devons 

Reserve 
6th Devons 

Reserve 
7th Devons (Cyclists) 
Army Service Corps 
ist Field Ambulance 
2nd Field Ambulance 
General Hospital 
Clearing Hospital 



" About 445 of the Royal Field Artillery and about 800 each of the 
Infantry Battalions are in India. 

" The difference between the present total of 10,429 and the total on 
August 5 of 5601 is 4828, to which must be added the men discharged 
and replaced by recruits, full particulars of which have not been received 
from the Units in India, but this amounts to at least 213. This brings 
the recruits obtained for the Territorial Force in the county to 5041 
from August 5 to November 1. 

" The recruits for the same period for the Regular Army were 4562, 
and for the Navy say 197 (at Devonport only 141), making a total of 
say 9900 recruits for all purposes. The men who joined the Army were 
divided roughly as follows : Cavalry, 309 ; Artillery, 490 ; Brigade of 
Guards (nearly all Coldstreams), 132 ; Devon Regiments, 2227 ; other 
Corps, 404. This works out at 1*4 per cent on the population of the 





Aug. 5 


Nov. 1 


• • 


782 




440 


836 




388 


445 
508 




43i 


559 




73 


223 




429 


579 




856 


800 
702 




735 


800 
609 




804 


800 

780 




4 6 5 


907 




77 


181 




130 


421 




275 


393 




43 


99 


5 


5 




5601 


10,429 






Devonshire and the War 41 

county, which is by no means a high proportion, as the recruits for the 
Regular Army alone amounted to 4-07 per cent in Warwickshire, and 
1-44 per cent in Dorset, for the period from August 4 to October 10. 

" In addition to the foregoing combatants, sixteenlVoluntary Aid Detach- 
ments have been wholly, and seven more have been partly, mobilized to 
provide staff for the V.A.D. Hospitals in the county. This means that 
some 500 ladies and thirty to forty men of all classes, from surgeons to 
cooks, are serving the country here in this department. 

" Seven Companies, each 120 strong, of National Reservists are being 
formed for duty on railways, etc. 

In order to ascertain the contributions made by the various 
parishes, the County Council on 24th September unanimously 
passed a resolution requesting the Lord Lieutenant to obtain 
from every City, Borough, and Parish in the County a return 
showing (1) the number of men belonging to it who were serving 
in the Navy, Army, or the Territorial Force on the outbreak of 
the War, (2) the number of those called up for service as Reservists 
in the Navy, Army, or National Reserve, and (3). the number 
who have enlisted in any branch of the Navy, Army, or 
Territorials between that date and October 1. In pursuance 
of this resolution, Earl Fortescue caused a circular to be sent to 
the Mayor or Chairman of every City, Town, or Parish, asking 
them to furnish the requisite particulars. On November 7 
his lordship reported that replies had been received from 191 
parishes, but none of the biggest places had yet made a return, 
as the collection of the information would obviously take a 
considerable time in a large population. 

" The requirements of the country for the Navy and Army cannot be 
put at less than 4 per cent of the population ; and may easily rise to a 
higher figure. 

" The contributions of individual parishes vary from nearly 35 per 
cent in Rousdon, to under a half per cent at Broadwood Kelly. The 
number where the proportion is under 4 per cent is, I am sorry to say, 
more than a third of the whole, so I hope in all such recruiting will be 
pushed on diligently, for more men are badly wanted, especially for the 
Infantry of the lines, whose gallant fighting has involved heavy losses." 

Such a return from the whole county, as Earl Fortescue points 
out, " would not only be of much use in connection with the 
work of any Relief Committee, should distress unfortunately 
arise, but it would also be very valuable if we had to supplement 
the million of men now asked for by further recruits next year ; 
and further, it would be of great historical interest as showing 
to ourselves and to our descendants the part which each parish 
has taken in the present crisis." 

If the whole county combines to send up the names of the 
officers and men, and those of their Troops and Regiments, as 
well as numbers, his lordship undertakes to be responsible at 



42 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

the end of the war for seeing that they are all carefully entered 
up in a suitable volume to be preserved as a county heirloom. 
Speaking at Exeter on November 23, Earl Fortescue said 
that up to the beginning of the month they had, in round figures, 
increased the Territorial Forces by 60 per cent at least, having 
added to them 5,000 recruits. They had recruited another 
5000 for the regular army and navy. Since that date they had 
been getting in recruits for the Territorials at the rate of about 
300 a week, and for the regulars about 100 a week. That 
sounded well — 10,000 in three months, and 400 a week since — 
but it was not well enough, and it did not compare at all well 
with what had been done in other counties. Gloucestershire 
had more than doubled that percentage, Birmingham could 
show five times the number, and Warwickshire six times. Devon- 
shire had nothing to be proud of in the matter of recruiting, and 
it was time they applied themselves with new diligence to make 
up the shortcomings of the past. The Government originally 
asked for two millions of men — about 4 per cent of the popula- 
tion. The additional demand for another million meant that 
6 per cent of the population was required. That, on the Devon- 
shire population, meant about 40,000. In order to stimulate 
recruiting an Executive Committee was formed, to be called 
the " Devon Parliamentary Recruiting Committee," for general 
supervisory and consultative purposes, with the Lord-Lieutenant 
as President, and Lord Clifford, Lord Clinton, Sir Ian Amory, 
and Sir Francis Layland-Barratt as Vice-Presidents. 



OFFICERS OF THE DEVON MILITARY UNITS. 

The following list is based on the November Army List, 
which is stated to be corrected generally to the beginning of 
November, 1914, but a few additions have been made from 
subsequent Gazettes. The list, however, is manifestly incom- 
plete and imperfect, but it is thought that, even in this form, 
it will be of great interest at the present time. A previous list 
was given in the Devonian Year Book for 1911, with which 
this may be compared. 

ROYAL ist DEVON YEOMANRY. 

"South Africa, 1900-01 " 

9, Dix's Field, Exeter. 

Uniform, Scarlet ; Facings, Blue ; Plume, Scarlet and white ; Busby 
Bag, Scarlet. 



Devonshire and the War 43 



Hon. Colonel : Sir J. Shelley, Bart., TD (Lt.-Col. and Hon. Col., retired, 

Imperial Yeomanry) . 
Lt.-Colonels : A. D. Acland, TD ; W. E. T. Bolitho, D.S.O. (Maj. retired, 

Imperial Yeomanry ; Hon. Maj. in Army). 
Majors : Viscount Hambleden ; M. R. A. Wyatt-Edgell (Hon. Lt. in 

Army) ; /. G. B. Lethbridge (Capt. Reserve of Officers) ; R. H. St. 

Maur ; Lord Vivian, late Lt. 17th Lancers (Lt. Reserve of Officers) ; 

W. G. Hole; Maj. and Hon. Lt.-Col. C. H. Paynter, late Cornwall 

Fortress Engineers (temp.) ; J. Williams, late Capt. ; Brevet Col. 

G. B. Unwin, D.S.O., late Indian Army. 
Captains : Sir W. Peek, Bart. ; G. H. Johnstone ; E. Hain ; R. E. C. 

Knight-Bruce; A. F. Wright, late Capt. Imperial Yeomanry (temp.). 
Lietenants : R. C. Hunter ; J. F. Shelley ; R. S. Hawker ; Hon. A. V. 

Agar-Robartes ; R. B. Phillpotts ; E. W. H. B. Scratton ; H. W. 

Acland-Troyte ; C. E. Venning (temp.). 
2nd Lieutenants : E. J. H. Holley ; H. R. Fox ; G. G. Petherick, late 

2nd Lt. 2nd Life Guards ; W. H. D. Acland, late 2nd Lt. 2nd Devons. 

Special Reserve : S. R. E. Snow ; P. G. Carew ; S. S. Harrison ; 

M. Petherick ; J. C. B. Lethbridge ; J. S. Pendarves ; P. A. E. 

Archer ; H. Q. Nickalls ; F. P. St. Maur. 
Adjutant : W. R. Portal, Lt. Hampshire Yeomanry, capt. 
Quarter-Master : H. Collins, Hon. Lt. ; E. S. Wells, Hon. Lt. 
Medical Officer : Capt. A. C. Bird, R.A.M.C. (attd.). 
Chaplain : Rev. E. J. G. Dupuis, M.A., T.D. 2nd class (attd.). 



ROYAL NORTH DEVON HUSSARS. 

"South Africa, 1900-01." 

Barnstaple. 

Uniform, Blue ; Facings and Busby-Bag, Scarlet ; Plume, Scarlet and 

white. 
Hon. Colonel : Earl Fortescue, K.C.B., TD, Col., A.D.C. (Lt.-Col. and 

Hon. Col. retired, Imperial Yeomanry). 
Lt.-Colonels : R. A. Sanders, TD, M.P. ; Lt.-Col. and Hon. Col. H. H. J. 

Drummond (temp.). 
Majors : J. Bayly, TD ; G. H. St. Hill, TD (Hon. Lt. in Army) ; M. J. 

Greig ; A. C. Thynne, D.S.O. (Hon. Capt. in Army) ; A. C. Mardon ; 

Lt.-Col. K. Chesney, retired Indian Army (temp.) ; Lord Clinton 

(temp.) ; A. S. Browne (temp.) ; E. J. A. Clarke (temp.). 
Captains : Sir G. A. H. Wills, Bart. ; Hon. G. W. W. Bampfylde, late 

Lt. Grenadier Guards (on Staff) ; M. H. Salaman ; Hon. H. B. 

Money-Coutts ; W. L. Lyon-Clark (temp.). 
Lieutenants : W. Ruston ; J. O. Clemson ; A. L. Cave, late Capt 10th 

Hussars ; P. P. Miers ; L. N. Hope ; A. E. Rawlins, late Lt. Imperial 

Yeomanry ; G. G. Collyns ; E. L. Hancock, late Lt. 2nd Volunteer 

Batt., Somerset Light Infantry ; G. A. C. Thynne, late Lt. Imperial 

Yeomanry. 
2nd Lieutenants : V. J. Dawson ; G. P. Williams ; P. P. Kenyon-Slaney ; 

F. N. H. Wills ; Hon. D. G. Fortescue ; R. Burgess ; Hon. D. Scott, 

late Lt. 3rd Batt. Royal Welsh Fusiliers ; C. A. G. Hodgson ; W. F. 

Warneford ; J. H. Echalaz ; M. de las Cares ; R. Seymour ; R. T. 

Harris ; J. H. S. Alexander ; S. Slater ; J. R. F. Garratt, late 2nd Lt. 

4th Batt. East Surrey Regt. ; E. H. James, late Cadet Camb. Univ. 

O.T.C. 
Adjutant : A. B. Winch, Capt. 2nd Dragoons. 



44 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

Quarter-Master : G. W. Olden, Hon. Lt. ; C. Tuffrey, late Reg. Sergt- 

Maj. 3rd Hussars, Hon. Lt. 
Medical Officers : Maj. J. R. Harper, TD, R.A.M.C. (attd.) ; Lt. S. R. 

Gibbs, R.A.M.C. (attd.). 
Chaplain : Rev. A. R. Fuller, M.A., 4th class (attd.). 



ROYAL FIELD ARTILLERY. 

4TH Wessex Brigade. 

Exeter. 

Lt.-Colonels : G. R. FitzR. Talbot, Capt., retired (Reserve of Officers), 

(Hon. Maj. retired, Militia) ; A. Matthews (Lt.-Col. retired, T.F.). 
Orderly Officer : H. G. Hodgkinson (Hon. Maj. retired, Militia ; Hon. Lt. 

in Army), Capt. 
Adjutant : 
Medical Officers : Maj. J. H. Harris, M.D., TD, late Maj. 1st Devon Royal 

Garrison Artillery, R.A.M.C. (attd.) ; Capt. A. Coleridge, M.B., 

R.A.M.C. (attd.). 
Chaplains : Rev. Hon. H. H. Courtenay, 4th Class (attd.) ; Rev. R. 

Sedgwick, M.A. 4th Class (attd.). 

ist Devonshire Battery. 

Exeter. 

Major : J. T. W. Perowne, VD, Hon. Lt.-Col. 
Captains : T. H. Timms ; H. T. Michelmore. 
Lieutenants : C. R. Rickeard ; A. L. Symes. 

2nd Lieutenants : R. E. Friend ; E. D. Marrable ; E. F. Wilton ; W. J. 
McHaffie; C. H. Prideaux. 

2nd Devonshire Battery. 

Paignton. 
Major : S. Vickers. 

Captains: J. W. C. Spear; H. Wilton. 
Lieutenant : R. T. Manley. 

2nd Lieutenants: D. J. Hobgen ; Q. E. M. A. King; C. M. Eastley ; 
E. E. J. Shiner. 

3RD Devonshire Battery. 

Tavistock. 
Major : T. A. Arden. 
Captains : T. P. Bailey ; V. B. Hilton. 
Lieutenants : R. Allhausen. 

2nd Lieutenants : J. Spencer ; C. A. Barran ; C. Parke ; P. F. Howden ; 
E. R. Stranger. 

4TH Wessex Ammunition Column. 

Crediton. 
Captain : E. J. Harbottle. 
Lieutenants : A. A. McLeod ; M. Napier. 
2nd Lieutenant : W. E. Northey. 



Unposted 2nd Lieutenant : G. F. Singer. 



Devonshire and the War 45 



DEVONSHIRE ROYAL GARRISON ARTILLERY. 

Artillery Drill Hall, Lambhay Hill, Plymouth. 

Hon. Colonel : E. B. Jeune (Lt.-Col. retired T.F.), Lt. -Colonel. 

Lt.-Colonel : A. Tracey, Brevet Col., retired. 

Adjutant : C. H. Reynolds, Lt. R. A., Capt. 

Medical Officers : J. P. S. Ward, Surg.-Maj. ; G. D. Kettlewell, Surg.- 

Capt. 
Chaplains : Rev. S. G. Ponsonby, M.A., VD, 1st Class (attd.) ; Rev. 

J. A. Sidgwick, M.A., 4th Class (attd.) ; Rev. F. E. Ault, 4th Class 

(attd.). 

No. 1 Heavy Battery. 

Ilfracombe. 
Major : F. H. Thomas. . 
Captain : T. F. Day. 
Lieutenant : G. S. Gould. 
2nd Lieutenants : N. E. Hogge ; H. H. M. Warner. 

No. 2 Heavy Battery. 

Devonport. 
Major: C. W. Blundell. 
Captain : A. J. Andrew. 
Lieutenant : G. Thompson. 
2nd Lieutenants : R. G. White ; A. K. Tripe. 

Companies. 
Major: H. E. P. Moon, TD. 

No. 3 Company. 

Plymouth. 

Captains : T. Vosper ; A. J. P. Scaife. 

Lieutenant : R. V. Walling. 

2nd Lieutenants : G. D. Crowther ; J. Forster. 

No. 4 Company. 
Plymouth. 
Captain : E. S. Rogers. 
Lieutenant : C. P. Y. Dawe. 
2nd Lieutenant : M. Bellamy. 

No. 5 Company. 
Devonport. 
Captain : R. H. Davy. 
2nd Lieutenant : W. Lethbridge. 

No. 6 Company. 

Devonport. 

Captains : A. O. Ellis ; W. J. Hart. 
2nd Lieutenant : C. M: Bevan. 



46 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 



DEVONSHIRE FORTRESS ROYAL ENGINEERS. 

Mutlty Barracks, Plymouth. 

Hon. Colonel : Gen. Sir R. Harrison, G.C.B., C.M.G., Col. Comdt. R.E. 
Major : W. E. P. Bastard, Brevet Lt.-Col. 
Adjutant : C. N. Rivers-Moore, Lt. R.E., Capt. 
Medical Officer : Lt. P. R. Bolus, M.B., R.A.M.C. (attd.). 
Chaplain : Rev. H. J. Chaytor, M.A., 4th Class (attd.). 
Quarter-Master : G. A. Picken, Hon. Lt. 

No. 1 (Works) Company. 

Torquay. 

Captains : H. A. Garrett ; R. J. S. Price (late Capt. Royal Monmouthshire 

R.E.). 
Lieutenants : H. S. Ganderton ; G. L. Appleton. 
2nd Lieutenant : W. D. Elwin. 

No. 2 (Works) Company. 
Exeter. 

Captains : W. H. Goodman ; S. E. Moon. 

Lieutenant : 

2nd Lieutenants : W. R. Cocks ; H. W. Woollcombe. 



No. 3 (Works) Company. 
Exeter. 
Captain : J. H. Commin. 
Lieutenants : A. H. Sweet ; J. Bone. 

No. 4 (Electric Lights) Company. 
Mutley Barracks, Plymouth. 

Captain : H. Stone, A.M. I.E. E. 
Lieutenant : E. T. Haslehust. 



No. 5 (Electric Lights) Company. 
Mutley Barracks, Plymouth. 



Captain : G. Hooper. 
Lieutenant : F. T. Bulteel. 
2nd Lieutenant : G. F. Bone. 



Unposted 2nd Lieutenants : W. J. Matthews ; G. C. Stedham ; A. I. 
Polack ; F. A. L. Edwards ; W. J. Butler ; A. F. Lord ; H. R. S. 
Shires. 

Cadet Units Affiliated to the Group. 

No. 1 (Yealmpton) Cadet Company, Devon (Fortress) R.E. 
No. 2 (Plymouth) Cadet Company, Devon (Fortress) R.E. 



Devonshire and the War 47 

WESSEX DIVISIONAL SIGNAL COMPANY, 
ROYAL ENGINEERS. 

Headquarters and No. i Section. 

The Priory, Colleton Crescent, Exeter. 

Captains : E. A. Varwell ; W. G. Michelmore. 
Lieutenant : S. M. Collins. 

No. 2 (Devon and Cornwall) Section. 
Commander : 2nd Lt. J. Vicary, 5th Batt. Devon Regt. 

No. 3 (South-Western) Section. 
Commander : Lt. C. M. Wilson, 4th Batt. Wilts. Regt. 

No. 4 (Hampshire) Section. 
Commander : 

THE DEVONSHIRE REGIMENT. 

The Castle of Exeter. " Semper fidelis." 

" Dettingen," " Salamanca," " Pyrenees," " Nivelle," " Nive," " Orthes," 
" Toulouse," " Peninsula," " Afghanistan, 1879-80," " Tirah," 
" Defence of Ladysmith," " Relief of Ladysmith," " South Africa, 
1899-1902." 

Uniform, Scarlet ; Facings, Lincoln Green. 

Colonel : Lt.-Gen. Sir G. M. Bullock, K.C.B. 

Officer Commanding Depot : Maj. R. H. Kirkwood, Reserve of Officers. 

2nd in Command : Maj. P. V. W. Vigors, D.S.O., Reserve of Officers ; 
Maj. Earl of Devon, retired (Militia) ; Maj. C. H. Chichester, retired, 
Special Reserve (Hon. Capt. in Army). 

Quarter-Master : Qr. -Master H. Christie (Hon. Capt.), retired. 

1ST AND 2ND BATTALIONS (iITH FOOT). 

Lt.-Colonels : G. M. Gloster ; J. O. Travers, D.S.O. ; E. G. Williams. 
Majors : J. F. Radcliffe, D.S.O. ; C. S. Warwick ; J. P. Law ; C. C. M. 

Maynard, D.S.O. ; E. M. Morris ; E. D. Young ; W. M. Goodwyn ; 

J. D. Ingles. 
Captains : N. Luxmoore ; T. C. B. Holland ; A. J. E. Sunderland ; 

E. J. F. Vaughan ; C. A. Laione ; T. B. Harris ; G. N. T. Smyth- 

Osbourne ; E. Hewlett ; G. I. Watts ; D. H. Blunt ; 5. T. Hayley ; 

H. I. Storey; G. F. Green; W.E.Scaife; J. F. A. Kane; R. J. 

Milne ; C. Spencer ; H. Street ; H. C. Whipple ; /. M. Woollcombe ; 

R. P. Lewis ; C. H. M. Imbert-Terry ; M. I. G. Jenkins ; R. C. 

Wrey ; D. R. Jeffreys ; C. Granville, 3rd Batt. ; H. de L. Sprye, 

3rd Batt. ; A. F. Northcote (temp.) ; R. B. Featherstone ; P. R. 

Worrall ; L. D. Woollcombe. 
Lieutenants : H. Eardley-Wilmot ; R. G. Legge ; J. R. Cartwright ; 

/. M. Llewellyn ; L. E. L. Maton, Adjt. ; J. A. Park ; G. E. R. 

Prior ; T. O. B. Ditmas ; A. G. N. Belfield ; R. H. Anderson- 

Morshead ; O. M. Parker; F. R. Cobb; F. J. C. Holdsworth ; 

S. H. Yeo ; R. O. Bristowe ; G. A. Anstey ; A. St. J. M. Kekewich ; 

J. A. Andrews ; 5. C. Nation ; W. A. Fleming ; C. F. W. Lang ; 

E. A. de St. B. S. Watkins, 3rd Batt. ; W. V. Sherwell, 3rd Batt. ; 

G. C. Vaughan ; R. P. Bates ; T. C. B. Joy. 
2nd Lieutenants : W. J. Alexander ; C. H. Gotto ; C. C. Haynes ; A. G. 



48 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

MacMullen ; A. H. Cope ; H. J. H. Cox ; V. A. Beaufort ; J- B. 
Bolitho ; W. L. Clegg ; A. Tillett ; A. B. Copner ; E. G. Roberts, 
3rd Batt. Glouc. Regt. ; M. H. C. Perry ; F. W. J. Galton ; D. J. J. 
Radcliffe ; G. C. Wright ; F. Spilsbury ; V. R. W. Johnson, 3rd 
Batt. Wilts. Regt. ; W. L. Sparkes ; D. A. Bullock ; B. W. H. Wreford. 

Adjutants : L. E. L. Maton, Lt. 

Quarter- Masters : E. Mumford, Hon. Capt. ; G. Palmer, Hon. Lt. ; S. 
Downing, Hon. Lt. ; E. Opie, Hon. Lt. 

Attached : 2nd Lt. E. E. Wenlock, Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry. 

Special Reserve — 2nd Lieutenants : W. G. F. Wedderspoon (on prob.). 

3RD (Special Reserve) Battalion (ist Devon Militia). 

Hon. Colonel : F. H. Mountsteven, C.M.G. (Hon. Col. retired, Militia, 
Hon. Lt.-Col. in Army). 

Lt. -Colonel : D. F. Boles. 

Majors : R. F. W. Hill ; E. G. Snow, Lt.-Col. Reserve of Officers. 

Captains : B. V. Mitford (Hon. Capt. in Army) ; C. Granville ; A. B. 
Bramwell ; H. de L. Sprye ; H. Street ; R. M. Snow ; R. H. Parlby, 
Capt. retired; W. H. Fox; C. G. C. Elers ; A. Snow; H. J. A. 
Porter. 

Lieutenants : E. A. de St. B. S. Watkins ; W. V. Sherwell ; A. W. Toms 
(Attd. Scottish Rifles) ; G. S. M. Larder (Attd. Scottish Rifles) ; E. C. H. 
Hall ; E. L. G. Byrom ; F. Crocker, late 2nd Lt. 4th (Queen's Own) 
Hussars (Reserve of Officers) ; D. M. Gray, late Lt. ist Dragoon 
Guards. 

2nd Lieutenants : P. H. Austin (on prob.) ; V. B. Burke (on prob.) ; B. F. 
Bond (on prob.) ; E. F. L. Taylor (on prob.) ; R. F. Kidd (on prob.) ; 
H. M. Batson (on prob.) ; C. A. Fletcher (on prob.) ; H. Corbett (on 
prob.) ; D. Allhusen (on prob.) ; A. Ferrier-Kerr (on prob.) ; G. H. 
Wyndham (on prob.) ; F. B. A. Cardew (on prob.) ; L. A. H. Stovell 
(on prob.) ; Sir B. R. Williams, Bart, (on prob.) ; A. C. G. Roberts 
(on prob.) ; C. B. S. Frossard (on prob.) ; J. Dodington (on prob.) ; 
G. R. Bolitto (on prob.) ; Hon. F. W. Bampfylde ; B. Drewe (on 
prob.) ; G. W. Elkington (on prob.) ; F. C. B. Walker (on prob.) ; 
A. Preedy (on prob.) ; J. F. W. Carswell (on prob.) ; E. C. Gardiner, 
late 2nd Lt. Royal Irish Regt. ; C. L. G. McK. Forbes (on prob.). 

Adjutant: E. J. F. Vaughan, Capt. Devon Regt. (Capt. in Army). 

Quarter -Master : E. Mumford, Hon. Capt. 

Attached : Capt. N. Luxmoore, Devon Regt., 2nd Lt. E. G. Roberts, 
Devon Regt. ; 2nd Lt. M. H. C. Perry, Devon Regt., 2nd Lt. F. W. J. 
Galton, Devon Regt. ; 2nd Lt. D. J. J. Radcliffe, Devon Regt. ; 
2nd Lt. W. L. Sparkes, Devon Regt. 

4 th (TERRITORIAL) BATTALION. 

" South Africa, 1900-01." 

Exeter. 

Hon. Colonel : Rt. Hon. Sir J. H. Kennaway, Bart., C.B., VD, Hon.-Col. 

(Lt. Reserve of Officers, Hon. Lt. in Army). 
Lt. -Colonels : H. L. Acland Troyte ; C. Marwood Tucker, (Lt.-Col. and 

Hon. Col. retired T.F.), Hon. Col. 
Majors : A. Anstey ; F. R. S. Cosens ; C. P. Tremlett ; F. J. Harvey 

(temp.). 
Captains : H. Townsend ; L. Pollard ; W. G. Forward ; W. H. Percy- 

Hardman ; R. Y. Anderson-Morshead ; F. Carter ; C. E. Lart ; 

A. B. D. Moore (temp.) ; C. B. Bone (temp.). 



Devonshire and the War 49 

Lieutenants : G. E. Cardew ; F. A. Thoday ; A. G. Wippell ; W. Logan ; 

J. W. Orchard; W. Snell ; W. T. Roberts; H. R. Carpenter; 

A. C. Vodden ; C. G. Edwards ; H. S. Reed (temp.) ; W. H. B. R. 

Pease (temp.) ; J. R. Birchall (temp.) ; E. C. Braddon (temp.). 
2nd Lieutenants : W. L. Sparkes ; S. B. Gregory ; W. W. Jervis ; J. 

Kennaway, late Lt. Col. Vol. Batt. Devon Regt. ; J. Heathcoat- 

Amory; C. D. Upstone ; C. A. Mitchell; D. C. Thompson; E. C. 

Benthall , H. J. Ward , P. G. Bamber ; C. K. Dodd ; H. W Crews ; 

P. F. Story; F. R. Buckingham; R. H. Kennaway; W. H. Rad- 

cliffe ; E. H. I. Halford ; R. J. T. Gibson ; H. St. B. Sydenham ; 

G. F. Orchard ; N. E. A. Gardner ; G. Tayleur ; W. H. Webber. 
Instructor of Musketry : W. H. Percy- Hardman, Capt. 
Adjutant : J. M. Woollcombe, Capt. Devon Regt. 
Quarter-Master : C. H. Deeks, Hon. Maj. ; H J. Hyett, Hon. Lt. 
Medical Officer : Lt. T. A. Fisher, R.A.M.C. (attd.). 
Chaplains : Rev. R. H. Couchman, 4th Class (attd.) ; Rev. E. K. Botwood, 

B.A., 4th Class (attd.). 
Uniform, Green ; Facings, Black. 
Cadet Unit Affiliated : The Exeter Cathedral School Cadet Company. 

5th (TERRITORIAL— PRINCE OF WALES) BATTALION. 
" South Africa, 1900-01." 
Millbay, Plymouth. 

Hon. Colonel : Col. Rt. Hon. Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, G.C.V.O., VD, 

late Capt. Cornwall Rangers, Militia. 
Lt. -Colonel : E. B. Hawker (Maj. retired) ; Col. H. Kilgour (retired) (temp.). 
Majors : F. K. Windeatt (Hon. Lt. in Army) ; F. A. Clark. 
Captains : W. J. T. Carder ; W. E. M. Corbett ; F. J. Davis ; H. S. 

Phillips ; J. Windeatt ; G. D. Vicary ; /. D. Sparrow ; E. Roseveare ; 

E. M. Leest ; C. N. Spooner ; W. G. Loveys ; H. Pridham. 
Lieutenants : G. E. Windeatt, Adjt. ; N. Hacker ; H. M. Goldsmith ; 

J. A. Brown; F. E. Piper; V. R. Winnicott ; A. C. Abraham; 

J. Vicary ; A. L. Donaldson ; W. Hosking ; W. J. B. Snell ; C. T. A. 

Bewes ; R. G. Kitson. 
2nd Lieutenants : A. G. W. Church ; R. H. Clapperton ; W. R. Beer ; 

W. H. H. C. Brodie ; W. E. Dent ; F. H. Hartnoll ; D. Hamlyn ; 

K. F. Fradgley ; J. F. Clapperton ; G. L. Kingwell. 
Adjutants : Capt. H. A. Carroll, Royal Munster Fusiliers ; G. E. Windeatt, 

Capt. 
Quarter-Masters : E. W. Greenslade, Hon. Maj. ; J. M. F. C. Freeman, 

Hon. Lt. 
Medical Officers : Capt. A. E. Gladstone, R.A.M.C. (attd.) ; Lt. C. Butler, 

R.A.M.C. (attd.). 
Chaplain : Rev. E. G. Cocks, 3rd Class (attd.). 
Uniform, Scarlet ; Facings, Lincoln Green. 
Cadet Units Affiliated : The Plymouth Lads' Brigade Cadet Corps ; 

The Hay tor (Newton Abbot) Cadet Corps. 

6th (TERRITORIAL) BATTALION. 

" South Africa, 1900-01." 

Barnstaple. 

Lt. -Colonels : N. R. Radcliffe, D.S.O., Capt. retired (Reserve of Officers) ; 
C. M. Sumner, Brevet-Col. retired. 

4 



50 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

Majors : N. S. Manning ; B. B. Newcombe, TD ; G. W. F. Brown ; 

R. W. Fox, Lt.-Col. retired (temp.). 
Captains : J. G. Macindoe ; W. N. Bazeley ; R. P. Dunn-Pattison, 

Adjt. ; J. Pearce ; G. B. Derton ; J. S. Stranger ; W. B. Trevenen ; 

F. G. Smyth- Richards ; W. H. German ; W. H. Speke {Hon. Capt. 

in Army ; Lt.-Col. and Hon. Col. retired T.F.) ; G. C. Watson ; 

E. G. Bowhay; F. A. E. Crew; W. J. Bryant. 
Lieutenants : A. A. Seldon (Administrative Officer, E. Africa Protectorate) ; 

A. S. Mason; F. E. Verney ; H. S. Reavell ; H. G. Waldram ; 

H. A. Jewell. 
2nd Lieutenants : H. Wicksteed ; /. C. Southcombe ; P. R. Johnson ; 

Hon. G. W. Addington ; A. J. C. Heriz-Smith, late Lt. 4th Volunteer 

Batt. Devon Regt. ; T. K. Wigan ; C. E. Driver ; R. S. Phillips ; 

D. H. Reed) J. F. Sanders; J. Bengough-Clark ; W. C. G. Ferrier- 

Kerr ; R. C. N. Palairet ; C. A. Cooper ; G. B. Young ; C. P. 

Shrubb; S. F. Pope; E. M. Pennefather ; D. P. G. Gray; C. B. 

Williams ; G. E. N. Molesworth ; J. R. Manderson ; C. Whippel ; 

A. K. Peter ; O. Chichester ; E. L. Watson ; W. R. Wilson ; E. H. 

Burridge ; T. N. Buckingham ; J. Symes ; E. J. B. Jeffrey ; T. H. 

Denny. 
Adjutants : L. D. Woollcombe, Lt. Devon Regt. ; R. P. Dunn-Pattison, 

Capt. 
Quarter -Masters : C. Lock, Hon. Maj. ; J. J. Bishop, Hon. Lt. 
Medical Officers : Maj. F. W. Kendle, R.A.M.C. (attd.) ; Capt. W. A. 

Valentine, M.D., R.A.M.C. (attd.). 
Chaplain: Rev. E. C. Atherton, M.A. 2nd Class (attd.). 
Uniform, Scarlet ; Facings, Lincoln Green. 



7th (CYCLIST) BATTALION. 

Exeter. 

Hon. Colonel : G. J. Ellicombe, Lt.-Col. retired (Lt.-Col. retired T.F.), 

(Commanding 10th (Service) Batt.). 
Lt. -Colonels : G. W. G. Sanders, Maj. retired (Reserve of Officers) ; H. S. 

Hibberd. 
Major : 
Captains : G. H. Martin ; W. F. Ball ; S. T. Whitemore ; A. Goodridge ; 

H. T. Hems ; A. J. Gorwyn ; T. Wilton, Adjt. ; J. L. Veitch. 
Lieutenants : C. E. T. Jones ; T. O. Endle ; J. P. Best ; G. M. Puckridge ; 

F. Jones ; H. R. Tremlett. 
2nd Lieutenants : E. G. Clarke ; A. J. Brearley ; V. C. Strange ; /. C. 

Johnstone ; M. C. Bawden ; F. J. C. Hunter ; R. A. Ball ; C. H. D. 

King; A. F. C. Baring; G. G. Bellamy; J. N. Hurrell ; R. M. L. 

Wardle ; H. M. Whitehead ; J. T. Quick ; J. S. Puttock ; H. V. I. 

Watts ; G. A. W. Monk ; J. Moffatt ; O. D. Luck ; W. H. Vetch ; 

L. D. Martin ; F. Hargrave-Carroll ; Hon. D. K. Watson ; C. E. 

Pridham ; C. W. Mayer. 
Adjutant : R. C. Wrey, Capt. Devon Regt. ; T. Wilton, Capt. 
Quarter -Master : J. Horswell, Hon. Lt. 
Medical Officer : Lt. J. E. Brydon, M.B., R.A.M.C. (attd). 
Chaplain : Rev. W. McL. Tod, M.A., 4th Class (attd.). 
Uniform, Scarlet ; Facings, Lincoln Green. 
Cadet Unit Affiliated : Dartmouth Cadet Company. 



Devonshire and the War 51 

8th (SERVICE) BATTALION. 

In Command : Lt.-Col. A. G. W. Grant, West African Regt. 

Major : Maj. H. C. Carden, D.S.O., retired. 

Captains : Capt. H. I. Storey, Devon Regt. ; Capt. E. K. Twiss, 10th 
Jats ; B. C. James (temp.) ; R. F. E. Lowndes-Stone-Norton (temp.). 

Lieutenants : J. A. Pryor (temp.) ; F. Bellwood (temp.). 

2nd Lieutenants : K. V. Dodgson (temp.) ; C. J. H. Sheepshanks (temp.) ; 
M. W. M. Windle (temp.) ; H. A. Robertson (temp.) ; F. M. Carver 
(temp.) ; G. P. Tregelles (temp.) ; C. Pepys (temp.) ; R. P. Hepburn 
(temp.) ; F. B. Imbert-Terry (temp.) ; G. D. Roberts (temp.) 
H. D. Drew (temp.) ; E. M. Nixon (temp.) ; H. P. Balderson (temp.) 
E. F. Lyons (temp.) ; W. O. Hulm (temp.) ; F. W. Moore (temp.) 
M. O. Broadbridge (temp.) ; E. T. McMichael (temp.) ; G. B. D 
Cracroft (temp.) ; H. R. Jordan (temp.) ; J. P. R. Bridson (temp.). 

Adjutant : Lt. A. St. J. M. Kekewich, Devon Regt. (Lt. in Army). 

Quarter -Master : E. Opie, Hon. Lt. 

qth (SERVICE) BATTALION. 

In Command : Col. T. A. H. Davies, C.B., D.S.O., retired. 

Majors : 

Captains : R. W. Mockridge (temp.) ; F. W. Lyons (temp.). 

Lieutenants : 

2nd Lieutenants : R. P. Pridham (temp.) ; J. D. Upcott (temp.) ; B. 

Glossop (temp.) ; J. H. Truscott (temp.) ; A. S. Hinshelwood (temp.) ; 

R. P. W. Whiteway (temp.) ; W. E. Martin (temp.) ; W. N. Hodgson 

(temp.) ; J. G. Pocock (temp.) ; J. C. E. Inchbald (temp.) ; E. R. B. 

Clough (temp.) ; G. E. Tracey (temp.) ; C. C. Thompson (temp.) ; 

R. B. Holcroft (temp.) ; R. A. B. Freeland (temp.) ; M. A. M. Davies 

(temp.). 
Adjutant : Lt. S. C. Nation, Devon Regt. (Lt. in Army). 
Quarter- Master : 

ioth (SERVICE) BATTALION. 

In Command : Lt.-Col. G. J. Ellicombe, retired (Hon. Col. yth Bait. 

Devon Regt.). 
Majors : Capt. R. P. Smith (Reserve of Officers, temp.) ; Capt. Norman Z. 

Emerson, D.S.O. (Reserve of Officers, temp.). 
Captain : K. A. Brown (temp.). 
Lieutenants : F. Bryce (temp.), late 2nd Lt. Scots Guards ; Coy. Sergt.- 

Maj. C. J. Hogan (temp.). 
2nd Lieutenants : O. Lovett (temp.) ; J. B. Passmore (temp.) ; H. G. 

Wimbush (temp.) ; H. W. H. Creasy (temp.) ; G. R. Bennett (temp.) ; 

D. H. Bellamy (temp.) ; B. R. Dunning (temp.) ; C. Greenslade 

(temp.) ; M. W. A. MacMichael (temp.) ; W. R. F. Miller (temp.) ; 

W. T. A. Bazalgette (temp.) ; A. Napier (temp.). 
Adjutant : 
Quarter- Master : H. E. Adams, Hon. Lt. (temp.). 

iith (SERVICE) BATTALION. 

In Command : Lt.-Col. E. G. Snow (retired). 
Majors : 

Captains : J. K. P. Sherlock (temp.) ; W. Brock (temp.) ; H. G. Hawker 
(temp.). 



52 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

Lieutenants : G. B. Hole (temp.) ; J. A. Rule (temp.). 

2nd Lieutenants : G. H. Bickley (temp.) ; E. G. T. Lowe (temp.) ; J. D. 

Vincent (temp.) ; L. K. de Courcy-Ireland (temp.) ; J. Weeks (temp.) ; 

P. R. Wallis (temp.) ; P. C. Nash (temp.) ; E. B. Fletcher (temp.) ; 

G. W. A. Doe (temp.). 
Adjutant : 
Quarter -Master : 

ARMY SERVICE CORPS. 

Wessex Division. 

14, Oxford Road, Exeter. 

Hon. Colonel: Col. Lord Clifford, VD, A.D.C. 

Lt.-Colonel : H. L. Cooper, TD, ; E. H. Pollock. 

Major : A. H. Peace, TD. 

Captains : J. Atkinson ; M. C. Collier ; H. G. Shorto ; K. R. C. Holman ; 

G. C. Wetherall, Adjt. ; H. M. Gregory ; T. K. Phillips ; /. T. P. 

Clarke ; R. S. Ward ; F. Y. Foley ; E. T. Judd ; F. J. Boyle. 
Lieutenants : H. C. Gould ; F. Henshaw ; G. J. R. Potter ; F. H. Pearce ; 

G. G. Hartwright ; J. T. Louch. 
■2nd Lieutenants : A. H. Davy ; A. J. Petrocochino ; H. Lambert ; H. N. 

Way; I. B. Isaacs; H. W. Poole; R. C. Jennings; J. H. Staple; 

C. A. Cooke ; R. C. Symons ; F. J. Heath ; S. Franks ; F. G. 

Sansom; M. Walker; G. W. H. Kemp; G. W. Beadle; P. C. 

Purser ; S. P. Smith ; R. Tope ; W. H. Woodrow ; E. Tull ; T. C. 

Prince. 
Adjutant : G. C. Wetherall, Capt. 



ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. 

Field Ambulances — Wessex Division. 
Hon. Colonel : Sir F. Treves, Bart., G.C.V.O., C.B., F.R.C.S. 

ist Wessex. 
7, Holloway Street, Exeter. 
Lt.-Colonel : R. Pickard, M.D. 

Majors : A. W. F. Sayres ; T. Duncan, M.B. ; G. P. D. Hawker, M.B. 
Captains : R. Eager, M.B. ; W. H E. Stewart. 
Lieutenants : F. A. Roper, M.B. ; G. D. Perry ; R. Burgess. 
Transport Officer : E. F. Squire, Hon. Lt. 

Quarter-Masters : J. H. Maunder, Hon. Lt. ; E. P. Wheatley, Hon. Lt. 
Chaplain : Rev. J. H. Prince, 4th Class (attd.). 

2nd Wessex. 

Drill Hall, Millbay, Plymouth. 

Lt.-Colonel : A. B. Soltau, M.D. 

Majors : F. C. Whitmore ; T. P. Puddicombe. 

Captains : C. R. Crowther, M.B. ; W. Blackwood, M.B. ; D. Macnair, 

M.D. ; R. P. Ryan, F.R.C.S.I. 
Lieutenant : H. W. Spaight. 
Transport Officer : F. J. Miller, Hon. Lt. 
Quarter- Master : G. S. Garland, Hon. Lt. 
Chaplain : Rev. J. P. Baker, M.A., 4th Class (attd.). 






Devonshire and the War 53 

4TH Southern General Hospital. 

Territorial Buildings, Millbay, Plymouth. 

Lt. -Colonel : H. W. Webber, F.R.C.S. (Edin.). 
Major : W. C. Wilson, M.D. 
Quarter-Master : H. B. Briggs, Hon. Lt. 

Officers available for service on mobilization : — 
Lt.-Colonels : H. Davy, M.D. ; E. J. Domville ; E. L. Fox, M.D. ; J. E. 

Square, F.R.C.S. 
Majors : J. Mortimer, M.B. ; A. C. Roper, F.R.C.S. {Edin.) ; A. N. 

Davis ; W. L. Woollcombe, F.R.C.S. (Edin.) ; R. L. Rutherford, 

M.D. ; R. H. Lucy, M.D., F.R.C.S. ; R. Coombe, M.D., F.R.C.S. ; 

J. W. Gill, M.D. 
Captains : C. E. Bean, F.R.C.S. (Edin.) ; J. H. Dawe, M.B. ; G. F. 

Aldous, F.R.C.S. (Edin.) ; R. V. Solly, M.D., F.R.C.S. ; H. Andrew ; 

E. G. S. Saunders, M.D. ; W. C. Hamilton, M.B. ; W. L. Pethybridge, 

M.D. ; G. C. Sandford, M.D. ; T. Horton, M.D. ; C. D. Lindsey, 

M.D. ; B. Dyball, M.B., F.R.C.S. ; C. L. Lander, M.B. ; G. A. 

Roberts, F.R.C.S.; E. G. Smith ; G. C. S. Robinson, F.R.C.S.; 

H. G. Pinker ; E. R. Clarke, M.B. ; C. F. Glinn ; G. S. Earl, M.D. 

Wessex Clearing Hospital. 
Exeter. 
Lt.-Colonel : C I. Ellis, M.D. 
Major : 
Captain : 

Lieutenant : A. J. H. lies. 
Quarter -Master : S. V. Warren, Hon. Lt. 

OFFICERS TRAINING CORPS. 

All Hallows School, Honiton (1 Platoon). — 2nd Lieutenant : C. E. E. 

Cockey, Unattd. List ; G. H. Gillett, Unattd. List. 
Blundell's School, Tiverton (1 Company). — Captains : E. G. Peirce, 

Unattd. List ; H. H. Batterbee, Unattd. List ; Lieutenant : W. C. 

Wheeler, Unattd. List ; 2nd Lieutenant : G. V. Hotblack, Unattd. 

List. 
Exeter School (2 Platoons). — Captain : E. T. England, Unattd. List 

(prov.) ; 2nd Lieutenant : E. F. Hall, Unattd. List 
Kelly College, Tavistock (1 Platoon). — Captain : A. O. V. Penny, TD, 

Unattd. List. 
Plymouth College (1 Platoon). — Captain : C. W. Dodson, Lt. 5th Batt. 

Royal West Surrey Regt. (local) ; 2nd Lieutenant : H. E. Truelove, 

Unattd. List ; R. G. Martin, Unattd. List. 
West Buckland School (2 Platoons). — Captain : Rev. E. C. Harries, 

Unattd. List ; 2nd Lieutenant : A. Taylor, Unattd. List. 

TERRITORIAL FORCE ASSOCIATION. 

President and Chairman : Col. Earl Fortescue, K.C.B., TD, Royal North 

Devon Hussars, A.D.C. (Lord Lieutenant). 
Vice-Chairman : Col. Lord Clifford, VD, Wessex Divisional Transport 

and Supply Column, Army Service Corps, A.D.C. 
Military Members : Lt.-Col. W. E. P. Bastard, D.L., Devonshire Fortress 

Royal Engineers ; Maj. C. W. Blundell, Devonshire Royal Garrison 

Artillery ; Maj. A. S. Browne, D.L., late Royal North Devon Imperial 



54 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

Yeomanry ; Col. Lord Clifford, VD, Wessex Divisional Transport 
and Supply Column, Army Service Corps, A.D.C. (Vice-Chairman) ; 
Capt. M. C. Collier, Devon and Cornwall Brigade Co., Army Service 
Corps.; Lt.-Col. R. W. Fox, late 5th Batt. Devon Regt. ; Lt.-Col. 
E. B. Hawker, 5th Batt. Devon Regt., Maj. retired ; Col. W. C. 
Richards, VD, late 4th Batt. Devon Regt. ; Lt.-Col. G. W. G. Sanders, 
7th Batt. Devon Regt. ; Lt.-Col. R. A. Sanders, TD, Royal North 
Devon Hussars, Maj. retired (Reserve of Officers) ; Col. Sir J. Shelley, 
Bart., TD, Royal Devon Yeomanry. 

Representative Members : Col. Earl Fortescue, K.C.B., TD, Royal North 
Devon Hussars, A.D.C. (President and Chairman) ; F. Ward, Esq. ; 
Col. J. P. Goldsmith, VD, late 2nd Volunteer Batt. Devon Regt. ; 
T. Glanfield, Esq. ; W. E. Norris, Esq. ; E. E. Square, Esq. 

Co-opted Members: Maj. -Gen. F. A. Bowies, C.B., Gen. retired; Maj. 
J. S. C. Davis, VD, late United Provinces Light Horse, India ; Col. 
H. Goad, C.S.I., retired Indian Army ; E. Lawrence, Esq. ; Col. 
Viscount Valletort, 3rd Batt. Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry. 

Secretary : Col. H. W. Smith-Rewse, C.V.O., retired, 57, High Street, 
Exeter. 

Units Administered by the Association : Royal 1st Devon Yeomanry ; 
Royal North Devon Hussars ; 4th Wessex Brigade, Royal Field 
Artillery ; Devonshire Royal Garrison Artillery ; Devonshire Fortress 
Royal Engineers ; Wessex Divisional Signal Co. ; 4th, 5th, 6th, 
and 7th Batts. Devon Regt. ; Wessex Divisional Transport and 
Supply Column, Army Service Corps — Devon and Cornwall Brigade 
Company ; 1st and 2nd W T essex Field Ambulance, Army Medical 
Corps ; 4th Southern General Hospital ; Wessex Clearing Hospital. 



The Fairest County. 

Which is the shire whose glory- 
Makes good your every claim ? 

'Tis famed in song and story, 
What need to breathe its name ? 

Far, far beyond all other, 
The beauties that adorn 

The shire you claim as mother, 
The shire where you were born! 

Touchstone ("Daily Mail"). 



Devonshire and the War 55 



20irtr for tijetr ffiountrg. 

Ainslie. — On Oct. 24, 2nd Lieut. Denys Alfred Lafone Ainslie, 
1st Batt. Devon Regt., son of W. L. Ainslie, of Harrow Weald. 

Bastard. — On Oct. 26, Lieut. William Bastard, Bedford Regt., 
of Coltscombe, Slapton, age 23. 

Besly. — On Captain Barton Hope Besly, 1st Batt. 

Devon Regt., son of Rev. W. Blundell Besly, of Ivedon, 
Honiton, age 35. He saw active service in South ^Africa, 
where he was present at the relief of Ladysmith. He took 
part in the actions at Colenso, Spion Kop, and Vaal Kranz, 
the operations on Tugela Heights, and the actions at Pieters 
Hill and Laings Nek. He had both medals, with seven clasps. 

Burn. — On Oct. 30, 2nd Lieut. Arthur Herbert Rosdew Burn, 
1st (Royal) Dragoons, son of Colonel Charles R. Burn, A.D.C., 
M.P., of Stoodley Knowle, Torquay, age 22. 

Carew. — On Oct. 14, 2nd Lieut. Jasper Carew, West Yorks. Regt., 
son of the late Rev. Henry Carew, of Airlea, South Brent, 
age 20. 

Carswell. — On Oct. 26, 2nd Lieut. Robert Nevin Carswell, 3rd 
Batt. King's Own (Yorks. Light Infantry), son of J. G. Carswell, 
of Tiverton, age 25. 

Chichester. — On Oct. 20, Capt. H. A. Chichester, 3rd Batt. Devon 
Regt. 

Chichester.— On Nov. 13, Capt. Robert Guy Incledon Chichester, 
2nd Batt. Highland Light Infantry, son of the late Rev. 
Richard Chichester, of Drewsteignton, age 41. He saw active 
service with the Malakand and Buner Field Forces on the 
North- West Frontier of India, 1897-8, being present at the 
attack and capture of the Tanga Pass (medal and clasp). 
In the South African War he was employed with Mounted 
Infantry, and received the Queen's medal with five clasps. 

Cumming. — On Nov. 1, Flag Lieut.-Commander George Edward 
Cumming, H.M.S. Good Hope, son of Dr. Hamilton Cumming, 
of Overton, Torquay, age 30. 

Dunsterville. — On Oct. 29, Lieut. Graham Eardley Dunsterville, 
1st Batt. Devon Regt., son of Col. Knightley Dunsterville, of 
Corsham, Wilts., age 30. 

Edwards. — On Sept. 20, Capt. Eric Lea Priestley Edwards, 1st 
East Yorks. Regt., son of L. P. Edwards, of Warberry Court, 
Torquay, age 37. He saw active service in the Tirah cam- 
paign, 1897, and held the medal with two clasps. 

Elliot. — On Sept. 20, Capt. H. G. Elliot, Devon Regt., age 33. 
He went through the whole of the Boer War, and was present 
at the relief of Ladysmith. He held the Queen's medal with 
five clasps, and the King's medal with three clasps. 



56 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 



Hancock. — On Oct. 29, Lieut. Ralph Escott Hancock, Devon 
Regt., son of F. E. Hancock, of Wiveliscombe, Som., age 27. 

Hughes. — On Oct. 29, 2nd Lieut. Lionel Holford Hughes, 3rd 
Batt. North Staffs. Regt., son of A. E. Hughes, of Cintra, 
Budleigh Salterton, age 19. 

Lawrence. — On Oct. 26-29, Capt. Bertram Lawrence, 1st Batt. 
East Yorks. Regt., son of H. Cripp-Lawrence, of Babbacombe. 

Lendon. — On , Capt. Penry Bruce Lendon, M.V.O., 

King's Own (Royal Lanes. Regt.), son of the late R. W. Penry 
Lendon, of Sidmouth, age 32. 

Marker. — On Nov. 4, in hospital at Boulogne, Lieut.-Col. 
Raymond John Marker, D.S.O., Coldstream Guards, Staff 
Officer, son of Richard Marker, of Combe, Honiton, age 47. 
In the South African campaign he was employed as a special 
service officer, and afterwards on the Staff, and was present 
at the actions at Vet River, Zand River, near Johannesburg 
and Pretoria, and at Diamond Hill and Belfast. He was 
mentioned three times in despatches, received the brevet of 
Major, both medals with seven clasps, and the D.S.O. Col. 
Marker was mentioned in Sir John French's recent despatches, 
and decorated by the French President with the Legion of 
Honour. 

Pepys. — On Nov. 12, 2nd Lieut. Francis Pepys, 2nd Oxford and 
Bucks Light Infantry, son of Capt. Arthur Pepys, of Budleigh 
Salterton, age 23. 

Quicke.— On , Capt. E. O. St. C. G. Quicke, 3rd Batt. 

Devon Regt. 

Smith-Rewse. — On or about Nov. 21, Maj. Henry Bingham 
Whistler Smith-Rewse, R.F.A., son of Col. Smith-Rewse, 
The Lodge, Alphington, age 38. 

Stirling. — On Nov. 1, Lieut. Wilfred Dixon Stirling, Navigating 
Officer of H.M.S. Monmouth, son of Col. Stirling, of The 
Grange, Rockbeare. 

Stucley.— On Oct. 29, Maj. Humphrey St. Leger Stucley, 1st 
Grenadier Guards, son of the late Sir George S. Stucley, Bart., 
of Affeton Castle and Hartland Abbey, age 37. He served 
with the Nile Expedition, 1898, and was present at the battle 
of Khartoum. He also served in the South African War, 
1900 -1902, receiving the Queen's medal with three clasps 
and the King's medal with two clasps. For a time he was 
adjutant of the 2nd Batt. Grenadier Guards. 

Wake.— On Nov. 1, Maj. Hugh St. Aubyn Wake, M.V.O,, 2nd 
Batt. 8th Gurkha Rifles, son of the late Admiral Charles Wake 
and of Mrs. Wake, Helens, Sidmouth, age 44. He took part 
in the operations on the North- West Frontier of India, 1897-8, 
receiving the medal with clasp. 



Waggon Hill 57 



Waggon Hill 



Drake in the North Sea grimly prowling, 

Treading his dear Revenge s deck, 
Watched, with the sea-dogs round him growling, 
Galleons drifting wreck by wreck. 
" Fetter and Faith for England's neck, 
Faggot and Father, Saint and chain, — 
Yonder the Devil and all go howling, 
Devon, O Devon, in wind and rain ! " 



Drake at the last off Nombre lying, 

Knowing the night that toward him crept, 
Gave to the sea-dogs round him crying 
This for a sign before he slept : — 
" Pride of the West ! What Devon hath kept, 
Devon shall keep on tide or main ; 
Call to the storm and drive them flying, 
Devon, O Devon, in wind and rain ! " 



Valour of England gaunt and whitening, 
Far in a South land brought to bay, 
Locked in a death-grip all day tightening, 
Waited the end in twilight gray. 
Battle and storm and the sea-dog's way ! 
Drake from his long rest turned again, 
Victory lit thy steel with lightning, 
Devon, O Devon, in wind and rain 1 

Henry Newbolt. 



58 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 



Devonshire Dialect and Humour. 

By R. PEARSE CHOPE, B.A. 

A Lecture delivered to the London Devonian Association, 
January 12th, 1914. 

It is a curious fact that, although Latin and Greek have been 
taught in our schools for ages — almost to the exclusion of every- 
thing else, it is only in recent years that the study of our living 
tongue has become recognized as an essential part of a liberal 
education. In my own schooldays the subject of " English " 
in the University Local Examinations was held to include only 
geography, history, and a selected play of Shakespeare, but no 
attempt was made to study the language itself. Since that time 
a complete revolution has taken place, and the same attention 
is now paid to a critical study of English as was of old given to 
the writing of verses in dead languages. In this study, as in so 
many others, Germany leads the way, and it may be news to 
most of you that German universities send over students to 
observe our dialects on the spot. 

It is related of Lord Byron that he awoke one morning and 
found himself famous. With somewhat similar feelings I 
discovered a few weeks ago that I had been famous — indeed, of 
European reputation — for eight years or more, without knowing 
it. In 1905 a book was published at Bonn in English on " A 
Grammar of the Dialect of West Somerset," by E. Kruisinga, 
M.A., Ph.D., who appears to be 2 Dutchman, and in this several 
pages are devoted to my " Dialect of Hartland " (compiled for 
the English Dialect Society in 1891), besides occasional references 
to it throughout the volume. Last year a book was published 
at Berlin in German on the " Exmoor Scolding and Exmoor 
Courtship," by a student of the Univeisity, named Bruno 
Schulze, in which reference is also made to my book. Quite 
recently I have given some assistance to another student from 
Berlin University, who has been investigating in a similar 
fashion a poem entitled " Jim and Nell," written in the North 
Devon dialect by W. F. Rock, Barnstaple's great benefactor, 
with the object of introducing every provincial word known to 
the author and recording the pronunciations and idioms of the 
local folk-speech. The exact pronunciation of both vowels and 
consonants, the grammatical forms, the intonation, the stress 
on syllables, and the idiomatic construction of sentences were all 



Devonshire Dialect and Humour 59 

carefully observed in the locality of the poem, and gramophone 
records were made to be taken back to Germany for future 
reference.* 

In spite of the great attention that has recently been paid by 
both German and English scholars to our local dialects, a large 
number of people still look upon provincial folk-speech as some- 
thing to be laughed at, and, therefore, something to be ashamed 
of. People who come up to London from the country, retaining 
their native accent, are invariably made fun of, and are imitated 
— most vilely — by the Cockneys, who, forsooth, have themselves 
the worst pronunciation of English in the United Kingdom, 
the very dregs of all the dialects mixed up together. The Poet 
Laureate has written a book on purpose to call attention to the 
rapid degeneration of pronunciation, and he maintains that in 
this respect the people in the south are much worse than those 
in the north. However that may be, I remember well the 
annoyance and disgust I felt when I first came up to London at 
the age of eight, and was laughed at by my cousins for calling a 
a boat a boat, instead of a baout, and for calling a boot a bute, 
instead of a boat. They, poor souls, could no more pronounce 
bute than they could fly, and I know no better " Shibboleth " 
for the true Devonian than this very word bute. As the men of 
Gilead detected the Ephraimites at the passage of the Jordan by 
their pronunciation of " Shibboleth," so we men of Devon detect 
the " furriners " at the passages of Axe and Tamar by their 
pronunciation of " bute." The following remark recently heard 
addressed to a girl who was wearing one of the modern " cart- 
wheel " hats, could only have been made by a Devonian : " Kom 
out vrom in under thicky 'at, Pol ; us knaw'th thee'rt there 
reart enoo', vor us kin zee thee (thy) butes." We have here 
another striking peculiarity of the Devonshire dialect, the 
reduplication of prepositions — we always speak of " down in 
under," " up 'pon tap o'," and the like. 

If the " bute " Shibboleth fails to answer, we try them with the 
numerals : " Waan, tu, dree, vower, vive, zix, zebm, ite, nine, 
tain." And there is still another Shibboleth, which has been 
described as the Devonshire " yes." Whenever you hear a 
person say " ooce " in answer to a question, you will know at 
once that he is " pure Devon." Unfortunately, I am unable to 
spell it, even in " Simplified Spelling," for it is a word having 
neither vowels nor consonants, and is sounded by merely drawing 
in the air between the lips. I think it would puzzle even a 
professed phonetician to represent this sound in print. 

* Two of these records, made by the lecturer himself, were here 
reproduced on a gramophone. 



60 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

It is really impossible to indicate the exact pronunciation of 
dialect words with our ordinary makeshift methods of spelling, 
but the importance of speaking them plainly and distinctly will 
be appreciated from the following anecdote : A woman took her 
boy to see the village doctor, who, according to the custom, 
requested the young hopeful to open his mouth and put out his 
tongue. The boy stared vacantly, and gave not the slightest 
sign of understanding the request. " I think, zir," said the 
woman, " eef yu'd on'y spaik a bit more plainder tu'n, e'd du 
'ot yu waant." " My good woman," said the doctor, " how can 
I possibly speak plainer ? Open — your — mouth, what can be 
plainer than that ? " " Eef you waz vor let me spaik tu'n, I 
waain I'd make'n understand. Looky yur, zinny, putt aup yur 
tetty-trap, draw out yur gurt lolliper, an' lat the gen'lman kainy 
down yur drottle." This was " spaikin' plain," and it had the 
desired effect ; I can only hope that my efforts at plain speaking 
will be equally intelligible. 

It must be clearly understood that dialect is by no means a 
" corruption " of the literary English, as it is often described 
by uneducated or imperfectly educated persons, — and as, alas ! 
it is always represented by our so-called dialect-writers. In 
fact, the boot — or bute — is generally on the other leg, for the 
dialect often preserves the old form of a word which the literary 
language has corrupted. " Genuine dialect," says the Bishop 
of Exeter, " is as true and undefiled a tongue as the purest speech 
of Chaucer or Milton, something to be reverenced and conserved." 
And this is especially the case with our Devonian folk-speech, 
which we claim to be " the true classic English," being the direct 
descendant of Anglo-Saxon, or, as it is now the fashion to call it, 
Old English — the language spoken and written by King Alfred 
the Great. Well might Kingsley exclaim : " Glorious West 
Country ! you must not despise their accent, for it is the remains 
of a purer and nobler dialect than our own." This modern 
book-English, indeed, is but " a development, a very dialect of 
a dialect, the outcome of an accident." The language of Alfred 
was the only written form of English until about the year 1100, 
by which time the Norman Conquest had begun to work a great 
change, for French and Latin were the only officially recognized 
tongues, and the native speech being despised by the rulers, it 
ceased to be written. The consequence was that " the mother 
tongue fell into a complete state of anarchy," though even then 
the Devonshire folk kept most closely to their original speech, 
for the Welshman, Giraldus Cambrensis, writing in 1188, says : 
"As in the southern parts of England, and particularly in 
Devonshire, the English language seems less agreeable, yet it 



Devonshire Dialect and Humour 61 

bears more marks of antiquity, and adheres more strictly to the 
original language and ancient mode of speaking." Those were 
the days, to quote a modern Oxford poet, 

" When Devon vowels fluted yet 

By Lynn and Dart their mellow length, 
And sounded in their Saxon strength 
The consonants of Somerset." 

Towards the end of the fourteenth century there arose two 
men — Wyclif and Chaucer — of such towering genius that the 
despised vernacular once more took its position as a written 
language. These two men happened to have been born in the 
Midlands, and of course wrote their own dialect, which, by the 
help of the printing-press, quickly supplanted all others and 
became the recognized book-language. If they had been Devon- 
shire men, modern English would have been based upon our 
southern speech, and in that case it would have been quite 
polite to say : " 'Ot vor du 'ee urn zo vast ? " instead of " Why 
do you run so fast ? " In North Devon, though, we use rin, 
not urn, for run, just as we use raid, not urd, for red. 

The modern courtly dialect is thus a descendant of what 
was in Alfred's time regarded by educated classes with the 
same contempt that our Devonshire dialect is now regarded by 
dwellers in Belgravia ; whereas our dialect, however much it 
may be contemned, can show a fairer pedigree and can trace its 
direct descent from the language of England's greatest and best 
Saxon King. You all know the story of how the King was 
rebuked by the wife of the cowherd : — 

" Cas'n thee mind the keaks, mun, an' dis'n thee zee mun scaal' ? 
I waarn' thee'lt ait mun vast enoo', tho' thee has'n a-din nort at aal." 

This use of scaal in place of burn is, I think, now peculiar to our 
dialect, though Shakespeare somewhere speaks of '" summer's 
scalding heat ; " with us fire still scalds and water burns. It is 
a common saying that a picnic by the " say " is only enjoyable 
when the " popples " are hot enough to scaal' your — (seat), and 
the " tay " to burn your mouth. Similarly, we transpose the 
meanings of break and tear, for we generally speak of breaking 
paper or cloth, and tearing glass or " cloam " (pottery). A girl, 
for instance, might say : "I catch'd my dress in the hapse of 
the geat, an' brauk'd out piece o'n, an' tho (then) I vall'd down 
an' tor'd the putcher all tu shurds. I reck'n I waz auverlooked 
(bewitched)." A lake with us is a small running stream, a 
rivulet, and a ditch is a stone hedge, a dike. 

The Anglo-Saxon language would not be intelligible to us now, 
because it was as full of inflexions as Latin, but many of the 



62 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

words and grammatical forms remain. It will be useless to 
attempt any close comparison, but I will take a few typical 
words, and show how much nearer the dialect is to the original 
than is the corresponding literary form. When we speak of 
the hapse of a gate, for example, we are closer to the Anglo-Saxon 
hczpse than is the literary hasp. Our aller and eller for the alder 
and the elder tree, respectively, are nearer the original alor and 
ellern, for the d is excrescent and superfluous, though it is curious 
that we have ourselves introduced a superfluous d into many 
nouns, such as cornder, taildor, millerd, Hard, scholard, and some 
comparative adjectives, such as zoonder, tallder, plainder, etc. A 
well-known rhyme which is cried after millers by the children 
is : — 

" Millerdy, millerdy, dousty poll, 
How many pecks 'ast thee a-staul ' ? " 

The word drane, too, as used in apple-drane (wasp) and drumble- 
drane (bumble-bee), comes from the Anglo-Saxon drcen, while 
the English equivalent is drone. A parson droning in the pulpit 
is often likened to " a drumble-drane in a flop," that is, a bumble- 
bee in a foxglove flower. The word popple comes from the 
Anglo-Saxon papol, in the compound papol-stan, while the 
English equivalent is pebble. 

An interesting word is auvis for eaves, which comes from the 
Old English ofes through an intermediate form avese ; local 
writers frequently spell this word office, and thus unwittingly 
approach very closely indeed to the Old English form. Emmet 
comes from the Old English cemette through an intermediate 
form emete or amote, which in its shortened form amte has become 
the literary ant. A similar word eavet comes from the Old 
English efeta, an eft, through an intermediate form evete ; the 
latter was shortened to ewte, and an ewt became changed in 
literary English into a newt. This curious shifting of the n has 
happened in several other words, and we still have a tendency in 
the dialect to speak of a natomy (skeleton), in preference to an 
atomy (as used by Shakespeare), a noration (meaning a rumour, 
a report) instead of an oration, and a note (a cobbler's tool) 
instead of an awl. Similarly, the d gets shifted in ole dumman 
for old 'umman (meaning old woman). 

Of course, the pronunciation has altered in the course of ages, 
but this has generally been according to rule. For example, 
we are credited with always using v instead of / at the beginning 
of a word, and z instead of s, and writers from Shakespeare 
downwards have given these as the characteristics of West- 
country speech. However, the rule is by no means universal. 
It is true that Old English words beginning with / and s will 



Devonshire Dialect and Humour 63 

generally be pronounced with v and z in the dialect, such as vor, 
vast, vair, ven, and zang, zay, zo, zoord (sword), zet, zin, etc., 
but French words, and others of recent introduction, retain the/ 
and s. Mr. F. T. Elworthy, the greatest authority on our West- 
country dialect, says that a native never confounds them, but I 
think I should, if pressed, be inclined to modify this to " hardly 
ever," following the example of the Captain of the Pinafore. 
Mr. Elworthy avers that no genuine West-country man ever says 
zarvent or zarpent, nor does he ever say varrier or vancy or vacket 
(faggot), but I feel almost certain that a native does occasionally 
say varmer and vule (fool), and Mr. Elworthy himself admits 
that there are exceptions, such as say, instead of zay, for the sea. 
A dialect poem entitled " Zeein' the zay " is quite wrong ; the 
correct pronunciation is given in the local proverb : — 

" Mist vrom the say 
Bring'th voa'th a dry day." 

These and other peculiarities are well brought out in a modern 
dialect version of the parable of the sower (Matt. xiii. 3-9) : 
" Look zee, a zawer waint voa'th vor tu zaw ; an' whain a waz 
a-zawin', zom zeeds vaal'd by the zide o' the rawd, an' the vowls 
kom an' ait mun up ; zom vaal'd pin tap stoany places, whair 
they had'n a-got much grute ; an' they spring'd up dracly, cuz 
they had'n a-got no deepth ov ae'th : an' whain the zin got up, 
they waz scrump'd up ; an' cuz they had'n a-got no maurs, 
they waz daiver'd. An' zom vaal'd amang dhorns ; an' the 
dhorns graw'd up, an' chuck'd mun. But tudhers vaal'd intu 
gude groun', and brort voa'th corn, zom a hunderdvold, zom 
zixtyvold, an' zom dhirty-vold. He that haath a-got yurs tu 
yur, lat'n yur." 

Instead of attempting to deal with these peculiarities 
systematically, it will be better to examine some of them as 
they occur. 

In the first place, the thin sound of th frequently gets con- 
verted into the dh or voiced sound, that is, the sound in then, in 
preference to that in thin. Thus, thorn becomes dhorn, and 
thirty dhirty. In one instance in our dialect, the th becomes d, 
for thistle is pronounced dashle. When the th is followed by r, 
the thr nearly always takes the form dr, as dru (through), dree 
(three), drash (thrash), drish (thrush), draut (throat), draw 
(throw). 

Secondly, with regard to the vowel sounds, you will notice 
that there is a tendency for the long e, as represented in English 
by ea, to become ai, as in ait (eat), mait (meat), main (mean) ; 
for the long o, as represented in English by oa, to become au, 



64 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

as zaw (sow), raud (road), gram (grow) ; and for the short to 
become a, as in tap (top), amang (among), nat (not). 

Thirdly, the letter r, though generally it is clearly sounded, 
is frequently omitted from such words as voa'th (forth), ae'th 
(earth), etc. It is also omitted from foa'ce (force), vuz (furze), 
coo'se (course, coarse), paa'son (parson), maa'sy (mercy), and 
many other words. There is a tale told at home of an old woman 
who had taken so long titivating that she was late for church, 
and only arrived as the congregation were saying : " Lor', ha'e 
maa'sy 'pon 's — Christ, ha'e maa'sy 'pon 's — Lor', ha'e maa'sy 
'pon 's." The old woman thinking, or pretending to think, 
that the people were astounded at her finery, exclaimed : " You 
need'n make zich a fuss about it, vor 'tiz on'y me ole gown nu 
vomp'd." 

Fourthly, we often use the letter r in place of the guttural gh, 
which, though still retained in the Scotch dialect, has been 
dropped altogether in literary English in such words as bought, 
brought, light, night, right. We say bort, brort, leart, neart, reart, 
and so on, though I am bound to admit that this particular 
feature of our dialect is fast dying out. 

Fifthly, we prefix a y to certain words beginning with a vowel 
or aspirate. The word yur, for instance, which occurs in the 
parable (" He thaat hath a-got yurs tu yur, lat'n yur ") is most 
useful, for it represents four distinct English words, namely ear, 
hear, here, and year. A common example of rustic wit is : "Us 
aan't a-zeed 'e vor dungkey's yurs," meaning a very long time. 
There was a great dispute in a certain country parish as to 
whether a gottage for use as a public room should be controlled 
by churchmen or dissenters ; the rector was greatly excited, 
and said to the lord of the manor : " My lord, we must take the 
bull by the horns," to which his lordship replied : " Yes, it may 
come to that, we have already got the cottage by the yur." 
Other words of this class are yet (heat), yeth (heath), yarb (herb), 
yaafer (heifer), yaw (ewe). It is curious that heat is pronounced 
yet, whilst yet is pronounced eat or eet — " I can't catch yet nat 
eet," means I cannot yet get warm. An elderly woman dressed 
as a girl is quaintly described as "an ole yaw dress'd up lamb- 
fashion." 

Sixthly, there are also several peculiarities of grammar. In 
the first place, taking the pronouns, we find the use of the third 
personal pronoun a instead of he, which is almost universal, and, 
of course, you all know the saying that in Devon everything is 
he except a torn cat. This is not strictly correct, for er is often 
used for she and her, though, in the accusative, it is used for 
him also. However, en or 'n is used in the third person singular 



Devonshire Dialect and Humour 65 

accusative for all genders, and em or 'm in the third person plural. 
Both these are formed regularly from the Anglo-Saxon pronouns 
hine or kin, and hem, respectively. 

There is a story told of a mistress who tried to explain to a 
new maid the distinction to be made between the three genders 
— masculine, feminine, and neuter. Taking up a jug, she said : 
" This jug is not a living thing, and is therefore neither masculine 
nor feminine — it is neuter gender, and you must use it when 
speaking of it, not he nor she. Suppose, now, you wanted me to 
pass you the jug, what would you say ? " 

" Plaize 'm, wull 'e kindly 'and 'n auver ? " 

"Really, Jane," said the mistress, "you must try and 
remember what I told you. Didn't I say that the jug is neuter 
gender ? Now, how ought you to ask for it ? " 

The maid seemed puzzled for a minute, and then suddenly 
a bright idea struck her : " Plaize, missis, wull 'e kindly 'and 
auver thicky neuter-gender ? " 

There is still another pronoun that I ought to mention, namely 
the well-known Devonshire mun or min, which, as Sir James 
Murray and Mr. Elworthy have conclusively shown, comes from 
an interesting form of the third person plural dative and 
accusative, hymen, hymyn, hemen, found only in a poem called 
" Sir Ferumbras," written at the end of the fourteenth century. 
It is formed regularly, just as en and em are. 

Seventhly, coming to the verb, we find the participial prefix a, 
as in a-zawin', a-got, which is almost universal, as it was in 
Middle English. We also find the preposition vor preceding the 
infinitive of purpose, as in " vor tu zaw." This would be called 
provincial by some, bad grammar by others ; yet the form is 
found in all the old writers, and occurs in another text of the 
Authorized Version of the Bible : " What went ye out into the 
wilderness for to see ? " A quaint epitaph in Hartland church- 
yard shows the use of this preposition with the passive mood : — 

" What faults you find in me, 
Take care to shun ; 
Look well at home, 

There's 'nough for to be done." 

The parable also shows the retention of the old verbal inflexion 
th in the third person singular and plural, as in a haath for he has, 
a nawth for he knows, they nawth for they know, and so on ; this 
is still quite general, and, in my own native place, almost 
universal. 

Finally, the passage clearly indicates our preference for the 
weak forms, such as spring d and graw'd, instead of the strong 
forms, sprang and grew. Often the strong form takes a weak 

5 



66 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

inflexion, as tookt (taken) and stauld (stolen). Some visitors 
attending service in our church had borrowed prayer books 
from a neighbouring seat, which was vacant. The lesson for 
the day happened to contain the text : " My house shall be 
called the house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves" ; 
whereupon the owner of the books, who had arrived in the 
meantime, stood up and shouted excitedly : " Ees, zo they hev, 
vor they've a-stauld my bukes." 

There are several other peculiarities that are not here repre- 
sented, such as the common use of us or es, instead of we, for 
the nominative of the first person plural, and thee, instead of you, 
for the nominative of the second person singular. On the other 
hand, the nominative is occasionally used instead of the 
accusative, but only when great emphasis is required. The 
following couplet was overheard from a child in answer to an 
angry woman who had been interfering with the play of a group 
of children, not her own, near her door : — 

" 'Arky tu 'er, a-caalin' o' we 
' Us,' as doan' belang tu she." 

Here, of course, 'er and us are not emphasized, but we and 
she are. They might, in accordance with the Devonshire idiom, 
equally well have said : " Er doan' belang to we." I once heard 
a porter at Eggesford station ask : " Whu belangs tu this yer 
box ? " 

There is one peculiarity of our dialect that seems to have 
disappeared entirely, except, it is said, in a small district in 
Somerset, and that is the use of ch for the first personal pronoun 
I, as cham for I am, etc. This is given in Shakespeare's King 
Lear as a mark of the countryman, and was, according to the 
Exrnoor Scolding, first published about 1760, quite universal in 
North Devon at that date. The dialect in King Lear is a mere 
fragment, but it is of great value as the first instance of the 
Ich of earlier writers having become ch before a vowel and ise 
before a consonant. The earliest example that we have of the 
modern Devonshire dialect, however, which is dated 1625, 
apparently retains the older form ; it was written by William 
Strode, and describes the King's visit to Plymouth : — 

" Thou n'ere woot riddle, neighbour Jan, 
Where ich of late have bin-a ; 
Why ich have bin to Plimouth, man, 
The like was yet n'ere zeene-a." 

By 1647 the che had apparently displaced the Ich entirely, and 
in 1684 we find " the Devonshire man's disease " described as 
follows : " Che's not zick nor che's not well ; che can eat and 



Devonshire Dialect and Humour 67 

drink most woundily, but che cannot work." The dialect here 
is certainly wrong, for che's should be cham, but the complaint 
is evidently that now known as " lurgy " or " lurgies," which 
was, I think, thus described in Punch some years ago : "I eats 
all right, and I drinks all right, and I sleeps all right, but put 
me in front of a job of work and I'm all of a shiver." It is a 
disease from which many others, besides Devonians, are chronic 
sufferers. We have, however, a patron saint of laziness, St. 
Lawrence, pronounced Larrence ; a lazy person is often said to be 
" zo lazy 's Larrence," or " like Larrence's dug, that lied his 
haid agin' the waal tu burk." 

Although dialects are " remarkably conservative and antique," 
" their purity from contamination with foreign influences," says 
Professor Skeat, "is merely comparative, not absolute." He 
mentions such common words as beef, mutton, broccoli, soda, 
cork, sherry, brandy, tea, coffee, sugar, sago, and points out that 
beef and mutton are Norman ; broccoli and soda are Italian ; 
cork and sherry are Spanish ; brandy is Dutch ; tea is Chinese ; 
coffee is Arabic ; sugar is of Sanskrit origin ; and sago is Malay. 
" The poor old woman who says she is a ' martyr to toothache ' 
is quite unconscious that she is talking Greek. Probably she is 
not without some smattering of Persian, and knows the sense 
of lilac, myrtle, orange, peach, and rice ; of Sanskrit, whence 
pepper and sugar-candy ; of Arabic, whence coffee, cotton, jar, 
mattress, senna, and sofa ; and she will know enough Hebrew, 
partly from her Bible, to be quite familiar with a large number of 
Biblical names and even with a few words of Hebrew origin, 
such as alleluia, balm, bedlam, camel, cider, and sabbath. The 
discovery of the New World has further familiarized us all with 
chocolate and tomato, which are Mexican ; and with potato, 
which is probably old Caribbean." 

It will, therefore, be readily understood that, although our 
dialect is, in the main, of English origin, it contains a number of 
words derived from foreign tongues. The chief external sources 
are Cornish or Welsh, Anglo-French or Norman, and Norse or 
Scandinavian. 

Cornish is said to have been still spoken in Devonshire in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and we know that, in 1549, the Cornish 
rebels against the English Prayer Book declared that certain of 
them understood no English. The honour of being the first 
person to introduce the English language into Cornwall is usually 
given to a Hartland man — Dr. John Moreman — who taught his 
parishioners at Menheniot to say the Lord's Prayer, the Belief, 
and the Commandments in the English tongue. The number 
of Cornish words in our dialect is surprisingly small, the reason 



68 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

being that the common language of the more educated classes 
among the British was Latin, which was the literary language 
and the language of the British Christian Church ; the English 
thus found no necessity for learning British or Cornish, and the 
Cornish were ultimately compelled to learn English. I cannot 
help thinking that another reason for the paucity of Cornish 
words in our dialect is that the Cornish were always regarded 
by the English as belonging to another, and an inferior, race ; 
so much so that even now there is a popular belief in Devonshire 
(unsupported by any evidence, so far as I know) that the Cornish- 
men have tails. Readers of Baring-Gould's charming novel, 
" Red Spider," will remember the ill-feeling caused by a man 
calling his brother-in-law " a long-tailed Cornish ourang-outang," 
and challenging him to bathe in public in order to give ocular 
demonstration to the people that they laboured under a delusion 
in asserting the prolongation of his spine. Cornwall is, indeed, 
always spoken of by us as a " furrin " land, ranking in this 
respect with Germany, China, Australia, and America, and its 
inhabitants are " furrineis." We Devonians reckon only four 
divisions of the habitable globe, namely, (1) Devon itself — the 
only one worth considering ; (2) " up country," which includes 
the rest of England except London and Cornwall ; (3) " Lunnon 
town ; " and (4) " furrin parts," which, as I have said, includes 
Cornwall. However, I should point out that for dialect, as well 
as other purposes, the north of Cornwall — the part north of a 
line from Launceston to Padstow — must be reckoned as Devon, 
for this part was thoroughly conquered by the Saxons and has 
lost its Cornish characteristics. 

A domestic servant, giving evidence recently in the West 
London County Court, so puzzled the judge that he remarked : 
" What country do you come from ? I can't understand what 
you say. Are you a Britisher ? " " No, I bain't," said the 
witness, " I'm Deb'mshire, that's 'ot I be." It is often difficult 
for a person to say what he is. An old man who was asked by 
a Church dignitary if he was an official, replied : " Lor', I can't 
tull 'e 'ot I be. Fust paa'son caal'd ma Sextant ; the next he 
caal'd ma Beetle ; the next he caal'd ma Vargin ; an' now you 
caal ma Fishal. Lor' ha'e maa'sy, I doan't knaw 'ot I be ! " 

Returning to the question of Cornish words in our dialect, I 
might mention killers (cow-parsnip), braggoty (speckled), butt (a 
dung-cart ; a bee-hive), care (mountain ash), cauch (a mess), 
crowd (a fiddle), and pilm (dust). The word toilet (hay-loft) 
comes from the Latin through the Welsh. The commonest of 
these words is pilm or pillum, signifying dry fine dust. A man 
was heard to say he had seen " a jackass vore tap turnpike 



Devonshire Dialect and Humour 69 

walvin' in the pillum wi' his vower poaters in een'," meaning 
that he had seen a donkey on the turnpike road wallowing in 
the dust with his four legs on end. The meaning is well defined 
in an anecdote of the Exeter Assizes. A witness said he " could'n 
zee nort vor the pillum," whereupon the judge remarked — 

" Pillum — pillum — what is that ? " 

" Mux a-drow'd, my lord," was the reply. 

" Mux a-drow'd," said the judge, " What do you mean by 
mux ? " 

" Pillum a-wat, my lord," said the witness. 

11 But what is pillum ? " 

" Pillum 's dist, my lord." 

Another foreign source of our dialect words is Anglo-French 
or Norman ; and this is not to be wondered at, because this 
Anglo-French formed the official language of the law courts 
and the common language of the upper classes from the Norman 
Conquest until the time of the Tudors. John of Trevisa, who 
was a Cornishman, writing in our dialect in 1385, says that 
children at school were formerly compelled to leave their own 
language and to construe their lessons in French, and that 
gentlemen's children were taught to speak French from the 
time that they were rocked in the cradle. However, since the 
" furste moreyn " (that is, the Great Plague of 1349) John 
Cornwall and Richard Pencrych (Cornishmen also) had introduced 
the use of English into the grammar schools, and now the 
children knew no more French than " their left heel." He 
points out that it is strange that English has so many different 
sounds in this island, whereas the language of Normandy, a 
foreign country, has only one sound among all men that speak 
it aright in England. The number of such words in our dialect 
is much greater than is generally supposed, for no good 
dictionary of Anglo-French has ever been published. The 
following are a few examples : aim (to intend), causey (a raised 
footpath), clauvel (the beam over an old-fashioned fireplace), 
aiver (darnel or rye-grass), flasket (a kind of basket), gamber (a 
spreader used by butchers ; the hock of an animal), maund 
(another kind of basket), mooch (to idle and loaf about), munge 
(to eat), planching (a boarded floor), scute (a sum of money, a 
' tip '), suant (smooth), vair (a weasel). 

The Norse or Scandinavian words, though common in the 
East of England dialects, are with us very rare. I can only 
" c?ll home " the following : jonnick (honest, straightforward), 
kale (cabbage), kern (of corn, to ripen or form in the ear), lake 
(a small stream), and maize (a measure of herrings, 612 in 
number). 



70 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 



In addition to these three sources, there are some other 
languages that have supplied certain odd words, such as assneger 
(ass) from the Spanish, fanty-sheeny (showy) from the Italian, 
and kails (skittles) from the Dutch, showing that our dialect, 
like the literary English, takes its toll from many different 
tongues. 

Coming to the second division of my subject — " Devonshire 
Humour " — it might be supposed that there is very little to be 
said, and that I could only follow the precedent of the famous 
chapter " On Snakes in Iceland," and say : " There is no humour 
in Devonshire." On the contrary, I am overwhelmed by the 
extent of it, and, seeing that the original meaning of " humour " 
was " moisture," this is not to be wondered at, for Devonshire 
has always been noted for its " soft " weather, and it is largely 
to this characteristic that it owes the peculiar beauty of its 
scenery. Charles II, whose experience of our county was not 
particularly fortunate, was wont to say that, however fine the 
weather might be elsewhere, he was quite sure it was raining 
at Tavistock. At any rate, no one could speak of Devonshire 
humour as " dry." The Devonshire peasant's humour differs 
altogether both from the pawky gibe of the^Scotchman and the 
witty repartee of the Irishman ; it is of a more homely character, 
and " if you are in too much of a hurry you may miss it 
altogether." He " tells a story just as he plays skittles — he 
takes plenty of ground, and puts on a twist." A Devonshire 
choir, accustomed only to hymn tunes, found modern music 
much more difficult . " Us kin tackle the minnums and sammy- 
braves," they said, " but they there cratchets an' quakers du 
bait us." So the story-teller is beaten by smart verbal quips 
and cranks, for he elaborates his joke slowly and deliberately, 
and finally, after due consideration, he delivers it in a quaint 
and unexpected way, which tickles the fancy and is often 
extremely funny. He does not laugh or smile, but remains as 
sober as a judge, though he sometimes unconsciously betrays 
himself by a twinkle in his eye. 

It will be only possible to give a few samples, and some of 
these may be already known to you, but I make no apology for 
giving you a few chestnuts, for I firmly believe that old jokes, 
like old wines, are the best. 

When I left school, one of my father's farm-labourers said to 
me : " Yu've a-bin zo long tu schule that I should think there 
id'n nort that yu doan't knaw." With my usual modesty I 
admitted that there might possibly be one or two things still to 
be learnt. " Well," said the man, " I zim 'tiz a pity your 



Devonshire Dialect and Humour 71 

father did'n bring 'e up tu work. I reck'n yu bain't fit vor nort 
now — seps a paa'son." 

The same man was accused by a neighbouring farmer of 
stealing his turnips, and was told that it was useless for him to 
deny the charge, because he had been tracked across the field. 
The man coolly replied : " Well, tu tell 'e the truth, I did waalk 
down acrass your viel', cuz I thort a beg farmer like yu ort tu 
knaw 'ow tu graw gude turmits, but I zune voun' they wad'n 
fit vor my table, zo I let mun bide." 

On another occasion he gravely presented my brother, then 
a little boy, with a slight holly stick he had just cut out of the 
hedge, remarking : " Yur, Maister Jan, yur's a holm stick vor 
'e ; tid'n 'ardly beg enoo' vor a wagoner's whip " (which are 
always made of holly), " but 'twull du tu whip the vlays from 
off your boalster." 

A farmer passing along the road was astonished to see one of 
his neighbours assuaging his thirst in the stream. " 'Ot art 
about there then, Jan ? " said he. " Aw ! " said Jan, "I'm 
on'y mixin' grog. Laist neart I 'ad a little too much matrimony, 
zo now I'm watterin' it down a bit." It should be explained that 
by " matrimony " he did not mean curtain lectures, but a 
mixture of gin and whisky — a very potent and favourite drink 
of well-to-do farmers. 

On another occasion the parson discovered a member of his 
choir lying down in the stream, and he asked him the same 
question. " Aw, paa'son," was the reply, " Tom Jeffery's 
a-tookt bad, an' I've a-got tu zing bass nex' Zinday in church, 
zo I'm jis' tryin' vor tu git a bit ov a 'oaze " (that is, hoarseness 
or huskiness in the throat). 

The pulpit is a frequent source of humour, especially when 
it is occupied by what is called a " local preacher." There is a 
well-known story of one who prayed for rain — and got it, more 
than was desired. It rained " cats and dogs " all the following 
week, so the next Sunday the preacher modified his prayer in 
this way : " O Lord, 'tiz true us ax'd 'e tu zen' rain — but whain 
us zaid rain, us main'd a vew nice little dapper showers. This, 
O Lord, is redecklus." 

Another local preacher, who had travelled a long distance 
across the moors on a bleak and stormy day, was disappointed 
at the smallness of the congregation, and said in his prayer : 
" O Lord, us be griev'd tu vine' that zo many o' Thy vlock be 
lie'd by on a baid o' zickness, an' be onable tu kom tu Thy 
tabernacle tu-day ; but us be comforted by the belief that 
most o'm 'ull be able tu go about their farmerin' tumorra, an' 
by the assurance that they'll all be well enoo' tu go tu Bideford 
market a Toosday." 



72 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

On another occasion a local preacher was giving a sermon on 
the prophets, whom he divided into two classes — major and 
minor. After he had preached for about half an hour on what 
he called " the gurt praufits," and twenty minutes or so on 
" the zmaal praufits," he said : " An' now, me vrien's, us kom 
tu Malachi. 'Ot shell us du wi' Malachi ? Whair shell us putt 
Malachi ? " An old man in front, just under the pulpit, got up 
and said : " Yur, maister, Malachi kin ha'e my zait. I've 'ad 
enough o't. I'm gwain 'ome." 

The established church, too, is not without its humorous 
stories. A parish clerk was asked by a clergyman who had 
been doing duty for a neighbour, whether his sermon had been 
about the right length to suit the congregation. " Ees," he 
replied, " 'twaz jist about right — nat too short, nor 'eet too 
long." " I am glad of that," said the clergyman, " because my 
terrier bitch got hold of it and ate some of the leaves, and I 
hadn't time to write more." After a short interval the clerk 
remarked : " I waarn, zir, yu would'n mind giein' our paa'son 
a pup out o' the nex' litter." 

It is generally supposed that the Devonians discovered 
America, but the process is now being reversed — the Americans 
have discovered Devon. Every summer they swarm into our 
little towns and villages, and their horrible nasal twang, so 
different from " the voice of the turtle," is heard in the land. 
The landlord of one of our hotels was very much annoyed with 
one of these " towerists," as the native calls them, because he 
was continually boasting of the superiority of his own country, 
and saying that he guess'd they could lick that in America. 
At last, the landlord determined to play him a trick ; he sent 
out for a live crab, and put it in the visitor's bed. Soon after 
the American had retired to rest, the house was disturbed by 
the most terrible shrieks and yells. The landlord and all the 
other guests and the servants crowded up the stairs to the 
American's room, and, when they got there, they found him in 
a furious rage, hopping round the room on one foot and having 
the crab hanging on to the great toe of the other. The language 
he used was awful — even for an American — but the landlord 
calmly remarked : " 'Ot vor be 'e makin' all this scummer ? A 
body 'ud think 'twaz murder. That's on'y waan ov our 
Debmshire vlays. Kin 'e lick that auver tu Amurrica ? " 

Another story relates to a lobster. A yokel was going through 
the market one day, and, noticing some fine lobsters, he said to 
the fishmonger : — 

' 'Ow much du 'e ax vor they there lobsters ? " 

" I'll let 'e ha'e thicky beg waan vor tu-an'-zix." 



Devonshire Dialect and Humour 73 

" Tu-an'-zix ! " said the countryman, " why 'e's a-go bad. 
'E's all black an' yaller." 

" Yu'm a-go bad ! " said the fish man, " why 'e's all alive, 
'e 'aath'n a-bin boil'd nat 'eet." 

" I nivver zeed no lobsters that colour," said the yokel, " eef 
they waz gude, they'd be a nice raid colour." 

" I tell 'e 'e's all alive. Jis' putt yur vinger 'tween the 
claws o'n." 

" No fear, but I doan't mine' puttin' my dug's tail." 

No sooner said than done, and the dog was off like a streak 
of greased lightning, howling like mad, and the lobster hanging 
on to his tail. 

" Yur," said the fish man, " caal back your dug." 

" Nat likely," said the yokel, " yu caal back your lobster ; 
'e's a-bitin' my dug, my dug id'n a-bitin' 'e." 

A farmer observed one of his lads going off late at night with 
a lantern, and asked him where he was going. After a little 
hesitation the lad confessed that he was going courting. " Non- 
sense," said the farmer, '■ you don't want a lantern to go courtin'. 
/ nivver took no lantern when / went courtin'." " Jidgin' vrom 
the lukes o' the missis," slyly retorted the lad, " I should'n think 
yu did." 

Another farm lad was asked why he had left his situation. 
" Did'n 'e git plenty tu ait ? " " Ees," replied the lad, " there 
waz plenty tu ait, but there waz a terrible zameness about it. 
I 'ad'n a-bin in the place more'n tu or dree days when th' ole 
Garnsey cow waz a-tookt bad an' 'ad tu be kill'd. Maister zen' 
ma intu town vor a bag o' zaalt vor missis tu zaalt 'n een, an' 
tho us 'ad nort t' ait seps zaalt beef vor zix wicks. Now, yu'd 
'ardly belaive it, but jist az us waz finishin' off th' ole cow, us 
waz foa'ced tu kill th' ole black zu. Maistei zen' ma intu town 
again vor zom more zaalt, an' tho 'twaz nort seps zaalt pork vor 
anether zix wicks. Well, jis' then, 'ot should 'appen but 
maister's ole mother-law waz a-tookt bad, zo I thort 'twaz time 
tu laive." 

In conclusion, I hope I have succeeded in showing that the 
Devonshire dialect is not only interesting by reason of its 
antiquity but also pleasing to the ear. To what extent 
" furriners " appreciate its musical intonation is perhaps doubtful, 
for we find the opinion of Giraldus Cambrensis supported by 
that of Roger North, who accompanied the Lord Keeper Guild- 
ford on his circuit at the end of Charles II's reign, and wrote 
that " the common speech of Devonshire is more barbarous 
than in any other part of England — the north not excepted." 
Few would now be found to agree in this judgment, although 



74 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

the stranger may still meet with many a word rusted with age, 
and requiring explanation to all but antiquarian ears. Where 
this is difficult, let us hope it may be as judiciously avoided as 
in the case recorded by Peter Pindar in his " Royal Visit to 
Exeter " : — 

" Now Farmer Tab, I understand, 
Draw'd his legs vore, and catch'd the hand, 

And shaked wey might and main : 
'I'm glad yur majesty tu zee, 
And haup yur majesty,' quoth he, 
' Wull ne'er be mazed again.' " 

" ' Mazed, mazed — what's mazed ? ' then zed the king, 
' I nivver yerd o' zich a thing ; 

What's mazed ? What, what, my lord ? ' 
' Hem,' zed my lord, and blaw'd his nauze, 
' Hem, hem, zir, 'tis, I du suppauze, 

Zir, zom old Deb'mshir word.' " 



A Devon Courting. 

Birds gived awver singin', 
Flittermice was wingin', 
Mist lay on the meadows — 
A purty sight to see. 
Downlong in the dimpsy, the dimpsy, the dimpsy — 
Downlong in the dimpsy 
Theer went a maid wi' me. 

Two gude mile o' walkin', 
Not wan word o' talkin' ; 
Then I axed a question, 
An' put the same to she. 
Uplong in the owl-light, the owl-light, the owl-light- 
Uplong in the owl-light, 
Theer corned my maid wi' me. 

Eden Phillpotts (" Wild Fruit "). 



Thomas Savery, F.R.S., Engineer and Inventor 75 

Thomas Savery, F.R.S., 
Engineer and Inventor. 

By RHYS JENKINS, M.l.Mech.E. 
Examiner in the Patent Office. 

In writing of Thomas Newcomen and the Steam Engine in The 
Devonian Year Book, 1913, reference was made to his better- 
known contemporary, Thomas Savery. The name of Savery is 
bound up with that of Newcomen in the early history of the 
steam engine ; he obtained a patent and an Act of Parliament 
for his apparatus for raising water by steam ; it was under the 
protection so accorded to Savery that Newcomen's invention 
was worked, and in consequence it happened that the Newcomen 
engine was spoken of frequently as that of Savery. 

The information extant in reference to the life of Newcomen 
is very meagre, but we have at least the particulars of the place 
and date of his birth, his marriage, death, and burial. With 
Savery, on the other hand, although we have a considerable 
amount of information as to his public life after middle age, and 
principally in connection with his various inventions — judging 
by the patent records he was the most prolific inventor of his 
day — we know nothing definite in regard to his early years, not 
even the place of his birth ; we do not know when or whom he 
married, and although the date and place of his death are known, 
we are at a loss in reference to his place of burial. 

Thomas Savery was descended from the family of Savery of 
Shilston in the parish of Modbury, South Devon — a family 
which for some centuries took a high rank in the county. In 
a letter to Dr. Jurin, the Secretary of the Royal Society, 
Servington Savery of Shilston, writing in 1727, that is to say, 
twelve years after the death of Thomas Savery in 1715, states — 
" The late Mr. Thos. Savery, inventor of the engines for rowing 
and raising water by fire, was, I believe, well known to several 
of the Royal Society, and perhaps to the President, but as I am 
a perfect stranger, I acquaint you that his father was the youngest 
brother of my grandfather." 

The subject of this sketch seems to have been born about the 
year 1650 ; it has been stated that Modbury was the place of 
his birth, but there is no entry of his baptism in the registers of 



76 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

that parish, nor in those of Ugborough, an adjoining parish, the 
registers of which contain various entries connected with the 
Saverys of Shilston. 

The earliest distinct reference to Thomas Savery, the engineer 
and inventor, occurs in connection with his petition for a patent 
in the year 1694. Assuming the date of his birth to be 1650, 
he would then have been 44 years of age. What had he been 
doing in these years ? There is a story that he had been in the 
army, and that he had attained the rank of captain of engineers. 
There is no doubt that from 1700 onwards till his death he was 
known as Captain Savery, but the engineers at this date were 
not a separate corps in the army, so it does not appear that the 
rank of captain of engineers could obtain ; moreover, it is quite 
clear from Dalton's English Army Lists, 1661-1714, that there 
was no commission for a captain of this name. A curious fact, 
however, does come out from these lists. William of Orange 
landed at Torbay in November, 1688 ; on his march to London 
he stopped at Exeter from the 9th to the 19th November, and 
during this period he issued a number of commissions for officers 
in the army ; among them was one to " Capt. Savery to be 
Ensign," this was in Sir John Guise's Regiment of Foot. Three 
years later Thos. Savery, apparently the same man, received a 
commission to be ensign in the Duke of Bolton's first Regiment 
of Foot. It is not known how long he remained in the army, 
but he had left before 1697. 

We have nothing to connect this Ensign Savery who is marked 
" Capt." when he first joined the army, with Captain Thomas 
Savery the inventor ; on the other hand, no trace of the existence 
of another Thomas Savery has been found in this period. It is, 
at least, not unlikely that the two are identical. It may well 
have been that the engineer had spent the earlier years of his 
manhood at a Cornish mine, and had attained the position of 
manager or " Captain." The fact that the inventor first appears 
on the scene at about the same time as the ensign leaves the 
army, is not without significance. 

The patent for which Savery applied in 1694 was for " his 
new invention consisting of mill worke to grind and polish 
looking glasse, and coach glasse plates, and marble stones, and 
also for rowing of ships, with greater ease and expedition than 
has hitherto bin done by any other." We have no particulars 
of the nature of the invention for polishing glass, but it would 
seem from an advertisement in The Post Boy for February 2-A, 
1699, that it had come into practical use. 

The invention for propelling ships attracted a good deal of 
notice at the time, and Savery fitted it on a small vessel with 



Thomas Savery, F.R.S., Engineer and Inventor yy 

which trials were made on the Thames ; he endeavoured to get 
it taken up for towing in the Navy, but without success. The 
apparatus consisted of a pair of paddle-wheels worked by men 
turning a capstan. Broadly, the idea of working paddle-wheels 
by human labour was not new, and one of the objections brought 
forward against the invention was that it was of the same sort 
as that used at Chatham in 1682 for the towing of ships, the 
charge of which proved a loss to the Crown. Savery, in reply, 
pointed out that his apparatus could be taken apart with ease 
whenever necessary, and that the capstan could be used for its 
usual purposes on the ship, which was not the case in the earlier 
invention. 

Savery gave a description and drawing of his invention in a 
book which he issued in 1698 — Navigation Improv'd : or, the art 
of Rowing Ships of all rates, in Calms, with a more easy, swift, 
and steady motion, than oars can. Also, a Description of the 
Engine that performs it ; and the Author's Answer to all Mr. 
Dummer's Objections that have been made against it. 

Mr. Dummer was the Surveyor of the Navy, and it was upon 
an adverse report from him that the Admiralty declined to take 
up the invention. Savery was very cross with Mr. Dummer, 
and in the course of this little book — in which he records how he 
was referred from the Court to the Lords of the Admiralty, and 
from the Lords of the Admiralty to the Commissioners of the 
Navy — we get some side lights on the personal character of the 
inventor, slight indeed, but they are all we have. In the course 
of his preface Savery tells us : — ■ 

"After I had troubled my Thoughts and rack'd my Brains, to find 
out that which a great many have spent several years in vain in the 
pursuit of, when I had brought it to a Draught on Paper, and found it 
approved by those commonly reputed Ingenious, and receiving Applause 
with promises of great Reward from Court, if the thing would answer 
the end for which I propos'd it : after I had with great charge and 
several Experiments, brought it to do beyond what 1 ever promis'd or 
expected myself, at last one Man's Humour, and no more than a Humour, 
totally obstructed the use of my Engine, to the great Disservice of both 
King and Country, and my no small loss. But it's the nature of some 
Men to decry all Inventions, how serviceable soever to the Publick, 
that are not the Product of their own Brains." 

Savery considers that invention is so much neglected and 
despised in our country, and so little encouragement is given to 
the ingenious, that it is to be feared that the arts will decay, 
and be quite lost in time in England. He goes on to state, how- 
ever, that : — 

" I believe, for so small a space and tract of Land as our Island 
contains, no Country in the World abounds with men of more ingenious 



78 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

Spirits than we do ; But I am sorroy to say it of so Heroick a People, 
That in some things they are very effiminate ; there being few to bs 
found that will any more speak well or approve of what another has 
done, tho' never so deserving, than any Female will allow another of 
her sex to pass for a Beauty ; because 'tis not in the nature of Women 
to see, or acknowledge good Features in any bodies Face but their own. 
And this on my conscience is my case, for I can never persuade myself 
that any man, tho' but of common Understanding, can satisfie himself 
with such weak Objections, as you will find enter'd against my Engine ; 
and more than suspect something of this sordid barbarous temper in it.' 

The author proceeds to say that all he desires is " that the 
World would act Honestly and upon the Square with me," and 
later in the book the remarks of a Commissioner of the Navy are 
quoted : " Sir ! have we not a parcel of Ingenious Gentlemen 

at the Board ? Is not Mr. D one of them and an 

ingenious man ? Then what have interloping people, that 
have no concern with us, to do, to pretend, to contrive, or 
invent things for us ? " 

Towards the end of Navigation Improv'd, Savery states that 
he had made several other useful discoveries ; he mentions two 
connected with shipping, but says that he will not disclose them 
" till I find justice done me on account of my Rowing Engine, 
I mean that it is put in Practice ; or else, that it is proved useless 
by an Argument, or Experiment ; not by such Objections as 

Mr. D who talks of the weight of ships in the sea lying on 

this Clockwork ; by which I believe, neither he himself, nor any 
one else, knows what he means." 

We have now entered upon a period in which we find Savery's 
activities displayed to the fullest ; while he was actively engaged 
in experimenting with and pressing forward the merits of his 
method of propelling ships, and, possibly, superintending the 
setting to work of his glass-polishing machine, to say nothing of 
the " useful discoveries " just alluded to, he must have been 
busy with his best known invention, the apparatus for raising 
water by steam — the fire engine. 

In July, 1698, Thomas Savery, Gentleman, was granted a 
patent for " A new invention for raiseing of Water and occasion- 
ing motion to all sorts of mill work by the impellent force of fire, 
which will be of great use and advantage for drayning mines, 
serveing towns with water, and for the working of all sorts ot 
mills where they have not the benefitt of water nor constant 
windes." 

The protection accorded was for the normal term of fourteen 
years, but the term was extended to 35 years by an Act of Parlia- 
ment passed in 1699. The Act states that Savery had improved 
the invention since the granting of the patent, but that it " may 



Thomas Savery, F.R.S., Engineer and Inventor 79 

and probably will require many yeares' time and much greater 
expence than hitherto hath been to bring the same to full perfec- 
tion ; " accordingly, Savery deserves the encouragement of 
protection for a longer term of years. In 1701 the invention 
was protected in Scotland by an Act of Parliament granting to 
Mr. James Smith of Whitehill the sole right of using it. 

Before the grant of his patent Savery had exhibited a working 
model of his engine to King William III. at Hampton Court. In 
June, 1699, he showed his model, at work, to the Royal Society 
at Gresham College. There followed, no doubt, a busy period 
of testing and experiment, and of efforts to induce mineowners 
to give the new apparatus a trial. Then in 1702 appeared : — 
The Miners' Friend ; or an engine to raise water by fire, described, 
and of the manner of fixing it in mines, with an account of the 
several other uses it is applicable unto ; and an answer to the 
objections made against it ; by Tho. Savery, Gent., London, 1702. 

The outlook must have been promising, for we find that by 
this time Savery had set up a factory for the production of his 
engines. This was at Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, near St. 
Bride's Church. The fact is announced in the Post Man, March 
19-21, 1702, in the following terms :— 

" Captain Savery 's Engines which raise Water by the force of Fire 
in any reasonable quantities and to any height, being now brought to 
perfection, and ready for Publick use. These are to give notice to all 
Proprietors of Mines and Collieries which are incumbred with water, 
that they may be furnished with Engines to drain the same, at his 
Workhouse in Salisbury Court, London, against the Old Playhouse, 
where it may be seen working on Wednesdays and Saturdays in every 
week from 3 to 6 in the afternoon, where they may be satisfied of the 
performance thereof, with less expense than any other force of Horse 
or Hands, and less subject to repair." 

It will be necessary now to explain briefly the nature ot the fire 
engine. In its simplest form, as erected about 1712 in the 
grounds of Campden House, Kensington, it consisted of a 
spherical boiler of copper, and a bottle-shaped receiver, also of 
copper, mounted on the top of a box, from which the suction 
pipe proceeded downward to the pond or well from which the 
water was to be raised, and the force pipe proceeded upward to 
the point at which the water was to be delivered ; both pipes 
were provided near the box with valves arranged to open up- 
wards. A steam pipe fitted with a valve served to connect the 
steam space at the top of the boiler with the top of the receiver. 
Assuming that the boiler had been charged with water, and that 
the receiver also was full of water, a fire lit under the boiler 
caused the generation of steam, the steam valve was opened by 
hand, and steam passed along the steam pipe to the top of the 



80 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

receiver and pressed upon the surface of the water therein ; the 
water could not pass down the suction pipe because the pressure 
tended to close its valve, but it could and did lift the valve in 
the force pipe and pass upwards. When the whole of the water 
had been driven out of the receiver, the stearn-cock was closed ; 
the receiver being now charged with steam, the application of 
cold water on its outer surface caused the condensation of the 
contents and the formation of a vacuum ; the atmosphere press- 
ing upon the surface of the water in the well or pond forced 
it up the suction pipe, the valve in which opening upwards 
allowed it to pass into the receiver. The receiver being fully 
charged, the sequence of operations was repeated. 

The delivery of water by this simple form of apparatus was 
necessarily intermittent, and it continued only so long as the 
charge of water in the boiler lasted. The engine described in 
The Miners Friend was free from these defects ; it had two 
receivers which could be connected in turn to the boiler, and it 
had means by which the boiler could be charged with water 
while under pressure. 

The simple form of engine which has been described was 
made on a comparatively small scale, and was employed to 
force water to but a moderate height. It worked quite success- 
fully for a number of years, but on applying his engine on a 
larger scale in mines and for public water supply where it was 
necessary to raise water to a considerable height, the expecta- 
tions of the inventor were not realized, and the engine was tried 
only to be given up. 

Of the manner in which he was led up to his invention Savery 
has left no record, but one of his contemporaries, Switzer, in his 
work Hydrostaticks and Hydraulicks, 1729, states that — 

" The first hint from which it is said he took this Engine, was from a 
tobacco pipe, which he immers'd to wash or cool it, as is sometimes 
done ; he discover'd by the rarefaction of the air in the tube by the heat 
or steam of the water, and the gravitation or impulse of the exterior air, 
that the water was made to spring thro' the tube of the pipe in a won- 
derful surprising manner." 

Another writer of the same period, Desaguliers (A Course of 
Experimental Philosophy, 1744) gives a somewhat different 
story, which he says was Savery's own explanation of the manner 
in which he arrived at the invention : — 

" Having drank a flask of Florence at a tavern, and thrown the empty 
flask upon the fire, he call'd for a bason of water to wash his hands, and 
perceiving that the little wine left in the flask had filled up the flask 
with steam, he took the flask by the neck, and plunged the mouth of 
it under the surface of the water in the bason, and the water of the 
bason was immediately driven up into the flask by the pressure of the 
air." 



Thomas Savery, F.R.S., Engineer and Inventor 81 

Desaguliers says that he had tried this experiment himself, 
and had not succeeded in obtaining the effect stated. He 
alleged that Savery had devised this story to cover the fact that 
the engine had been invented long before by the Marquis of 
Worcester. 

" Captain Savery, having read the Marquis of Worcester's book, 
was the first who put in practice the raising water by fire, which he 
proposed for the draining of mines. His engine is described in Harris's 
Lexicon (see the word Engine) which being compared with the Marquis 
of Worcester's description, will easily appear to have been taken from 
him ; tho' Captain Savery denied it, and the better to conceal the 
matter, bought up all the Marquis of Worcester's books that he could 
purchase in Paternoster Row, and elsewhere, and burn'd 'em in the 
presence of the gentleman, his friend, who told me this." 

We must, however, acquit Desaguliers of the responsibility of 
being the first to give currency to the story. It had appeared 
many years before the date of his book in an enigma in The 
Ladies' Diary for 1725. The Ladies' Diary was an annual 
publication of a class much in favour at that time, combining an 
almanac with a variety of other more or less useful matter ; its 
characteristic feature was mathematical problems. Its editor 
at this period and for many years was Henry Beighton, of Griff 
in Warwickshire. Beighton had been concerned in the erection 
of some of the early Newcomen engines ; he was personally 
acquainted with Desaguliers, and, no doubt, with Savery also. 
The enigma does not take rank as poetry, but it is extremely 
curious and, so far as the writer is aware, has not been repro- 
duced hitherto. 

THE PRIZE JENIGMA. 

I sprung like Pallas, from a fruitful Brain, 

About the time of Charles the Second's reign. 

My father had a num'rous progeny, 

And therefore took but little care of me : 

An hundred children issu'd from his Pate; 

The number of my birth was Sixty eight. 

My body scarcely fram'd, he form'd my soul, 

Such as might please the wise, but not the dull: 

Yet sundry pictures of my face he drew ; 

As of many other of his children too : 

These Pictures lay, whilst none my worth did know, 

In Paul's Church-yard and Pater-noster Row. 

My father dead, my self but few did see, 

Until a warlike man adopted me ; 

Destroy'd what Records might disclose my birth, 

Said he begot me, and proclaim'd my worth. 

Begetting me he call'd a chance — a Task 

Easie to him, assisted by a Flask. 

He then to me strange education gave, 
Scorch'd me with heat, and cool'd me with a Wave : 

b 



82 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

More work expected from my single force, 

Than ever was perform'd by Man or Horse. 

To mend my shape, he oft deform'd it more ; 

Which sometimes made me burst, and fret, and roar : 

Then from my eyes, such vapours issu'd forth 

As Comets yield, or Twilights of the north : 

And like those Lights the Vulgar I surprize ; 

Not those that know my nature, or the wise. 

My heart has ventricles, and twice three valves ; 

Tho' but one ventricle, when made by Halves. 

My Vena Cava, from my further ends 

Sucks in, what upward my great Artery sends. 

The Ventricles receive my pallid blood, 

Alternate, and alternate yield the Flood : 

By Vulcan's Art my ample Belly's made ; 

My Belly gives the Chyle with which I'm fed ; 

From Neptune brought, prepar'd by Vulcan's aid. 

My father (I mean he who claim'd my birth) 

My dwelling fix'd in the Caverns of the earth ; 

And there he said, I shou'd in strength excel ; 

But there, alas ! I was but seldom well. 

Torrents he bad me stop : — I wanted breath ; 

And Nature strain' d too much, will hasten death. 

In this sad state, to languish I begin, 

Until a Doctor sage, new coming in, 

Condemn'd the methods that were us'd before ; 

And said, — That I in caves shou'd dwell no more : 

Then I shou'd dwell in free and open Air, 

And gain new vigour from the atmosphere : 

An house for me he built — Did orders give, 

I shou'd no weight above my strength receive ; 

And that I shou'd, for breath, and health to guard, 

Look out of windows when I labour'd hard. 

These gentle means my shape have alter'd quite ; 
I'm now encreas'd in strength, and bulk, and height ; 
I now can raise my hand above my head ; 
And now, at last, I by my self am fed. 

On mighty arms, alternately I bear \ 

Prodigious weights of water and of air ; V 

And yet you'll stop my motion with a hair. ) 

He that can find me, shou'd rewarded be, 
By having, from my Masters, Liberty, 
Whene'er he pleases, to make use of me. 

In the volume of the Diary for the next year is given an 
explanatory note, which follows — 

" The Prize vEnigma is a description of the invention and progress of 
the Engine for raising water out of Mines by the force of fire. It was 
first used by Herbert, Marquis of Worcester, about the year 1644, and 
published in his Century of Inventions anno 1661. In 1689 Capt. Tho. 
Savery got a patent for 14 years, and an Act of Parliament for 21 years 
longer for that Invention. In the year 171 2 Mr. Newcomen, by apply- 
ing the weight of the Atmosphere instead of the Elasticity of the steam, 
brought it to the perfection wherewith it is now used." 






Thomas Savery, F.R.S., Engineer and Inventor 83 

The Marquis of Worcester obtained an Act of Parliament in 
1663 entitling him to receive the benefit and profit of a " water 
commanding engine" which he had invented; his Century of 
Inventions was published in the same year. No. 68 of the Century 
is — " An admirable and most forcible way to drive up water by 
fire," etc. It is difficult to form any clear idea of what the 
Marquis had in view, but apparently he contemplated forcing 
water by steam pressure, but not the combined sucking and 
forcing action which characterizes Savery's fire-engine. What 
truth there may be in the story that Savery had destroyed all 
the copies of the Marquis's book that he could obtain, we have 
now no means of ascertaining. The story was not published 
during Savery's lifetime. 

The ventricle of the enigma is what we have referred to above 
as the receiver, the vena cava indicates the suction pipe, the 
artery the force pipe, the blood the water, and the chyle the 
steam. The reference to the engine being fixed in the caverns 
of the earth will be understood when it is borne in mind that it 
had to be placed within from twenty to thirty feet of the surface 
of the water. " New coming in " applied to the " Doctor Sage " 
is, of course, a pun upon " Newcomen." 

During the year 1705 Savery received invitations to go to 
Hanover and to Hesse Cassel to instruct the natives of these 
States in the building of his engines. In the course of the same 
year he published The new method of fortification, translated from 
the original Dutch of the late famous Engineer, Minno, Baron of 
Koehoorn. This book he dedicated to Prince George of Denmark, 
the husband of Queen Anne, who was Lord High Admiral of 
England at this time. It was in this same year, 1705, that 
Savery received the appointment of Treasurer for Sick and 
Wounded Seamen, it is said through the influence of Prince 
George. 

In 1706 Savery was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and invented " A new way of making double hand bellows," 
for which he obtained a patent. Another invention, which he 
sought to patent in the following year, was " a contrivance long 
since made by him of a new sort of mills, to perform all sorts of 
mill- work on vessels floating on the water." 

Up to this time we have been able to follow the career of 
Savery, year by year, from 1694 ; but from 1707 to 1710 the 
notes of the writer show a gap in the available material hav- 
ing distinct reference to the inventor. We do, however, find in 
a " List of Engineer Officers in Spain 1707-12 " an entry of the 
name of " Thos. Savery (Acting Engineer)." Taking into con- 
sideration his advanced age and the fact that he held a Govern- 



84 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

ment post at home, it seems somewhat unlikely that the inventor 
would volunteer for service with the army abroad ; but it is not 
inconceivable that the " acting engineer " was identical with 
our inventor. The two inventions which we have next to record 
seem to suggest that Savery had had his attention drawn to the 
requirements of an army in the field, and that he had recently 
made a sea voyage. 

In 1710 we have the last of Savery 's petitions for patents. 
The invention was " a new sort of oven for baking by the help of 
sea coal." The petition states that the new oven will " save a 
vast expence in her Majesty's Victualling Office in baking 
biscuit, and may be made portable and extraordinary convenient 
for the army." Another invention, which he made at about 
this time, was an instrument for measuring a ship's way at sea. 
Practical experience, however, showed that it was not a success. 
In 1714 the appointment of Surveyor of the Water Works at 
Hampton Court Palace was conferred upon Savery : he had by 
this time relinquished the post of Treasurer of Sick and Wounded. 
He did not hold the new appointment long, for he died in May, 
1715, in the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster. The place ot 
his burial has not been determined. By his will he left the 
whole of his property to his wife, Martha Savery. Mrs. Savery 
survived her husband until 1759 ; she died at the age of 104 at 
Old Palace Yard, Westminster. 



A Prediction. 

Soon shall thy arm, Unconquer'd Steam ! afar 
Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car ; 
Or on wide-waving wings expanded bear 
The flying-chariot through the fields of air. 
Fair crews triumphant, leaning from above, 
Shall wave their fluttering kerchiefs as they move ; 
Or warrior-bands alarm the gaping crowd, 
And armies shrink beneath the shadowy cloud. 

Dr. Erasmus Darwin (1789). 



Drake's Drum " 85 



Drake's Drum. 

Drake he's in his hammock an' a thousand mile away, 

(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Slung atween the round shot in Nombre Dios Bay, 

An' dreamin' all the time o' Plymouth Hoe. 
Yarnder lumes the Island, yarnder lie the ships, 

Wi' sailor lads a dancin' heel-an'-toe, 
An' the shore-lights flashin', an' the night -tide dashin', 

He sees et all so plainly as he saw et long ago. 

Drake he was a Devon man, an' ruled the Devon seas, 

(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Rovin' tho' his death fell, he went wi' heart at ease, 

An' dreamin' all the time o' Plymouth Hoe. 
" Take my drum to England, hang et by the shore, 

Strike et when your powder's runnin' low ; 
If the Dons sight Devon, I'll quit the port o' Heaven, 

An' drum them up the Channel as we drummed them 
long ago." 

Drake he's in his hammock till the great Armadas come, 

(Capten, art tha sleepin' there below ?), 
Slung atween the round shot, listenin' for the drum, 

An' dreamin' all the time o' Plymouth Hoe. 
Call him on the deep sea, call him up the Sound, 

Call him when ye sail to meet the foe ; 
Where the old trade's plyin' an' the old flag flyin', 

They shall find him ware an' wakin', as they found him 
long ago ! 

Henry Newbolt. 

The words of this poem are given by kind permission of Mr. Newbolt. 
There are two excellent musical settings, one by Sir C. V. Stanford, in his 
"Songs of the Sea," and the other by Mr. W. H. Hedgcock. The poem 
is, also, most effective as a recitation. — [Editor.] 



86 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

The Saints of Devon. 

By REV. J. F. CHANTER, M.A., F.S.A. 

Devon men are wont to pride themselves on their county and 
its many excellencies, perhaps more than those of any other 
English shire. But among the many and weighty reasons for 
which they make their boast of her, has it ever been with any 
because she is a land of Saints ? 

We think of our county as the shire of the sea kings, a land 
of great captains and heroes, a land of poets, painters, lawyers, 
and statesmen ; we love to dwell on her beauty spots, combes, 
rivers, cliffs, and moorlands, scenery such as no other county 
can surpass ; her exiled sons dream of her cream and cider ; 
but who thinks of her as a land of Saints ? 

If the average Devon schoolboy were asked to write an essay 
on her Saints, he would, I think, write it somewhat in the strain 
of that famous chapter on snakes in Iceland, and say there were 
none. Yet, with the exception perhaps of our neighbour, 
Cornwall, there is no other English county that can show such 
a noble array of every race — Ivernian, Goidel, Brython, Saxon, 
and Norman— that have combined to make up her population, 
and of every age from the dawn of Christianity down to our own 
days ; for the tide of Devon saints flows on in an unceasing 
stream from St. Nectan and St. Urith down to Hannington of 
Uganda ; for, though we are often inclined to limit the title of 
saint to those who lived in the earlier centuries of Christianity, 
it is only perchance because we see them through the mists of 
ages as robed in more ethereal garments than the soberer raiment 
of later days. To include, however, these later ones would be 
to encroach on the province of the Dictionary of National 
Biography, and so I shall confine myself to those of the first 
twelve centuries of the Christian era, which will correspond 
with the legal period of " before the memory of man runneth." 

And if any would dismiss the subject of saints and saint lore 
as a mere record of absurd tales and fabulous miracles, yet let 
us remember that it is the one thing left that sheds some light 
on the lost pages of early Devon history between the departure 
of the Roman legions and the completion of the Saxon conquest, 
and also that it brings us to the threshold of the beliefs and 
customs of our Devon folk in a still remoter past. For while 



The Saints of Devon 87 



the impact with Christianity shattered the older faiths, many 
of its fragments recombined in curious shapes round the early 
Keltic saints. For instance, there is scarcely one of our old 
West Country saints that has not his particular animal friend, 
that assists him in his difficulties : St. Brannock has his cow 
and his stags, and St. Petrock has his faithful wolf and his 
wonderful fish ; the idea underlying these and other like legends 
goes back to a time when it seemed natural that an animal 
should have human understanding and enter into man's thoughts. 
So, too, the wicked stepmothers and the miraculous springs we 
find connected with St. Urith, St. Sidwell, and St. Jutwara, take 
us back to the same period ; and, as for the miracles ascribed 
to our saints, they present no difficulty to those familiar with 
the faith healings and results of pilgrimages in modern days. 

It would also be well to remember that many of the Lives 
of Saints which we still possess were written to order hundreds 
of years after the period in which the Saint lived, by professional 
hagiographers, novelists we should call them nowadays, and 
they ascribed to their heroes acts and deeds which they thought 
would be popular but were mere fiction, or they ascribed to them 
the incidents of the lives of other saints with similar names. 
For instance, our West Country Piran or Kerrian was probably 
a saint of whom very little was known, but there was a famous 
Irish saint with a similar name, a pre-Patrick monk, Ciaran of 
Saighir, whom the Irish writers call the first-born of the sons 
of Erin ; his companions in his story were brother Fox, brother 
Badger, and brother Wolf. The biographer of our Piran or 
Kerrian (if they were the same) takes the Irish Ciaran, dresses 
him up in a British garment, gives an account of his works in 
the West Country, and, finally, buries him at Perranzabuloe, 
which certainly did not happen to the Irish saint. The similarity 
of their written lives in other respects has made most writers 
regard them as one and the same person, though Plummer in 
his lives of Irish Saints has proved its utter impossibility. So, 
in my account of our Devon Saints, I have not been content to 
accept as facts many of the statements made in mediaeval lives, 
but have endeavoured to sift them, and often to prefer local 
tradition ; and though, unfortunately, the spring of tradition 
has almost run dry during the last century, yet there is still a 
well to draw from in Roscarrock's unpublished MS. now at the 
Cambridge University Library. 

And this account I propose to divide into two parts, the first 
section dealing with what I would call the greater Devon Saints 
and their associates, that is, those whose shrines lay in the 
county or who stood out above the ordinary rank ; and, secondly, 



88 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

what I would call the lesser Devon Saints. Many of these were 
doubtless of far greater importance than some I have included 
in the greater saints, but they have not left so distinct ? mark 
on the history of our county, nor was their connection with it so 
intimate. And in each section I shall try to preserve, as far as 
possible, chronological order. I do not claim that my list, which 
will extend to over sixty in number, will be complete, for, while 
meaning by a Devon saint one who was born in the county or 
passed some part of his life in it, to include all who did the latter 
would swell the number to unwieldy proportions or make it 
a mere list of names. 



I— THE GREATER DEVON SAINTS AND 
THEIR ASSOCIATES. 

ST. NECTAN. 

St. Nectan may be regarded as one of the earliest of our Devon 
saints, for the name Nectan, Nechtan, or Neighton shows us 
that ne was not Welsh, nor even a Goidel, but one of a still older 
race who inhabited our country before even the Kelts came, and 
whom we commonly call Ivernians. In the Keltic language 
the name Nechtan assumes the form Neithon or Neighton, in 
which we still find it in Cornwall at St. Neighton's Kieve, between 
Tintagel and Boscastle, a legend connected with which formed 
the subject of one of Hawker's poems. In Bede the name occurs 
as Naiton. There was a Pictish king named Nectan in a.d. 
455, and another at a later period. 

In mediaeval days there was a brief life of St. Nectan in existence, 
of which three copies, at Hartland, St. Michael's Mount, and 
Merton College, Oxford, were known. In these he was described 
as the eldest and most distinguished of the twenty-four sons and 
daughters of Brechan, a Welsh regulus or kinglet, all of whom 
were martyrs or confessors in Devon and Cornwall, leading the 
lives of hermits ; and the story goes on that on June 17 he was 
set on by a band of heathen in the woods of Hartland, and 
fleeing from them, he was overtaken at a place called Nova Villa 
or Newton, where they cut off his head ; then, taking his head 
in his hands, the Saint walked on as far as the well at Stoke, and 
there, after placing it on a stone, he fell down dead ; and then 
the story goes on to say that the marks of Nectan 's blood 
remained on the stone even to that day. 



The Saints of Devon 89 






This life, probably written in the twelfth century after Gytha's 
college of secular canons had been refounded as a house of regular 
canons of St. Austin by Geoffery Dinham, has come down to us 
only in a mutilated form through Leland, William of Worcester, 
and Roscarrock (and the last-named tells us that, when he went 
a second time to look at the book at Oxford that contained it, 
he found the pages torn out). And on its face the life presents 
many difficulties, for no such a person as Nectan appears in any 
of the Welsh lists of the sons of Brychan, nor in fact do scarcely 
any of the names of Nectan's brothers and sisters correspond 
with those in the Welsh lists ; yet, while there is no trace of 
Nectan in Welsh traditions, we find traces of him in early Irish 
saint lore, for there is a mention of Nectan, a bishop, in the life 
of St. Boecius, and the Irish Martyrologies mention the Sons 
of Nectan, who are commemorated on the same day as the 
Hartland saint. There can be little doubt, therefore, that St. 
Nectan belongs to an earlier age than Welsh tradition, and 
represents the earliest Christian mission to North Devon, and is 
our earliest saint, the Brychan pedigree being attributed to him 
at a later day by those who were familiar with Welsh tradition 
but ignorant of those of an earlier age. 

St. Nectan's great foundation and shrine was at Hartland, but 
there are also traces of his influence in. various other parts of 
Devon ; besides the Church and Abbey at Hartland, churches 
at Ashcombe and Welcombe and a chapel at Chulmleigh were 
dedicated to him ; in Cornwall, at Poundstock, Trethevy, St. 
Winnow, Launceston, and Newlyn there were also churches or 
chapels. Concerning the one at Newlyn, Roscarrock gives us 
the following curious story : " The Chapel of St. Nectan has in a 
yard belonging to it a mound at the north-west corner, on which 
are four stones, where the relics and crosses of St. Peran, St. 
Crantock, St. Cuby, and St. Newlan were wont to be placed in 
Rogation Week, at which time the people used to meet there and 
had a sermon made — the last was preached by Parson Crand 
in Queen Mary's time, as I have been informed by an eye-witness. 
One of those four stones was taken from thence and turned into 
a cheese-press about the year 1580 by a gentlewoman named 
Mistress Burlace, and after her death it was carried back again 
in the night by something assuming her personage and remaineth 
on thic hill where it did." 

Gytha, the wife of Earl Godwin, is said to have believed that 
the intercession of St. Nectan had been the means of saving her 
husband from shipwreck in a violent tempest, and to have 
founded the college of secular canons in honour of St. Nectan 
because of it ; and it is striking to find that at her son King 



90 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

Harold's great foundation at Waltham, a bone of St. Nectan 
was among its most treasured relics. 

St. Nectan's day according to the Exeter Calendar is June 17, 
but according to Nicholas Roscarrock May 18 ; one of these 
is probably his translation, the other his martyrdom. According 
to Roscarrock he was a Bishop, and as such he is represented on 
Hartland Tower. 

Of his companions there are many traces in Cornwall, but also 
a few in Devon. It is possible that Instow or Johnstow may 
be the foundation of John or Ivan, who appears as the next 
brother to St. Nectan. The third name on the list is St. Ende- 
lient, and Roscarrock tells us that the chapel on Lundy Island, 
later called St. Elen's, was her foundation ; the story told of her 
is that she dwelt afterwards in Cornwall at a place now called 
after her. She lived a very austere life, subsisting only on the 
milk of her cow ; the cow strayed one day into the land of the 
Lord of Trenteny, who killed it, on which King Arthur, who was 
St. Endelient's godfather, caused the Lord to be executed, but 
St. Endelient miraculously restored him to life again. Hawker 
gives us also a later tradition of her in his " Sisters of Glen 
Nectan." Her day is April 29. St. Morwenna, another 
sister, besides her foundation at Morwenstow, a neighbouring 
parish to Hartland, had one at Mariansleigh, North Devon. 
St. Cleder, another brother, though more probably a nephew, 
had chapels at Philham and Gawlish, both in Hartland. 
He settled afterwards at Inny in Cornwall, under Laneast 
Down, where to-day is still his chapel, holy well, and cross. 
His day is Nov. 4. The name has been shortened into Cleer 
and taken in later times to be a woman's name. St. Helic or 
St. Helye is given as No. 23 in Leland's list of the associates 
of St. Nectan, but in William of Worcester's list he is No. 
20, Helye. Roscarrock also gives a list of the children of 
Brychan, in which there are 32 sons and 31 daughters ; 
it corresponds more with the Welsh List than those of Leland 
and William of Worcester, and in his list Helim is No. 24. He 
may possibly be the St. Heligan to whom there is said to have 
been a chapel dedicated at South Hole, Hartland. St. Wenn 
is another sister of St. Nectan who appears in both Leland's 
and Worcester's lists, and also in that of Roscarrock. Wenn is 
the Welsh Gwen, a very common name, and there were possibly 
several saints of this name, and at least two in Devon, viz., St. 
Gwen or Wenn, wife of St. Selyf and sister of St. Non, and St. 
Gwen or Wenn, sister of St. Nectan ; the latter is without doubt 
the St. Wenn to whom a chapel at Cheristowe, Hartland, is 
dedicated. She is possibly the St. Gwen who founded the 






The Saints of Devon 91 



church of Talgarth, Brecon, or the Gwen, mother of Caradog 
Freich-fras, who was king of Gelliwig in Damnonia. The St. 
Gwen of Talgarth was, according to the Iolo MSS., killed there 
by pagan Saxons. 

ST. UR1TH. 

St. Urith is our second Devon saint of the Ivernian race, and 
her name takes us back to the earliest page in Devonshire 
history, for Iwerydd, pronounced Ewrith or Urith, was the 
legendary foundress of the Ivernian race, the noblest of whom 
were proud to speak of themselves as Sons of Urith. Through 
the Latin form Uritha, her name in the eighteenth century 
was corrupted into Hieritha, probably a misreading of Huritha 
in Risdon's MS. View of Devon. Till quite recently our only 
information about this saint was the account given by Risdon, 
extracted from her life, which has since been lost ; he tells us 
that she was born at Stowford, a hamlet in the parish of Swym- 
bridge, close to the borders of Chittlehampton parish and less 
than a mile from Chittlehampton Church, where she was interred, 
and which was dedicated to her memory, and that she was 
esteemed of such sanctity that you may read of many notable 
miracles in his book that penned her life. This can now be 
supplemented from other sources, chiefly a hymn and collect 
in the Common-place book of a monk of Glastonbury, now 
among the MSS. at Trinity College, Cambridge, and documents 
relating to Chittlehampton Parish at the Public Record Office, 
which I discovered in the early part of 1914 ; from these the 
Life of St. Urith can be reconstructed. She was a beautiful 
maiden, who at a tender age had become a convert to the 
Christian faith and taken a vow of perpetual virginity ; this 
brought on her the hatred of her heathen stepmother, who 
instigated the haymakers on the estate to murder her ; on 
July 8th they met her at dawn when going forth for her devotions, 
and cut her in pieces with their scythes ; where her body fell 
to the ground, there burst forth a copious spring of miraculous 
healing powers, and the bare earth around suddenly blossomed 
with flowers. 

Up to the early part of the sixteenth century her shrine stood 
in a recess north-west of the altar in Chittlehampton Church, 
and in a housing on the pillar separating the shrine from the 
chancel and transept was the famous image of St. Urith, which 
was the object of great popular devotion ; it was removed in 
1540. In the housing can still be seen the words, " The souls of 
the righteous are in the hand of God. The bodies of the merciful 
are buried in peace, but their name liveth for evermore. In 



92 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

memory of St. Hieritha, foundress of this Church." Till the 
beginning of the last century there was also on it a painting of 
the saint. 

The shrine of St. Urith in Chittlehampton Church was for a 
long period a famous object of pilgrimages in North Devon ; 
from all parts pilgrims came to pay their devotions and to 
make their offerings on account of the many miracles performed 
there, people of all conditions being healed of their complaints 
by praying to God before it ; and the offerings made at the 
shrine were so large that by means of them the parishioners 
were able to rebuild their church and erect a tower which is 
certainly the finest in the county, as well as treble the stipend 
which the Vicar received from glebe and tithes. 

No one can fail to notice that the two finest Churches in North 
Devon are the two dedicated to Devon's oldest saints : St. 
Nectan's of Hartland, which is often spoken of as the Cathedral 
of North Devon, and St. Urith's of Chittlehampton, its walls 
embattled and ornamented with a cornice of quatrefoils and 
relieved by crocketed pinnacles, and its glorious tower 125 ft. 
high, finished by eight crocketed pinnacles supported by flying 
buttresses and smaller pinnacles and enriched with sculpture, 
and nothing in its detail which is not of the most pure and 
faultless description. As the sequence for the feast of St. Urith 
is the only Devon one we possess, I give it in an English version 
kindly written for me by the Rev. G. R. Woodward : — 

Every day break to the glory 
Of the Lord, doth call the story 

Of St. Urith back to mind : 
Fair of face and full of beauty, 
Modest, leal to God and duty, 

Every virtue she combined. 

Wherein God is well delighted, 
Virgin vows to God she plighted, 

While as yet a little child ; 
Pure in body, chaste in 'haviour, 
She by aid of Christ, her Saviour, 

By the world was undented. 

Mown by scythe of pagan scornful, 
Gladly in the valley mournful, 

Crown of martyrdom she gain'd ; 
Now, mid Angels high and holy, 
See enthroned this maiden lowly 

Hath the victor's prize obtain'd. 

Trembled she at threat of no man, 
But did battle with the foeman — 
Foe man whom she overthrows ; 



The Saints of Devon 93 



There, where fell this godly maiden, 
Sprang a well with virtue laden, 
Bloomed the desert as the rose. 

By step-mother once ill-treated, 
Now on every side is greeted 

Urith as the lily white ; 
Chittlehampton, voice to heaven, 
Raise thou with the rest of Devon 

For this martyr ruby bright. 

Maiden martyr, pray for us 
To our Saviour Christ that thus 
We, thy bedesmen, here may be 
Set from death eternal free. 

The miraculous well of St. Urith lies just to the south-east 
of the Church, and is now commonly called by the villagers 
Tiddy Well or St. Ura's well. The only dedications to St. 
Urith are Chittlehampton Church, and a chapel at Stowford, 
Swymbridge, her birthplace. A figure of the saint can be seen 
on the pulpit in the Church. 



ST. BRANNOCK. 

In the Martyrlogium of Bishop Grandisson there is the notice 
under Jan. 7 : "In Britannia Sancti Brannoci confessoris apud 
Branntone Exonienis diocesis quiescentis." In the Temporale 
7 Jan. : " S. Brannock Ab. et Conf. 9 Lections." In the 
Ordinale : " All things to be done as of an Abbot response with 
Alleluias, Antiphon, Tecum principium, and daily through the 
octave Antiphons and responses to be sung as on commemo- 
rations of the B.V.M." 

Although January 7 was St. Brannock's day, his great festival 
at Braunton was the last Sunday in June, known locally as " At 
relique Sonday," which was a great village festival. Next to 
St. Petrock, St. Brannock was the widest and best known of 
our Devon saints, as there are long lives of him in John of 
of Tynemouth, the Nova Legenda Angliae, and other English 
martyrologies, as well as many particulars in Iolo MSS. and 
other Welsh manuscripts ; in these he is called Brynach, and to 
the Welsh he was known as Brynach the Goidel. The name 
Brannock is generally explained as meaning little Bran or the 
little raven, oc being a Keltic diminutive, but in the life of St. 
Mochceniog, an Irish saint, we have a curious dialogue which 
gives quite a different explanation of the meaning of his name. 
St. Mochceniog asks a man who came to him "Quo nomine 
vocaris O homo ? Ille ait Bronack est nomen meum, quod 



94 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

Latine dicitur Tristis " ; this rather suggests our linking him 
with the famous Sir Tristram of Arthurian legend. 

In the Lives we are told that Brynach was soul friend, that is 
chaplain and confessor, to Brychan, King of Brecknock, whose 
daughter Cymorth he had married and by whom he had a son, 
Berwyn, and three daughters, Mwynen, Gwenan, and Gwenlliw. 
After some years' sojourn with King Brychan he went on a 
pilgrimage to the tombs of the Apostles, and on his return 
journey visited Brittany, where he made a long stay ; leaving 
there at length, he set out on his return journey to Wales, and 
here he found a very altered state of affairs. Aided by the sons 
of Cunedda, the Brythons were driving out the Goidels ; King 
Brychan, whose wife was a Brython, had come to terms with 
them, but the arrival of another Goidel member of the family 
was looked on with suspicion, and even his wife, Cymorth, looked 
askance at St. Brannock, so he retired to Llanfrynach, where he 
founded a chapel called after his name, wnose ruins still remain. 
He also founded churches at Dinas and Nevern ; at the latter 
place he settled down for a time, and, according to the legend, 
received visits of angels. In the churchyard there, is a fine 
cross nearly thirteen feet high, with elaborate interlaced 
ornamentation, still called St. Brynach's Cross ; a curious story 
is told of it in a letter dated Sept. 18, 1722 : "St. Brynach was 
a great crony of St. David, and whenever he went from St. 
David's to Llandewi Brevi always called at Nevern and lodged 
a night with his friend St. Brynach, but one time coming that 
way Brynach discovered on David's shoulder a prodigious large 
stone (draught enough for six yoke of oxen) carved all over with 
endless knots, and on one side five or six characters, now 
unintelligible, which stone David told his friend he designed 
for Llandewi Brevi as a memorial of himself, but was prevailed 
on by Brynach to give it him, and Brynach fixed it on end on 
the south side of Nevern Church." 

The Lives say nothing of St. Brannock's death, but merely 
that his day was April 7 ; this, however, is not the day of his 
death, but merely the day he left Wales, for, in spite of his 
sanctity, he was always a suspect, being a Goidel, so at last he 
determined to cross over the Severn Sea to Devon, floating over 
the sea on a stone as the Devonshire legends say, and in his 
life he is described as voyaging in the same way from Brittany 
to Wales, which only means that like most Keltic saints he 
carried his " lech " or tombstone with him. From this point 
we must take up his life from Braunton traditions, as the written 
life here fails us : He arrived at Braunton Burrows, which was 
then covered with thick forest and full of deer ; the people 



The Saints of Devon 95 



around he found a wild uncivilized race ; St. Brannock taught 
them the Christian faith and gave them laws ; under his direction 
they cut down the woods, Brannock having in the meantime 
tamed the deer, which he harnessed to the timber, and they 
drew it to a spot pointed out to him in a vision where they should 
meet a white sow with a farrow ; here he built his church and 
introduced the customs which remain to this day. His com- 
panions were his cow, his wolf, and his faithful man Abel, all of 
whom were represented on the great west window of the church, 
which Leland saw, but it was destroyed in the Civil Wars. The 
fame of his cow lingered long in North Devon. According to 
the Iolo MS., it was milk-white in colour, and gave milk to every 
one who desired it, and however frequently milked or by what- 
ever number of persons, she was never found deficient. All 
who drank of her milk were healed of their sickness : from fools 
they became wise, from wicked became good, from sad became 
happy. In after days, as Leland tells us, the milk from St. 
Brannock's cow was the name applied to the ale which was 
specially brewed for the Braunton Church ales, and it was said 
to be better than Webby ale, Derby ale, or Modbury huff cup. 
The accounts of the Wardens of St. Brannock's store, still in 
existence, give us full particulars of these ales, and the large 
sums realized by them, which enabled the parish to pay its way 
without rates or similar troubles of the present age ; the receipt 
for this wonderful ale is lost, but the ingredients of it can be read 
in the old accounts. St. Brannock and his cow are represented 
on one of the old bench-ends still in Braunton Church, and 
particulars of some of the customs introduced by St. Brannock, 
can be read in the MSS. of the customs of the Manors of Braunton, 
though they were much altered in 1298, according to an MS. 
of that period belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. 
St. Brannock appears in North Devon accounts and traditions 
almost more as a civilizer than a missionary. He died on 
January 7, and his remains were translated to Braunton Church 
on June 26. Braunton is the only church in Devon dedicated 
to him. 

Of St. Cymorth, the wife of St. Brannock, sometimes called 
Corth, we have very little information except her parentage, 
because in the days when most of the existing lives were written 
it was considered scandalous for a bishop or priest to have a 
wife and family, and so she is generally represented as a lady 
who tried to lead a good saint astray ; for instance, in Whytford's 
Martirloge the story of St. Brannock runs : "St. Brannock was 
a gentleman of great possessions, which all he sold and went on 
pilgrimage to Rome, where by the way he did many miracles. 



96 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

And when he came to England again he was of great fame and 
much magnified, which to decline and avoid he fled privily into 
South Wales, where he was assailed with the temptation and 
persecution of a lady in like manner as Joseph in Egypt, but 
with grace he vanquished and was of high perfection, many 
miracles, and had revelations and also visions of Angels." 

Some of the other lives describe her as a chieftain's daughter 
who mixed love philters for the saint and ceased not to ply him 
with drink, but all in vain ; and then, putting aside female 
modesty, turned from love to hatred and tried to get him 
murdered ; for these reasons no day of St. Cymorth Matron 
has come down to us. 

Of St. Berwyn or Gerwyn, St. Brannock's son, we are told that 
he went down into Cornwall and was killed at Inys Gerwyn, 
where there was a church to his memory ; from Nicholas 
Roscarrock we learn that St. Berwine or Breuer was martyred 
at a place called Simonsward, and that the folks there said there 
was a tree still standing on the spot of the saint's martyrdom, 
which was ever much regarded and reverenced, and it was 
thought to have been there ever since the saint's death. The 
place is now generally called St. Breward's. Oliver in his 
Monasticon calls it St. Breweredus. His day is Feb. 2. 

Of St. Brannock's daughters St. Gwenan and St. Gwenliw 
nothing is known, but of St. Mwynem or Monynna there are 
several lives, for Monynna means " my dear nun," and so it was 
applied to several quite different people, the best known of whom 
is an Irish saint, a disciple of St. Patrick. Brannock's daughter 
may possibly be the same as St. Merryn. Her day was July 7 
according to some, but Roscarrock gives it as Nov. 23. 



ST. SIDWELL. 

I have used the name St. Sidwell because it is the form of name 
under which the saint I would now speak of, is known to all 
Devonshire people, but when we turn to even our own records, 
such as the Bishop's Registers and the Exeter Kalendars, we 
find the name always used is Sativola, which is a Latinized form 
of some such a name as Sicofolia ; Sidwell is merely a popular 
nickname. In all her representations, whether on glass or 
panels, she has always for her emblems a scythe and a well. She 
was, therefore, the saint with scythe and well, " Scithwell " or 
Sidwell, and unfortunately the use of the popular name has led 
many writers utterly to mistake the period and true life of our 
saint. 



The Saints of Devon 97 






She was the daughter of a Romanized Britain of high dignity, 
named Perpius Aurelianus, who died when his daughters were 
young, leaving them in the care of his second wife, who hated 
her stepdaughters and worked them much evil ; the step- 
mother was very covetous of Sativola's fortune, which was 
considerable in the eastern suburbs of the city of Exeter, and 
she engaged one of her servants to dispatch Sativola while she 
was intent on her devotions near a well in what was afterwards 
called Sidwell's Mead ; a church was afterwards built at or near 
the spot which contained her tomb, at which many notable 
miracles were wrought. When the Saxons took full possession 
of the city of Exeter, her tomb was greatly reverenced, and King 
Athelstan took some of her relics to the Abbey of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary and St. Peter, which he had founded at Exeter, and 
in the still-existing list of Relics they are mentioned as being 
solemnly enclosed in the new altar of the Benedictine Church, 
afterwards the Cathedral of Exeter. 

The meek maiden at whose tomb manifold wonders were 
shown, as she is called in Dugdale, was always a favourite object 
of devotion at Exeter, and in the Cathedral there are still two 
icons of her. The day of her martyrdom was August 2. In 
Grandisson's Martyrlogium there is a brief notice of her : " Aug. 
2. In territorio Exoniensi passio Sancte Sativole virginis et 
martiris." The page containing her story in the Legendarium 
has been torn out, but Leland gives us a brief extract of it ; in 
it he states that her father was Benna, but this is either a mistake 
or a misprint — "Benna pater " for "Benna f rater " — as we 
know from other sources that Benna was her brother, not her 
father. In Grandisson's Sanctorale we have directions for the 
offices on her day ; there were nine lessons with the middle lesson 
of St. Stephen, Pope, of which St. Sidwell's took precedence. 

The cult of St. Sidwell was very wide in Devon and extended 
beyond the county. We find representations of her on the 
screens of Ashton, Beer Ferrers, Hennock, Holne, Kenn, 
Plymtree, St. Mary Steps (Exeter), Whimple, and Woolborough, 
and on stained glass at Ashton, Exeter, and Oxford ; besides 
her famous Church at St. Sidwell at Exeter, she had chapels at 
Launceston and Mawnam, and is joint patron with her sister 
of the parish Church of Laneast. 

Of St. Sidwell's brothers, one was a famous saint, and by him 
we can fairly accurately date St. Sidwell's martyrdom as about 
a.d. 510. This brother was Paulus Aurelianus, now popularly 
known as Pol de Leon. A life of him was written in a.d. 884 
by one Wormonoc, which, he informs us, was based on an earlier 
life. Paulus at an early age went to St. Illtyd and made the 

7 



98 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

acquaintance of St. David and St. Sampson, and in the course 
of time was ordained priest. Afterwards he came to Damnonia 
to visit his sisters, and there are several traces of him still in our 
county ; within the City of Exeter was his church, St. Paul's, 
at Staverton is another, and also the well of his sister Wulvella, 
also one in Cornwall. On his sister's death he crossed over to 
Brittany and landed on the isle of Ouessant, where he built a 
monastery ; afterwards he went to Leon, of which city King 
Childebert had him consecrated Bishop. His life in Brittany 
we need not follow. He died on March 12 at the age of 100. 
St. Wulvella, sister to St. Sidwell, as mentioned before, is joint 
patron with her of the Church at Laneast and also patron of 
Gulwell in Mount's Bay ; in the church of Laneast St. Wulvella 
is represented in fifteenth century glass as an abbess crowned 
and with a staff. In Devon the only memorials of St. Wulvella 
are her well and cross at Ashburton, near her brother's founda- 
tion at Staverton, and representations of her on the screens of 
Berry Pomeroy, Kenn, Tor Brian, and Woolborough. Her 
day is Nov. 12. 

St. Jutwara, the third sister, has had her name so changed 
from its original Keltic form in the process of Anglicizing it, that 
it is somewhat difficult to recognize. Originally it was Aed or 
Aed wyry, that is Aed the Virgin ; in English it became Eadwara 
or Jutwara. Her name is especially associated with Sherborne, 
to which her remains were translated on July 13 from Halinstoke. 
Sherborne was an ancient British Church founded by Gerontius 
or Geraint, King of Damnonia, who endowed it with five hides 
near the Tamar ; he is probably the Geraint to whom St. 
Aldhelm's letter is addressed. Jutwara's story as given in the 
Lives of the Women Saints of our Country England is as follows : 
This virgin was well born and sister to St. Eadwara, St. Wilgith, 
and St. Sidwell ; she was much envied by a wicked stepmother, 
who made her brother Benna believe she was a harlot, whereupon 
with rage he slew her as she came from serving God in the church, 
but God testified her holiness and chastity presently with a 
strange miracle, for she, having her head cut off, did afterwards 
with her own hands take up her head and carried it to the church 
whence she came, and withall in the same place where she was 
killed there sprang up a lively fountain and a green tree, and 
not with these only but with divers more miracles did God justify 
and magnify her dead who had been so slandered, injured, and 
disgraced alive. The Sherborne Missal still preserves the 
sequence for the feast of the Translation of St. Jutwara, which 
recites the incidents in the legend given above and ends up with 
these words : — 






The Saints of Devon 99 



Virgo sidus puellaris 
Medicina salutaris 
Salva reos ab amaris 
Sub mortis nubicula. 

The day of St. Jutwara's martyrdom, according to Nicholas 
Roscarrock, was Jan. 6. She is represented on the screens of 
Ashton and Hennock, Devon : at the last, on the next panel to 
St. Sidwell, with her head in her hands. 

ST. PETROCK. 

St. Petrock, called the Apostle ol Devonshire, is perhaps the 
greatest of our Devon Saints, for certainly he has left a deeper 
impress on our county than any other saint ; north, south, east, 
and west his dedications are to be found. Although generally 
regarded as a Cornish saint, yet judging from the evidence of 
foundations, his work lay almost entirely in Devon, where he 
had twenty-two dedications, to say nothing of many of the 
Peter dedications which probably belong to him ; in Cornwall 
there are five, and three in Wales. 

There is quite a possibility that he was also Devonian by birth, 
for the Welsh pedigrees say he was the son of Clement, a Cornish 
Regulus, and the name Cornwall was frequently applied in 
Welsh records to the whole Damnonian realm, of which Cornwall 
proper was only a small part ; but most authorities state that 
he was a native of Glywysing, that is, the district between 
Newport and Cardiff. 

According to the life of St. Cadoc, St. Petrock was the son of 
Glywys, and, rejecting the vanities and transient allurements 
of the world and despising worldly for heavenly things, he began 
to adhere firmly to God, and gave up his country and kindred. 
His legendary life, as given in the Nova Legenda Anglice and the 
Bollandist Acta Sanctorum (June, pp. 400-2), is late and 
worthless, and consists mainly of mythical travels to Rome, 
Jerusalem, and India, voyaging over the seas on a shining silver 
bowl without sails or oars, subsisting for seven years on a single 
fish, which is a survival of an old pagan myth of the silver moon 
passing across the ocean of the sky. On his return from his 
voyages he finds his faithful wolf still guarding the staff and 
cloak he had left on the shore before starting on his travels. 
These and many other marvellous details, quite in keeping with 
those early mediaeval novelettes and fairy tales which they 
called Lives of Saints, are scarcely worth while to repeat, 
especially when, as in St. Petrock's case, they are very long. 

But it will be far more to the point to trace the footsteps of 
the saint through Devon, as indicated by his foundations, which 



ioo The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

still survive or are recorded, while he was at his work of com- 
pleting the evangelization ol the whole of Devon. Setting sail 
from what is now Cardiff, he crossed to the nearest Devonshire 
haven, probably to Combemartin, where a group of three Peter 
Churches — Berrynarbor, Combemartin, and Trentishoe — may 
mark three original Petroc foundations, changed, as many were 
later, to the similar but better-known name of Peter. Here to 
the west he found a district envangelized by St. Brannock, and 
turning eastward he skirted the great waste which is described 
in the life of St. Decuman as " Vasta eremi solitudo, frutetis et 
vepribus obsita, et densibile silvarum in longum et latum spaciose 
porrecta montium eminentia sursum educta et concavitate 
vallium mirabiliter interrupta." This early description of 
Exmoor is, I think, of great interest. 

At Petrockscombe, afterwards Pedrecumbe and now Parra- 
combe, we have one of his foundations, where, according to 
Keltic custom, he remained thirty days to consecrate the spot ; 
then along the Exmoor border we can follow his path by Petrock 
dedications at Charles, Anstey, and Bampton, where, the Exe 
had been reached ; thence down the river to the only city in 
England that has had a continuous existence from pre-Roman 
time to the present day, Caer Isc, first a British caer, then a 
Roman castrum, next a Saxon Chester, then a Norman city, 
from which period its history is well known. Here still one of 
the best known of the city churches is St. Petrock's, whose 
history has been so fully written from its wonderful records by 
Robert Dymond. Then on perhaps to Dunkeswell, further 
east ; and then back and down south and west to Kenton, and 
on to the head of the tidal Dart above the ancient settlement 
of Totnes at Buckfast, where was his great monastery. All 
around here are Petrock dedications — Tor Mohun or Torquay, 
Totnes, Dartmouth, South Brent, and Harford ; then, with the 
restlessness of the Keltic missionaries, the South Hams are 
left behind, and across the wilds of Dartmoor to the North Hams, 
where we find Petrock dedications at Lydford, Zeal, Clanna- 
borough, Hollacombe, Petrockstow, and the Newtown of St. 
Petrock ; and far up into the north at Westleigh. And who 
can say how many of the Devon dedications to St. Peter were 
not originally St. Petrock's, changed into the better-known name 
by the curious spirit, which is seen in all ages among the clergy 
who have come under Roman influence, of seeking to suppress 
all records of missionary work that did not proceed from Latin 
initiative ? It is, alas, still going on in Brittany, where year by 
year some old Keltic saint's dedication gives place to a name 
more familiar to the modern clergy. 



The Saints of Devon 101 



From Devon St. Petrock moved on into Cornwall, where the 
closing years of his life and labours were passed, and, according 
to unanimous tradition, he died at Bodmin on June 4, circ. a.d. 
580, at the age of 90. His remains rested there till a.d. 1177, 
in which year a certain canon of Bodmin named Martin secretly 
carried them off ; flying over the seas, he conveyed them to the 
Abbey of St. Meren in Brittany. When this impious theft 
became known, Roger, Prior of Bodmin, went at once to the 
King to seek his aid to recover the relics of St. Petrock. The 
King granted his request and ordered Roland de Dinan, Justiciary 
of Brittany, to proceed at once to St. Meren and demand 
restitution of the relics. The Abbot and Convent of St. Meren 
were unwilling to comply with the demand, for the body of St. 
Petiock was deemed one of the greatest treasures in the world, 
but Roland, who had taken the precaution of bringing a strong 
force with him, threatened that, unless the precious relics which 
had been stolen were surrendered voluntarily, he would have to 
use force to obtain possession of them. 

The Abbot and his monks, finding themselves constrained to 
comply, restored the body of St. Petrock to Prior Roger of 
Bodmin, taking at the same time a solemn oath that the sacred 
body was restored in all its integrity and without the least 
diminution, and that they had not retained any portion of the 
body. Either the Abbot and Monks perjured themselves, or 
they fraudently pretended afterwards to have kept some of the 
relics, as a portion of a skull, said to be St. Petrock's, was offered 
for the veneration of the credulous up to the time of the 
French Revolution. The Prior of Bodmin brought the body of the 
Blessed Petrock, closed in an ivory case, to the city of Winchester, 
where King Henry, having seen and venerated it, permitted the 
Prior to return in peace with the relics of his saint to Bodmin 
Priory. In June, 1914, I made a pilgrimage to the Church of 
St. Petrock at Bodmin and saw the above-mentioned ivory 
casket, though, alas, it no longer contained the relics of the 
Blessed Petrock, nor was even the casket in its proper place in 
the Church, but, like many other treasures in these modern days, 
in the strong room of the bank. I was, however, able to open 
and examine this most interesting reliquary that had for many 
years contained the mortal remains of the great Apostle of 
Devon. 

It was without doubt the " theca eburnea " mentioned in the 
story of the abstraction of the relics ; it was four feet six inches 
in length, and composed of thin slabs of polished ivory enriched 
on all sides with gold and colours, the devices being birds, foliage, 
and geometrical combinations within circles ; the paintings were 



102 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

somewhat faded but perfectly distinguishable. It had hinges 
and bonds of gilt metal, and the work appeared to me to be very 
much of a Moorish type and similar to much of that of the south 
of Spain. It was exhibited at Exeter at the meeting of the 
Royal Archaeological Institute in 1873. 

In the report on Bodmin Grammar School in the Reports of 
the Endowed School Commission it is stated : " Documents 
were consulted which were kept in a curious old ivory reliquary 
bound with brass and painted with Christian symbols, which 
was discovered beneath the floor of the Church and once contained 
the bones of St. Petrock." 

Another relic of St. Petrock formerly existed at the Church 
of Llanbedrog, Wales, for Lewis Newburgh in 1535 deposed: 
' 1 ye said Lewis had a relic called Gwawe Pedrog and the feryn 
thereof was iiij li and now it standeth in Church by command- 
ment of the ordinary " ; this probably means St. Petrock's spear, 
but it is not known what the legend attached to it was. 

Of the particular disciples of St. Petrock we only know the 
names of three, as given by Leland ; they were Credan, Medan, 
and Dechan. Of St. Credan, Roscarrock gives us a tradition 
that the saint by misfortune killed his own father, by which he 
was so moved that, abandoning the world, he became a hogherd, 
and lived so exemplary a life that he was esteemed a saint. 
Called by St. Petrock to assist him, he afterwards founded the 
Church of St. Creed in Cornwall ; he has also left traces of himself 
in Devon, for, in the parish of Georgeham there is a place called 
Credan 's hoe, now Croydehoe or Croyde, well known as a summer 
resort ; the correct spelling Credan hoe will be found in a law 
suit in 1307, quoted by Dr. Oliver ; there may also possibly be 
some connection between his name and Creedy or Crediton. His 
day is Nov. 18. St. Dechan is a far more interesting personality, 
because he is a link connecting the older Keltic mission of St. 
Petrock in Devon with the more famous mission of St. Augustine 
in Kent. In his old age, when he was a Bishop, we learn from 
a letter quoted by Bede that he came to Canterbury for an 
interview with Laurence, Mellitus, and Justus, the three surviving 
members of the mission after the death of St. Augustine, and 
although from a bitter memory of Augustine's arrogant and 
unchristian behaviour to the British Bishops, the relations 
between St. Dechan and the other Bishops was not so friendly 
as it might have been, it is interesting to find that in the Stowe 
Missal, the oldest known Keltic Service Book, all the four names 
— St. Dechan, Laurence, Mellitus, and Justus — occur close 
together in the list of those for whom intercessory prayer was 
to be offered. There was a chapel of St. Dechan and a sacred 



The Saints of Devon 103 



well in Lanwnda, Pembrokeshire ; in the Chapel was preserved 
for many years the rochet of St. Dechan, but it was sold in the 
eighteenth century to some curio collector ; Browne Willis in 
1720 had a piece of it. According to Leland, he was buried at 
Bodmin. His day is Sept. 13, but, according to William of 
Worcester, June 4. 

Of St. Medan we know little : he was a nephew of St. Cadoc, 
and is also said to have been buried at Bodmin. 



ST. BRANWALLADER. 

Of St. Branwallader very little is known, and our only reason 
for inserting his name among the greater saints of Devon is 
because his shrine was at Branscombe in Devon, and, as stated 
in my introduction, I proposed to consider first of all the saints 
whose shrines were in Devon. 

William of Worcester, whose real name was William Bottoner, 
journeyed through Devon in 1478, and has left us some notes 
on the local saints, and he states that St. Branwallader, a king's 
son, lies in the church of the town of Branscombe, eight miles 
from Axminster. Leland calls our saint St. Brampalator, and 
speaks of his chapel between Axminster and Branscombe. 
Cressy, another mediaeval antiquary, informs us that St. 
Branwallader was a holy Bishop. From Grandisson's Calendar 
we also learn that there was a St. Branwalethrus, a martyr, son 
of a King named Kenen, and in another place he is mentioned 
as a Bishop. 

Kenen is a name that frequently appears in Welsh pedigrees 
under the form of Cynan and Latinized into Conan or Conanus. 
Of one of these, a King Kenen, Geoffery of Monmouth gives us 
an amazing account, making him the chief leader of the Britons 
who settled in Armorica ; he also mentions another King Kenen 
who slew and succeeded King Constantine ; this is the Cynan 
Wledig, of whom there is a triplet in the Welsh sayings of the 
wise : — 

" Hast thou heard the saying of Cynan Wledig, 
A king of good disposition: 
Every indiscreet person injures his portion." 

It is impossible to say if either of these was the father of our 
St. Branwallader ; it is more probable he was another Cynan 
mentioned in another triad as one of the three Knight Counsellors 
of Arthur's court — Cynan Genhir, son of Cynwyd. 

In my paper on early Christianity in Devon,* I have given 

* Trans. Devon. Assoc, xlii. 475-502. 



104 Tkc Devonian Year Book, 1915 

my reasons for holding that St. Branwallader was the last bishop 
of the Romano-British Christians of Exeter and East Devon. 
When the Kelts were finally driven out of Exeter by King 
Athelstan, he found St. Branwallader's memory reverenced alike 
by Kelt and Saxon in the district ; and some of his relics were 
in a.d. 925 transported with honour to the monastery Athelstan 
had just founded at Milton, Dorset, of which in later times it is 
said that St. Branwallader's head was its crowning glory. We 
find St. Branwallader invoked in an Exeter litany ; his name 
occurs in Winchester and Malmesbury Calendars, also in a 
thirteenth century copy of Bede's Martyrology at Jesus College, 
Cambridge, as well as in Breton Calendars. In these the day 
of his translation is given us, Jan. 19. The Treguies Calendar 
gives June 5, which is possibly the day of his death. 

ST. RUMON. 

St. Rumon is the great Tavistock saint. When in a.d. 961 
Ordgar, Earl of Devon, founded the great Benedictine house at 
Tavistock, which was completed by his son, Earl Ordulf, who 
was famed for his gigantic size and great muscular strength, it 
was placed under the protection of St. Rumon, whose relics had 
been brought to Tavistock on Jan. 5, a.d. 960, which day was 
afterwards the great feast day of Tavistock Abbey, though 
Thomas Peperell, a notary at Tavistock in the 15th century, 
informed William of Worcester that the day of the Saint's death 
was Aug. 28, and Aug. 30 the day of his burial. The history of 
this saint is somewhat obscure. William of Malmesbury, who 
was born about a.d. 1095, says in his Gesta Pontificum, writing 
of Tavistock Abbey : " Rumon is there extolled as a saint and 
lies buried as a bishop, being decorated with a beautiful shrine, 
concerning whom all want of written evidence confirms the 
opinion that not only in this but in many parts of England you 
will find all knowledge of events swept away by the violence of 
hostility, the names of saints left naked, and any miracles that 
may aspire to our notice unrecorded. So we have evidence that 
in the beginning of the twelfth century, all knowledge of him, 
save that he had been a bishop in the district, had perished. 
To have no life of their patron saint was by no means to the 
liking of the monks of the premier and most learned abbey in 
Devon, so they set about making one. Finding a Breton saint 
with a somewhat similar name, Ronan, who was buried at 
Locronan in Armorica, they took his life and adapted it to their 
own saint. The Armorican saint had dwelt in the vast forest 
of Nevez or Nemet, so our Tavistock monks invented a vast 



The Saints of Devon 105 



Nemean wood near Falmouth, full of wild beasts ; here they 
placed their St. Rumon and made Earl Ordulf translate his bones 
from Falmouth to Tavistock, and it was this life that Leland saw 
in the Abbey Library and from which he made a few scanty 
extracts ; it is of course of no value whatever. Our St. Rumon, 
who was most probably the last Keltic Bishop in Damnonia and 
died in the early part of the ninth century, was buried perhaps 
at Mitchel, where there was a stone with the inscription "Ruani 
ic Jacet " ; his cross is at Meavy. Reverenced and endeared to 
the mixed race of Angle and Kelt who inhabited the Devon and 
Cornwall border, and who had been drawn together by the peril 
of the black pagans, whom we call Danes, there was no name so 
fitting for Earl Ordgar to choose as patron of his new Abbey. 
Another and later invasion of the Danes, in which the new abbey 
and also St. Petrock's neighbouring foundation at Lydford 
were burnt to the ground, swept away all records of our Devonian 
St. Rumon, and, less than 200 years after, Malmesbury tells us 
all that was remembered was that he was a Bishop. Just the one 
point that would linger in the tradition of the people that St. 
Rumon was their beloved Bishop ; miracles of a saint by which 
the monks sought to get the offerings of pilgrims, were not things 
they would trouble about. 

Up till recently some relics of St. Rumon were at Ghent, but 
how they got there, or whether since the German invasion they 
are still there, I have been unable to discover. His only dedica- 
tion in Devon, beyond Tavistock, is Rumonsleigh. 

ST. BONIFACE. 

The roll of missionary heroes since the days of the apostles 
can point to few more glorious names than St. Boniface, to none 
perhaps that has added to the dominion of the Gospel regions 
of greater extent and value, or that has exerted a more powerful 
influence on the history of the human race. So writes Canon 
Maclear in the Home and Foreign Review of 1863, and it is no 
wonder that many places have claimed him as their son, as of 
old the seven cities fought for the honour of being Homer's 
birthplace ; so Dempster in 1623 published a folio volume at 
Bologna to prove that St. Boniface was a native of Scotland, 
while a writer in the Dublin Review of July, 1869, disposes of 
the question with much less trouble, thus : "St. Boniface, the 
martyr and Apostle of Germany . . . was a native of Ireland." 

The fixing of the birthplace of St. Boniface, however, presents 
no difficulty, for we possess a biography of the Saint written by 
his nephew Willibald, almost immediately after his martyrdom, 



106 The Devonian Year Book, 191 5 

which states expressly that he was born at Crediton. Grandis- 
son's Martyr ology also states under June 5 : " S. Boniface qui 
de Britannis ex civitate Criditonie juxta Exoniam veniens " ; 
he was, therefore, a Devonshire man by birth, which took place 
a little before a.d. 700 ; the date seems somewhat early for any 
Saxon settlement as far west as Crediton ; but it appears that a 
Saxon chieftain, named Richard, had pushed his way up the 
Exe from the sea on the western side of the river. The settle- 
ment must have been to a certain extent peaceful, as for many 
years British and Saxon inhabited Exeter with equal rights, 
and so the two people remained on half-friendly terms — the old 
inhabitants not sufficiently powerful to exclude them, the new 
ones not sufficiently numerous to expel the old. Among these 
settlers were the parents of St. Boniface, whose daughter Wenna 
had married King Richard. The use of the name Wenna, the 
Keltic Gwen in Saxon dress, seems to point to a Keltic mother. 
Their home was at Crediton ; and here the future Saint was born 
and baptized by the name of Winfred. His early education was 
at a small monastery in or near Exeter, where he acquired a 
longing for the life of a monk. His parents reluctantly consented, 
and he became a monk at Nutsall, probably Netley, where he was 
also ordained priest ; but he longed to exchange the security and 
peace of the cloister for the toils and perils of a missionary, and 
with a few brother monks crossed the Channel to begin his task. 
The remainder of his life belongs not to Devon but to the 
Continent, and it is unnecessary to relate it here. On becoming 
a bishop he changed his name from Winfred to Boniface, by 
which he is best known, and, after years of indefatigable labour, 
he received the crown of martyrdom on June 5. Utrecht, 
Mainz, and Fulda all contended for his relics, which were finally 
deposited in the monastery of Fulda, according to the saint's 
request before setting out on his last journey. 

Winfred of Credition is a character of whom Devon may well 
be proud and rejoice to number among her illustrious sons. He 
was statesman and scholar as well as missionary and saint ; his 
aim was to civilize as well as Christianize. Though his work 
was all on the Continent and more in connection with the Papal 
See than with England, he never forgot he was an Englishman ; 
he appealed for guidance and direction in his perplexities to 
England as often as to Rome, and was not afraid even, if neces- 
sary, to expostulate reprovingly with the Pope himself. It was 
to his old home and his kindred, especially Tetta of Wimborne, 
that he looked for counsel and help, and it is no exaggeration 
to say that since the days of the great Apostle of the Gentiles 
no missionary has been more eminent in labours, in perils, in 



The Saints of Devon 107 



self-devotion, and in that tenacity yet elasticity of purpose which 
never loses sight of its aim even when compelled to approach it 
by some other road than the one he preferred, than Winfred 
of Crediton, known in the annals of Christendom as Boniface, 
the Apostle of Germany. 

Of Winfred's associates there are several whom Devon may 
also claim to number among her saints. First of all, his brother- 
in-law, St. Richard, King of the English, as he was styled by his 
epitaph in the Church of St. Frigidian at Lucca. As stated 
before, he was a Saxon kinglet or chief who had established 
himself in the seventh century in Devon, and so was styled 
King of the English, who dwelt in the realm of Geraint, King 
of Devon ; and it is from a kinswoman of his, afterwards a nun 
at Heidenheim, that we have an account of King Richard, Queen 
Wenna > and their children's life in Devon. They had three, 
all of whom became famous saints, St. Willibald, St. Winnibald, 
and St. Walburga ; they were nurtured by their parents with 
tender care, but Willibald, the eldest, was at the age of three 
taken with such violent sickness that his parents in fear and grief 
went to the Holy Cross which served them as a place of worship, 
before a church was built ; here, prostrating themselves, they 
vowed that, if their son was restored to health, he should be 
dedicated to the service of God. Their prayers were heard, 
Willibald was restored to health, and at the age of five he was 
sent by the hands of a faithful servant, named Theodred, to a 
monastery, to be educated for the ministry. 

Some few years afterwards Queen Wenna died, and King 
Richard determined, like good King Ine, to forsake the world. 
He placed his daughter, Walburga, then twelve years of age, 
under the care of Cuthberga, Abbess of Wimborne, and with 
his two sons went to Southampton, where they took ship for 
France, en route to the tombs of the Apostles. Visiting the 
shrines of many saints on their way, they came at length to 
Lucca, where King Richard was taken with sudden sickness and 
died ; he was buried in the church founded by St. Frigidian, 
an Irishman, who was Bishop of Lucca in a.d. 556, beneath 
the altar, and a stone was engraved with these words : — 

" Hie Rex Richardus requiescit, sceptrifer almus, 
Rex fuit Anglorum, regnum tenet iste polorum 
Regnum dimisit pro Christo cuncta reliquit." 

In the twelfth century a priest, named George, who served 
the altar, was grievously sick, and he relates that, while he slept, 
a form with a majestic beard and bright angelic countenance 
appeared to him wearing a royal crown and holding a sceptre, and 



108 The Devonian Year Book, 1915 

bade him go for relief of his sickness to the altar at which he 
served ; he obeyed and forthwith was healed, and ever afterwards 
St. Richard, King of the English, was reverenced at Lucca as 
a great saint. 

Such is the account which we have of the fiist English Saint 
from Devon. His sons, Willibald and Winnibald, resumed their 
journey and went on to Rome, where Winnibald remained for 
a time, but Willibald continued his pilgrimage to the Holy Land ; 
on his way he was put in prison by the Saracens at Emessa, but 
was released by the intercession of a Spaniard whose brother 
was chamberlain of the Emir, and went on to Damascus and 
Galilee. WilJibald's journal of his travels is still in existence, 
and is the earliest record known written by a Devonshire man. 
His accounts of the Holy Land are of great interest and value. 
He describes, for instance, how he went to church at Cana in 
Galilee ; the priest, he says, wore a black turban, and the service 
was said in Arabic ; so we may call St. Willibald Devon's first 
antiquary and topographer. 

After two years Willibald returned to Rome, and found that 
his brother Winnibald had gone back to England, and the 
memory of his father's vow came back to him. It was ten years 
nnce he had left England, and so he directed his steps to the 
recently restored Abbey of Mount Cassin and became a monk. 
There he passed some years in the retirement of the Benedictine 
house ; then he left it to join his uncle St. Boniface. On the 
road he visited his father's tomb at Lucca, and on July 22 he 
was ordained priest by his uncle, and fifteen months later he 
was consecrated as first Bishop of Eichstadt, where he laboured 
for over forty years. St. Willibald's day is July 7. His remains 
rest at Eichstadt. Winnibald. after his brother's departure 
for the Holy Land, embraced the monastic life. After a short 
time he went back to England to stir up his own kindred, and 
was by them received with joy ; accompanied by some of them 
he returned to Rome, where he was found by his uncle, St. 
Boniface, and persuaded by him to assist him in hi